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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043691

ABSTRACT

The current study investigated the impact of different doses of Nigella sativa seeds on the symptoms, the cluster of differentiation profile group, and inflammatory markers of mild COVID-19 cases. METHODS: The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients with mild and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection patients were randomly subdivided into seven subgroups: Group (GP) 1: received charcoal capsules as a control group, and GP 2: received three capsules of whole Nigella sativa seeds daily, two capsules in the morning and one in the evening; GP 3: received three capsules of whole Nigella sativa seeds every 12 h, GP 4: received five capsules in the morning and four capsules of whole Nigella sativa seeds in the evening, GP 5: received one capsule of Nigella sativa powder every 12 h; GP 6: received two capsules of Nigella sativa powder every 12 h; GP 7: received three capsules of Nigella sativa powder every 12 h; all treatment course was for ten days. Inflammatory parameters were assessed before and after interventions. RESULTS: 262 subjects were included in the final analysis. No significant difference was detected regarding age, gender, and nationality. No significant differences were detected between the inflammatory marker in all groups. The WBCs showed a significant difference between before and after the intervention. While for procalcitonin, a significant difference was demonstrated in groups 1,4, and 6. CONCLUSIONS: The current randomized clinical trial did not reveal a significant effect of ten days of treatment with various doses of Nigella sativa on symptoms, differentiation profile, and inflammatory markers of patients with COVID-19. As a natural product, the effect of Nigella sativa on disease requires weeks to manifest itself.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , COVID-19/drug therapy , Charcoal , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Phytotherapy , Powders , Procalcitonin , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds
2.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(14): 1847-1875, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029879

ABSTRACT

Widely consumed worldwide, Nigella sativa (NS) is a medicinal herb commonly used in various alternative medicine systems, such as Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda, and Siddha. Recommended for regular use in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine), NS is considered one of the most notable forms of healing medicine in Islamic literature. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main component of the essential oil of NS, has been reported to have many properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antineoplastic. Its chemical structure indicates antiviral potential against many viruses, including the hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and other coronavirus diseases. Interestingly, molecular docking studies have demonstrated that TQ can potentially inhibit the development of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by binding to the receptor site on the transmembrane serine protease 2 (the activator enzyme that attaches the virus to the cell). In addition, TQ has been shown to be effective against cancer cells due to its inhibitory effect by binding to the different regions of MDM2, according to the proposed molecular docking study. Detailed in this review is the origin of TQ, its significance in alternative medicine, pharmacological value, potential as a cancer antiproliferative agent, use against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and for treatment of other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoquinones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Oxidative Stress
3.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917638

ABSTRACT

Coming into the second year of the pandemic, the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants continue to be a serious health hazard globally. A surge in the omicron wave, despite the discovery of the vaccines, has shifted the attention of research towards the discovery and use of bioactive compounds, being potential inhibitors of the viral structural proteins. The present study aimed at the green synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with seed extracts of Nigella sativa and Pimpinella anisum-loaded nanostructured oil carriers (NLC)-using a mixture of olive and black seed essential oils. The synthesized ZnO NLC were extensively characterized. In addition, the constituent compounds in ZnO NLC were investigated as a potential inhibitor for the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (3CLpro or Mpro) where 27 bioactive constituents, along with ZnO in the nanostructure, were subjected to molecular docking studies. The resultant high-score compounds were further validated by molecular dynamics simulation. The study optimized the compounds dithymoquinone, δ-hederin, oleuropein, and zinc oxide with high docking energy scores (ranging from -7.9 to -9.9 kcal/mol). The RMSD and RMSF data that ensued also mirrored these results for the stability of proteins and ligands. RMSD and RMSF data showed no conformational change in the protein during the MD simulation. Histograms of every simulation trajectory explained the ligand properties and ligand-protein contacts. Nevertheless, further experimental investigations and validation of the selected candidates are imperative to take forward the applicability of the nanostructure as a potent inhibitor of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) for clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Nigella sativa , Pimpinella , Zinc Oxide , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nigella sativa/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817550

