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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 779498, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798917

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple facets of the pandemic can be a source of fear, depression, anxiety and can cause changes in sleep patterns. The aim of this study was to identify health profiles and the COVID-19 pandemic related factors associated with fear, depression, anxiety and changes in sleep pattern in adults in Nigeria. Methods: The data for this analysis was extracted from a cross-sectional online survey that collected information about mental health and well-ness from a convenience sample of adults 18 years and above resident in Nigeria from July to December 2020. Study participants were asked to complete an anonymous, closed-ended online questionnaire that solicited information on sociodemographic profile, health profiles (high, moderate and low COVID-19 infection risk profile) including HIV status, COVID-19 status, and self-reported experiences of fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns. Results: In total, 4,439 participants with mean age of 38.3 (±11.6) years responded to the survey. Factors associated with higher odds of having COVID-19 related fear were health risk (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 3.88; 95% CI: 3.22-4.69); having COVID-19 symptoms but not tested (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99); having a friend who tested positive to COVID-19 (AOR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.53) and knowing someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.24-1.65). The odds of feeling anxious was significantly higher for those with moderate or low health risk profile (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.32-2.04); had a friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08-1.68) or knew someone who died from COVID-19 (AOR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.28-1.84). The odds of feeling depressed was significantly higher for those with health risk profile (p < 0.05); living with HIV (AOR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.89-3.28); and respondents who had COVID-19 symptoms but had not taken a test (AOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.02-1.94). Factors associated with higher odds of having sleep pattern changes were having moderate and low health risk profiles (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the pandemic may cause fear, anxiety, depression and changes in sleep patterns differently for people with different health profile, HIV status and COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e058747, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in public risk perception and risky behaviours during the first wave (W1) and second wave (W2) of COVID-19 in Nigeria, associated factors and observed trend of the outbreak. DESIGN: A secondary data analysis of cross-sectional telephone-based surveys conducted during the W1 and W2 of COVID-19 in Nigeria. SETTING: Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Data from participants randomly selected from all states in Nigeria. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Risk perception for COVID-19 infection categorised as risk perceived and risk not perceived. SECONDARY OUTCOME: Compliance to public health and social measures (PHSMs) categorised as compliant; non-compliant and indifferent. ANALYSIS: Comparison of frequencies during both waves using χ2 statistic to test for associations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses helped estimate the unadjusted and adjusted odds of risk perception of oneself contracting COVID-19. Level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Triangulated datasets had a total of 6401 respondents, majority (49.5%) aged 25-35 years. Overall, 55.4% and 56.1% perceived themselves to be at risk of COVID-19 infection during the W1 and W2, respectively. A higher proportion of males than females perceived themselves to be at risk during the W1 (60.3% vs 50.3%, p<0.001) and the W2 (58.3% vs 52.6%, p<0.05). Residing in the south-west was associated with not perceiving oneself at risk of COVID-19 infection (W1-AOdds Ratio (AOR) 0.28; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.40; W2-AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.97). There was significant increase in non-compliance to PHSMs in the W2 compared with W1. Non-compliance rate was higher among individuals who perceived themselves not to be at risk of getting infected (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Risk communication and community engagement geared towards increasing risk perception of COVID-19 should be implemented, particularly among the identified population groups. This could increase adherence to PHSMs and potentially reduce the burden of COVID-19 in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Perception
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771775