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Benzoquinones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Nigella sativa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810049

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an impact on human quality of life and economics. Scientists have been identifying remedies for its prevention and treatment from all possible sources, including plants. Nigella sativa L. (NS) is an important medicinal plant of Islamic value. This review highlights the anti-COVID-19 potential, clinical trials, inventions, and patent literature related to NS and its major chemical constituents, like thymoquinone. The literature was collected from different databases, including Pubmed, Espacenet, and Patentscope. The literature supports the efficacy of NS, NS oil (NSO), and its chemical constituents against COVID-19. The clinical data imply that NS and NSO can prevent and treat COVID-19 patients with a faster recovery rate. Several inventions comprising NS and NSO have been claimed in patent applications to prevent/treat COVID-19. The patent literature cites NS as an immunomodulator, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, a source of anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds, and a plant having protective effects on the lungs. The available facts indicate that NS, NSO, and its various compositions have all the attributes to be used as a promising remedy to prevent, manage, and treat COVID-19 among high-risk people as well as for the therapy of COVID-19 patients of all age groups as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Many compositions of NS in combination with countless medicinal herbs and medicines are still unexplored. Accordingly, the authors foresee a bright scope in developing NS-based anti-COVID-19 composition for clinical use in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inventions , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Bioorg Chem ; 120: 105587, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620506

ABSTRACT

Inflammation, oxidation, and compromised immunity all increase the dangers of COVID-19, whereas many pharmaceutical protocols may lead to increased immunity such as ingesting from sources containing vitamin E and zinc. A global search for natural remedies to fight COVID-19 has emerged, to assist in the treatment of this infamous coronavirus. Nigella satvia is a world-renowned plant, an esteemed herbal remedy, which can be used as a liquid medicine to increase immunity while decreasing the dangers of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Thymoqinone (TQ), dithymoqinone (DTQ) and thymohydroquinone (THQ), are major compounds of the essential oil contained in N.sativa. A current study aims to discover the antiviral activity of two compounds, Thymohydroquinone and Dithymoquinone, which are synthesized through simple chemical procedures, deriving from thymoquinone, which happens to be a major compound of Nigella sativa. A half-maximal cytotoxic concentration, "CC50", was calculated by MTT assay for each individual drug, The sample showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at non-cytotoxic nanomolar concentrations in vitro with a low selectivity index (CC50/IC50 = 31.74/23.15 = 1.4), whereby Dimthymoquinone shows high cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , SARS Virus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Thymol/analogs & derivatives
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(22): 5817-5822, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585378

ABSTRACT

Tissue damage occurs in COVID-19 patients due to nsp3-induced Fas-FasL interaction/TNF-related apoptosis. Presently, possible therapeutic-drug, nigellidine against was screened by bioinformatics studies COVID-19. Atomic-Contact-Energy (ACE) and binding-blocking effects were explored of nigellidine (Nigella sativa L.) in the active/catalytic sites of viral-protein nsp3 and host inflammatory/apoptotic signaling-molecules Fas/TNF receptors TNFR1/TNFR2. A control binding/inhibition of Oseltamivir to influenza-virus neuraminidase was compared here. In AutoDock, Oseltamivir binding-energy (BE) and inhibition-constant (KI) was -4.12 kcal/mol and 959.02. The ACE values (PatchDock) were -167.02/-127.61/-124.91/-122.17/-54.81/-47.07. The nigellidine BE/KI with nsp3 was -7.61 and 2.66, respectively (ACE values were -221.40/-215.62/-113.28). Nigellidine blocked FAS dimer by binding with a BE value of -7.41 kcal/mol. Its strong affinities to TNFR1 (-6.81) and TNFR2 (-5.1) are demonstrated. Our present data suggest that nigellidine may significantly block the TNF-induced inflammatory/Fas-induced apoptotic death-signaling in comparison with a positive-control drug Oseltamivir. Further studies are necessary before proposing nigellidine as medical drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cuminum , Nigella sativa , Humans , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/chemistry , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I/pharmacology , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/metabolism , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/pharmacology , Nigella sativa/metabolism , Cuminum/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Apoptosis , Seeds/metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
Complement Ther Med ; 61: 102769, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective treatment for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is under intensive research. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is a herbal medicine with antiviral and immunomodulatory activities, and has been recommended for the treatment of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of NSO treatment in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: All adult patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms presented to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were recruited for an open label randomized clinical trial (RCT). They were randomly divided into control or treatment groups, with the latter receiving 500 mg NSO (MARNYS® Cuminmar) twice daily for 10 days. Symptoms were daily monitored via telecommunication. The primary outcome focused on the percentage of patients who recovered (symptom-free for 3 days) within 14-days. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04401202). RESULTS: A total of 173 patients were enrolled for RCT. The average age was 36(±11) years, and 53 % of patients were males. The control and NSO groups included 87 and 86 patients respectively. The percentage of recovered patients in NSO group (54[62 %]) was significantly higher than that in the control group (31[36 %]; p = 0.001). The mean duration to recovery was also shorter for patients receiving NSO (10.7 ± 3.2 days) compared with the control group (12.3 ± 2.8 days); p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: NSO supplementation was associated with faster recovery of symptoms than usual care alone for patients with mild COVID-19 infection. These potential therapeutic benefits require further exploration with placebo-controlled, double-blinded studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 618, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Considering the therapeutic potential of honey and Nigella sativa (HNS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the objective of the study is defined to evaluate the prophylactic role of HNS. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial with parallel group design, superiority framework with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among experimental (HNS) and placebo group. An interim analysis will be done when half of the patients have been recruited to evaluate the need to adapt sample size, efficacy, and futility of the trial. PARTICIPANTS: All asymptomatic patients with hospital or community based COVID-19 exposure will be screened if they have had 4 days exposure to a confirmed case. Non-pregnant adults with significant exposure level will be enrolled in the study High-risk exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min without face protection) Moderate exposure (<6 feet distance for >10min with face protection) Subjects with acute or chronic infection, COVID-19 vaccinated, and allergy to HNS will be excluded from the study. Recruitment will be done at Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Ali Clinic and Doctors Lounge in Lahore (Pakistan). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this clinical study, patients will receive either raw natural honey (0.5 g) and encapsulated organic Nigella sativa seeds (40 mg) per kg body weight per day or empty capsule with and 30 ml of 5% dextrose water as a placebo for 14 days. Both the natural products will be certified for standardization by Government College University (Botany department). Furthermore, each patient will be given standard care therapy according to version 3.0 of the COVID-19 clinical management guidelines by the Ministry of National Health Services of Pakistan. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome will be Incidence of COVID-19 cases within 14 days of randomisation. Secondary endpoints include incidence of COVID-19-related symptoms, hospitalizations, and deaths along with the severity of COVID-19-related symptoms till 14th day of randomization. RANDOMISATION: Participants will be randomized into experimental and control groups (1:1 allocation ratio) via the lottery method. There will be stratification based on high risk and moderate risk exposure. BLINDING (MASKING): Quadruple blinding will be ensured for the participants, care providers and outcome accessors. Data analysts will also be blinded to avoid conflict of interest. Site principal investigator will be responsible for ensuring masking. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 1000 participants will be enrolled in the study with 1:1 allocation. TRIAL STATUS: The final protocol version 1.4 was approved by institutional review board of Shaikh Zayed Post-Graduate Medical Complex on February 15, 2021. The trial recruitment was started on March 05, 2021, with a trial completion date of February 15, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial was registered on February 23, 2021, www.clinicaltrials.gov with registration ID NCT04767087 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). With the intention of expediting dissemination of this trial, the conventional formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Honey , Nigella sativa , Adult , Hospitals , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5117-5131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362164