ABSTRACT

The inequality in access to oral health care in Nigeria is driven by the low numbers of trained health care workers, disproportionate distribution of oral health facilities, low level of oral health awareness, and the challenge associated with out-of-pocket expenditures. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted oral health care delivery, access to oral health care services, thereby further entrenched inequality by increasing the out-of-pocket expenditure for health due to COVID-19 associated increased cost of medical services; high risk of worsening oral health care needs by patients who have routine and special oral health care needs; increased risk for oral health care needs by persons worse affected by COVID-19; and the high risk for general health problems by those whose access to routine and special health care needs were disrupted by the pandemic. The pandemic has however, also created opportunities to reduce the inequalities in the oral health care sector through adoption of teledentistry; integrated oral and general health care; improving oral health insurance coverage for the informal sector; and increasing public financing for health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Expenditures , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Oral Health , Pandemics
4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a need for reliable serological assays to determine accurate estimates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence. Most single target antigen assays have shown some limitations in Africa. To assess the performance of a multi-antigen assay, we evaluated a commercially available SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay for human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Nigeria. METHODS: Validation of the xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay was carried out using well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reactive positive (97) and pre-COVID-19 pandemic (86) plasma panels. Cross-reactivity was assessed using pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma specimens (213) from the 2018 Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS). RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of the xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay was 75.3% [95% CI: 65.8%- 82.8%] and specificity was 99.0% [95% CI: 96.8%- 99.7%]. The sensitivity estimate increased to 83.3% [95% CI: 70.4%- 91.3%] for specimens >14 days post-confirmation of diagnosis. However, using the NAIIS pre-pandemic specimens, the false positivity rate was 1.4% (3/213). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed overall lower sensitivity and a comparable specificity with the manufacturer's validation. There appears to be less cross-reactivity with NAIIS pre-pandemic COVID-19 specimens using the xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay. In-country SARS-CoV-2 serology assay validation can help guide the best choice of assays in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Nigeria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 166, 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nigeria, like many other countries, has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. While efforts have been devoted to curtailing the disease, a major concern has been its potential effects on the delivery and utilization of reproductive health care services in the country. The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdowns had affected the provision of essential reproductive, maternal, child, and adolescent health (RMCAH) services in primary health care facilities across the Nigerian States. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 307 primary health centres (PHCs) in 30 Local Government Areas in 10 States, representing the six geopolitical regions of the country. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on issues relating to access and provision of RMCAH services before, during and after COVID-19 lockdowns from the head nurses/midwives in the facilities. The questionnaire was entered into Open Data Kit mounted on smartphones. Data were analysed using frequency and percentage, summary statistics, and Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Between 76 and 97% of the PHCS offered RMCAH services before the lockdown. Except in antenatal, delivery and adolescent care, there was a decline of between 2 and 6% in all the services during the lockdown and up to 10% decline after the lockdown with variation across and within States. During the lockdown. Full-service delivery was reported by 75.2% whereas 24.8% delivered partial services. There was a significant reduction in clients' utilization of the services during the lockdown, and the difference between States before the pandemic, during, and after the lockdown. Reported difficulties during the lockdown included stock-out of drugs (25.7%), stock-out of contraceptives (25.1%), harassment by the law enforcement agents (76.9%), and transportation difficulties (55.8%). Only 2% of the PHCs reported the availability of gowns, 18% had gloves, 90.1% had hand sanitizers, and a temperature checker was available in 94.1%. Slightly above 10% identified clients with symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The large proportion of PHCs who provided RMCAH services despite the lockdown demonstrates resilience. Considering the several difficulties reported, and the limited provision of primary protective equipment more effort by the government and non-governmental agencies is recommended to strengthen delivery of sexual and reproductive health in primary health centres in Nigeria during the pandemic.


The onset of COVID-19 has raised concerns that it may compromise women's access to sexual and reproductive health and rights. Although data are still emerging, some reports indicate reduced access to sexual and reproductive health services, largely due to disruptions in the demand and supply of contraceptive commodities, the diversion of staff and resources to other clinical services, and clinic closures. While these concerns have similarly been broached for Nigeria, there has been no systematic documentation of the extent of the disruptions of reproductive health services caused by COVID-19 and its effects on the provision and utilization of related services in the country This study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted in 10 states, 30 Local Government Areas and 302 primary health centres in Nigeria. The objective of the study was to explore through key informant interviews with service providers in the health centres, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on demand and supply of sexual and reproductive health services. Field assistants administered a semi-structured interview guide to the heads of the health centres that elicited information on availability and use of the health centres before, during and after the lock-downs associated with the pandemic. The results indicate that a large proportion of the health centres opened for the provision of essential sexual and reproductive health services during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. However, fewer clients used the services due to difficulties in travel because of the lockdowns, stock-outs in the health centres, and the fear that they may contract the virus if they leave their houses to the health centres. Although the health centres reported some cases of COVID-19, there was limited provision for personal protective equipment to motivate the health workers to optimize services for clients. From this study, we conclude that efforts should be made to identify innovations for addressing these challenges to enable the continued provision of sexual and reproductive health services by health centres despite the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria's health centres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health Services , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 103, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a WHO-recommended intervention for children aged 3-59 months living in areas of high malaria transmission to provide protection against malaria during the rainy season. Operational guidelines were developed, based on WHO guidance, to support countries to mitigate the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission within communities and among community distributors when delivering SMC. METHODS: A cross-sectional study to determine adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during two distribution cycles of SMC in Nigeria, Chad and Burkina Faso. Community distributors were observed receiving equipment and delivering SMC. Adherence across six domains was calculated as the proportion of indications in which the community distributor performed the correct action. Focus group discussions were conducted with community distributors to understand their perceptions of the IPC measures and barriers and facilitators to adherence. RESULTS: Data collectors observed community distributors in Nigeria (n = 259), Burkina Faso (n = 252) and Chad (n = 266) receiving IPC equipment and delivering SMC. Adherence to IPC indications varied. In all three countries, adherence to mask use was the highest (ranging from 73.3% in Nigeria to 86.9% in Burkina Faso). Adherence to hand hygiene for at least 30 s was low (ranging from 3.6% in Nigeria to 10.3% in Burkina Faso) but increased substantially when excluding the length of time spent hand washing (ranging from 36.7% in Nigeria to 61.4% in Burkina Faso). Adherence to safe distancing in the compound ranged from 5.4% in Chad to 16.4% in Nigeria. In Burkina Faso and Chad, where disinfection wipes widely available compliance with disinfection of blister packs for SMC was low (17.4% in Burkina Faso and 16.9% in Chad). Community distributors generally found the IPC measures acceptable, however there were barriers to optimal hand hygiene practices, cultural norms made social distancing difficult to adhere to and caregivers needed assistance to administer the first dose of SMC. CONCLUSION: Adherence to IPC measures for SMC delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic varied across domains of IPC, but was largely insufficient, particularly for hand hygiene and safe distancing. Improvements in provision of protective equipment, early community engagement and adaptations to make IPC measures more feasible to implement could increase adherence.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chad , Chemoprevention , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Malaria/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons
7.
Ann Afr Med ; 21(1): 71-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753750