ABSTRACT

As a crucial organ, the lung is exposed to various harmful agents that may induce inflammation and oxidative stress, which may cause chronic or acute lung injury. Nigella sativa, also known as black seed, has been widely used to treat various diseases and is one of the most extensively researched medicinal plants. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main component of black seed volatile oil and has been proven to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. The potential therapeutic properties of TQ against various pulmonary disorders have been studied in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, the application of nanotechnology may increase drug solubility, cellular absorption, drug release (sustained or control), and drug delivery to lung tissue target sites. As a result, fabricating TQ as nanoparticles (NPs) is a potential therapeutic approach against a variety of lung diseases. In this current review, we summarize recent findings on the efficacy of TQ and its nanotypes in lung disorders caused by immunocompromised conditions such as cancer, diabetes, gastric ulcers, and other neurodegenerative diseases. It is concluded that TQ nanoparticles with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiasthma, and antitumor activity may be safely applied to treat lung disorders. However, more research is required before TQ nanoparticles can be used as pharmaceutical preparations in human studies.


Subject(s)
Lung Injury , Nanoparticles , Benzoquinones , Humans , Nigella sativa
11.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 48(11): 1445-1453, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322720

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is an annual flowering plant that has been used as a traditional remedy for many centuries. The seed possesses a large variety of compounds with thymoquinone (TQ) considered its major but not sole bioactive constituent. Supercritical fluid extraction, geographical location, and oxidative status of N. sativa produces the highest yield of essential oil content including TQ. Thymoquinone is lipophilic, heat and light sensitive with low oral bioavailability and rapid elimination that have significantly inhibited its pharmacological development. Novel developments in nanoparticulate-based oral administration, nasal spray and transdermal delivery may allow the clinical development of N. sativa and TQ as therapeutic agents. Animal and human studies indicate a potential role of N. sativa seed oil and TQ for a diverse range of disease processes including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arthritis, asthma, bacterial and viral infections, neurological and dermatological disorders, as it belongs to the group of pan-assay interference compounds. This review outlines the pharmacological properties of N. sativa and TQ and their potential wide application for a large variety of human diseases. The paper will focus on recent studies of the anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties that make N. sativa and TQ promising therapeutic agents targeting contemporary inflammatory and infectious diseases including Covid 19.


Subject(s)
Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Animals , Benzoquinones/therapeutic use , Humans
12.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(12): 4225-4233, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317833

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa or black seed is used as a medicinal plant around the globe. Oil and seeds have a long tradition of folklore use in various medicinal and food systems. The conventional therapeutic use of Nigella sativa, in different ways, has been reported in several studies to treat different diseases including influenza, headache, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, eczema, fever, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and fever. Based on previously reported potential therapeutic uses of N. sativa compounds, and keeping in mind the dire need of time for the development of potent antiviral, a combined docking, ADMET properties calculation, molecular dynamics, and MM-PBSA approaches were applied in the current study to check the therapeutic potentials of N. sativa chief constituents against COVID-19. Among the studied compounds, we found that dithymoquinone (DTQ), with binding affinity of -8.6 kcal/mol compared to a positive control (chloroquine, -7.2 kcal/mol) , has the high potential of binding at SARS-CoV-2:ACE2 interface and thus could be predicted as a plausible inhibitor to disrupt viral-host interactions. Molecular dynamics simulation of 100 ns well complemented binding affinity of the compound and revealed strong stability of DTQ at the docked site. Additionally, MM-PBSA also affirms the docking results. Compound DTQ of the present study, if validated in wet lab experiments, could be used to treat COVID-19 and could serve as a lead in the future for development of more effective natural antivirals against COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Adipates , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Succinates
13.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 696-703, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263613

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that causes a severe infection in the respiratory system. Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) is an annual flowering plant used traditionally as a natural food supplement and multipurpose medicinal agent. OBJECTIVE: The possible beneficial effects of N. sativa, and its constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) on COVID-19 were reviewed. METHODS: The key words including, COVID-19, N. sativa, thymoquinone, antiviral effects, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in different databases such as Web of Science (ISI), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched from 1990 up to February 2021. RESULTS: The current literature review showed that N. sativa and TQ reduced the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-12, while enhancing IFN-γ. Nigella sativa and TQ increased the serum levels of IgG1 and IgG2a, and improved pulmonary function tests in restrictive respiratory disorders. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data of molecular docking, animal, and clinical studies propose N. sativa and TQ might have beneficial effects on the treatment or control of COVID-19 due to antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as bronchodilatory effects. The efficacy of N. sativa and TQ on infected patients with COVID-19 in randomize clinical trials will be suggested.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Benzoquinones/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 138: 106856, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144979

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a global-pandemic binds human-lung-ACE2. ACE2 causes vasodilatation. ACE2 works in balance with ACE1. The vaso-status maintains blood-pressure/vascular-health which is demolished in Covid-19 manifesting aldosterone/salt-deregulations/inflammations/endothelial-dysfunctions/hyper-hypo- tension, sepsis/hypovolemic-shock and vessel-thrombosis/coagulations. Here, nigellidine, an indazole-alkaloid was analyzed by molecular-docking for binding to different Angiotensin-binding-proteins (enzymes, ACE1(6en5)/ACE2(4aph)/receptors, AT1(6os1)/AT2(5xjm)) and COVID-19 spike-glycoprotein(6vsb). Nigellidine strongly binds to the spike-protein at the hinge-region/active-site-opening which may hamper proper-binding of nCoV2-ACE2 surface. Nigellidine effectively binds in the Angiotensin- II binding-site/entry-pocket (-7.54 kcal/mol, -211.76, Atomic-Contact-Energy; ACE-value) of ACE2 (Ki 8.68 and 8.3 µmol) in comparison to known-binder EGCG (-4.53) and Theaflavin-di-gallate (-2.85). Nigellidine showed strong-binding (Ki, 50.93 µmol/binding-energy -5.48 kcal/mol) to mono/multi-meric ACE1. Moreover, it binds Angiotensin-receptors, AT1/AT2 (Ki, 42.79/14.22 µmol, binding-energy, -5.96/-6.61 kcal/mol) at active-sites, respectively. This article reports the novel binding of nigellidine and subsequent blockage of angiotensin-binding proteins. The ACEs-blocking could restore Angiotensin-level, restrict vaso-turbulence in Covid patients and receptor-blocking might stop inflammatory/vascular impairment. Nigellidine may slowdown the vaso-fluctuations due to Angiotensin-deregulations in Covid patients. Angiotensin II-ACE2 binding (ACE-value -294.81) is more favorable than nigellidine-ACE2. Conversely, nigellidine-ACE1 binding-energy/Ki is lower than nigellidine-ACE2 values indicating a balanced-state between constriction-dilatation. Moreover, nigellidine binds to the viral-spike, closer-proximity to its ACE2 binding-domain. Taken together, Covid patients/elderly-patients, comorbid-patients (with hypertensive/diabetic/cardiac/renal-impairment, counting >80% of non-survivors) could be greatly benefited.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Nigella sativa , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation/trends , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protein Binding/physiology , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/chemistry , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
15.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121891

ABSTRACT

Despite the virulence and high fatality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no specific antiviral treatment exists until the current moment. Natural agents with immune-promoting potentials such as bee products are being explored as possible treatments. Bee honey and propolis are rich in bioactive compounds that express strong antimicrobial, bactericidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities. This review examined the literature for the anti-COVID-19 effects of bee honey and propolis, with the aim of optimizing the use of these handy products as prophylactic or adjuvant treatments for people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Molecular simulations show that flavonoids in propolis and honey (e.g., rutin, naringin, caffeic acid phenyl ester, luteolin, and artepillin C) may inhibit viral spike fusion in host cells, viral-host interactions that trigger the cytokine storm, and viral replication. Similar to the potent antiviral drug remdesivir, rutin, propolis ethanolic extract, and propolis liposomes inhibited non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, and these compounds along with naringin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells. Propolis extracts delivered by nanocarriers exhibit better antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2 than ethanolic extracts. In line, hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving green Brazilian propolis or a combination of honey and Nigella sativa exhibited earlier viral clearance, symptom recovery, discharge from the hospital as well as less mortality than counterparts receiving standard care alone. Thus, the use of bee products as an adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 may produce beneficial effects. Implications for treatment outcomes and issues to be considered in future studies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Honey , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Propolis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials as Topic , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Propolis/chemistry , Propolis/therapeutic use , Vero Cells
16.
Complement Ther Med ; 58: 102682, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121786

ABSTRACT

OBJECT: The aim of this retrospective infodemiological study was to evaluate people's interests in biologically-based (B-B) complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as herbs, foods, and supplements during the coronavirus pandemic via analysis of Google search engine statistics. DESIGN & SETTINGS: The category, period, and regions selected in the Google Trends were "health," "15 January-15 May 2020," in the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Germany, Italy, and France, respectively. The most commonly searched herbs, foods and supplements (n = 32) during the pandemic were determined from a pool of keywords (n = 1286) based on the terms' relative search volumes (RSVs) within the last five years. Correlation analyses were conducted to investigate associations between coronavirus-related parameters with each keyword's RSV for each country. Selected keywords (n = 25) were analyzed using the gtrendsR package in the R programming language; the ggplot2 package was used to visualize the data, the Prophet package was used to estimate the time series, and the dplyr package was used to create the data frame. RESULTS: Significantly strong positive correlations were identified between daily RSVs of the terms "black seed," "vitamin C," "zinc," and "quercetin," and search queries for "coronavirus" and "COVID-19" in the USA (Spearman's correlation coefficient > 0.8, p < 0.05), and between the RSVs of the terms "vitamin C" and "zinc," and daily search queries for "coronavirus" and/or "COVID-19" in the UK (Spearman's correlation coefficient > 0.8, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Google Trends can be a beneficial tool for following public interest in identifying outbreak-related misinformation, and scientific studies and statements from authorities and the media play a potential role in driving internet searches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Information Seeking Behavior , Phytotherapy , Search Engine/trends , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Complementary Therapies , France , Germany , Humans , Italy , Nigella sativa , Quercetin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds , United Kingdom , United States , Zinc
17.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(1): 4-9, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894439

ABSTRACT

Drug repositioning is a strategy that identifies new uses of approved drugs to treat conditions different from their original purpose. Current efforts to treat Covid-19 are based on this strategy. The first drugs used in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were antimalarial drugs. It is their mechanism of action, i. e., rise in endosomal pH, which recommends them against the new coronavirus. Disregarding their side effects, the study of their antiviral activity provides valuable hints for the choice and design of drugs against SARS-CoV-2. One prominent drug candidate is thymoquinone, an antimalarial substance contained in Nigella sativa - most likely one of the first antimalarial drugs in human history. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, the number of articles relating thymoquinone to Covid-19 continuously increases. Here, we use it as an exemplary model drug, compare its antiviral mechanism with that of conventional antimalarial drugs and establish an irreducible parametric scheme for the identification of drugs with a potential in Covid-19.Translation into the laboratory is simple. Starting with the discovery of Nigella sativa seeds in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, we establish a physicochemical model for the interaction of thymoquinone with both coronavirus and cells. Exploiting the predictive capability of the model, we provide a generalizable scheme for the systematic choice and design of drugs for Covid-19. An unexpected offshoot of our research is that Tutankhamun could not have died of malaria, a finding contrary to the mainstream theory.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Antimalarials/history , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Egypt , Famous Persons , History, Ancient , Humans
18.
Phytother Res ; 35(3): 1329-1344, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-844376

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa seed and its active compounds have been historically recognized as an effective herbal panacea that can establish a balanced inflammatory response by suppressing chronic inflammation and promoting healthy immune response. The essential oil and other preparations of N. sativa seed have substantial therapeutic outcomes against immune disturbance, autophagy dysfunction, oxidative stress, ischemia, inflammation, in several COVID-19 comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, Kawasaki-like diseases, and many bacterial and viral infections. Compelling evidence in the therapeutic efficiency of N. sativa along with the recent computational findings is strongly suggestive of combating emerged COVID-19 pandemic. Also, being an available candidate in nutraceuticals, N. sativa seed oil could be immensely potential and feasible to prevent and cure COVID-19. This review was aimed at revisiting the pharmacological benefits of N. sativa seed and its active metabolites that may constitute a potential basis for developing a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy against COVID-19. Bioactive compounds of N. sativa seed, especially thymiquinone, α-hederin, and nigellidine, could be alternative and promising herbal drugs to combat COVID-19. Preclinical and clinical trials are required to delineate detailed mechanism of N. sativa's active components and to investigate their efficacy and potency under specific pathophysiological conditions of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Benzoquinones , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Pandemics , Saponins
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 703, 2020 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential efficacy of Nigella sativa (NS) oil supplementation on the outcomes of patients with mild Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL DESIGN: Prospective, two-arm, parallel-group, randomised (1:1 allocation ratio), open-label, controlled, exploratory phase II clinical trial of oral NS oil in patients with mild COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion Criteria: - Patients with mild COVID19 (defined as upper respiratory tract infection symptoms in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of pneumonia). - Adult (18 - 65 years old). - Written informed consent by the patient (or legally authorized representative) prior to initiation of any study procedures. - All patients should understand and agree to comply with planned study procedures. - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) from throat swab. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: - Patients with pneumonia or severe illness requiring admission to intensive care unit. - Severe chronic kidney disease (i.e. estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL / min ) or end stage renal disease requiring dialysis - Severe chronic liver disease (Alanine transaminase [AlT] or Aspartate transaminase [AST] > 5 times the upper limit of normal). - Pregnancy or breast feeding. - Anticipated transfer within 72 hours to another hospital that is not a study site. - Allergy to the study medication The trial is currently conducted on patients recruited from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention group: Nigella sativa oil (MARNYS® Cuminmar) 500 mg softgel capsules, one capsule orally twice daily for 10 days plus standard of care treatment (antipyretic, antitussive). Comparator group: standard of care treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES: Proportion of patients who clinically recovered (defined as 3 days of no symptoms) within 14 days after randomisation. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomly assigned to treatment or control groups in a 1:1 ratio using a computer-generated randomization scheme (Random permuted blocks of 10) developed using the web-based program: http://www.randomization.com . BLINDING (MASKING): No blinding. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Up to 200 eligible patients will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1, as of July 14, 2020. Recruitment was started on May 21, 2020. The intended completion date is December 31, 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04401202 . Date of trial registration: May 26, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Nigella sativa , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Young Adult
20.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153277, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643666

ABSTRACT

The world is witnessing a difficult time. The race of developing a new coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine is becoming more urgent. Many preliminary studies on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 patients have provided some clues to treat this pandemic. However, no suitable treatment has found yet. Various symptoms of patients infected with COVID-19 indicated the importance of immune regulation in the human body. Severe cases admitted to the intensive care unit showed high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines which enhanced the disease severity. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients is another critical factor of disease severity and mortality. So, Immune modulation is the only way of regulating immune system. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. The components of this plant are known for its intense immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant benefits in obstructive respiratory disorders. A molecular docking study also gave evidences that N. sativa decelerates COVID-19 and might give the same or better results than the FDA approved drugs. The aim of this review was to investigate the possible immune-regulatory effects of N. sativa on COVID-19 pandemic. Our review found N. sativa's Thymoquinone, Nigellidine, and α-hederin can be a potential influencer in reinforcing the immune response on molecular grounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune System/drug effects , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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