ABSTRACT

Context: COVID-19 came suddenly, bringing to the fore the challenges inherent in the health system. In a developing country, such as Nigeria, which already had myriad problems with funds and equipment in the health sector. Aims: This study aims to examine the challenges encountered by the staff in Radiology facilities and how they combated the challenges. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study of radiology facilities in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Radiologists from nine government and four private facilities who attended to COVID-19 patients were asked to fill questionnaires on challenges faced and their coping strategies. Responses were sent through E-mail. Statistical Analysis Used: Data from the responses were analyzed using Microsoft excel for Mac 2011 and presented as figures and tables. Results: Majority of the government 7 (77.8%) and private facilities 4 (100%) had no equipment dedicated only to COVID-19 patients. Seven (77.8%) government facilities complained of inadequate staff, poor availability of personal protective equipment (PPEs) 8 (88.9%), and lack of technology for remote viewing 7 (77.8%). Fear of cross-infection was a challenge in one of the facilities 1 (11.1%). Coping strategies adopted include ensuring less traffic in the department by discouraging walk-in patients and canceling non-emergent cases, booking suspected/confirmed cases for lighter times, using old film for face shields and cloth for facemasks, staff education on COVID-19 and preventive measures, and sending reports to physicians through E-mail. Conclusions: There were a lot of challenges during the COVID-19 crisis, with government hospitals experiencing more challenges than private facilities. The challenges included among others inadequate staff strength and lack of technology for remote viewing. Some were overcome using education and by production of facemasks/shields production using recycled materials.


Résumé Le contexte: COVID-19 came suddenly, bringing to the fore the challenges inherent in the health system. Dans un pays en développement, comme Le Nigeria, qui avait déjà une myriade de problèmes de fonds et d'équipements dans le secteur de la santé. Objectifs : Cette étude vise à examiner les défis rencontrés par le personnel des établissements de radiologie et comment ils ont relevé les défis. Paramètres et conception: une section descriptive étude des installations de radiologie au Nigeria. Sujets et méthodes: Radiologues de neuf établissements publics et de quatre établissements privés qui ont participé aux patients COVID-19 ont été invités à remplir des questionnaires sur les défis rencontrés et leurs stratégies d'adaptation. Les réponses ont été envoyées par courrier électronique. Analyse statistique utilisée: Les données des réponses ont été analysées à l'aide de Microsoft Excel pour Mac 2011 et présentées sous forme de figures et de tableaux. Résultats: La majorité des établissements publics 7 (77,8 %) et privés 4 (100 %) ne disposaient d'aucun équipement dédié uniquement aux patients COVID-19. Sept (77,8 %) établissements publics se sont plaints d'un personnel inadéquat, d'une faible disponibilité des équipements de protection individuelle (EPI) 8 (88,9 %), et le manque de technologie pour la visualisation à distance 7 (77,8 %). La peur d'une infection croisée était un défi dans l'un des établissements 1 (11,1 %). Faire faceles stratégies adoptées comprennent la réduction de la circulation dans le service en décourageant les patients sans rendez-vous et en annulant les cas non urgents, en réservant les cas suspects/confirmés pour des périodes plus légères, en utilisant un vieux film pour les écrans faciaux et un tissu pour les masques faciaux, la formation du personnel sur COVID-19 et mesures préventives et l'envoi de rapports aux médecins par courrier électronique. Conclusions: Il y a eu beaucoup de défis pendant la COVID-19 crise, les hôpitaux publics étant confrontés à plus de défis que les établissements privés. Les défis comprenaient entre autres l'insuffisance la force du personnel et le manque de technologie pour la visualisation à distance. Certains ont été surmontés grâce à l'éducation et à la production de masques faciaux/boucliers utilisant des matériaux recyclés. Mots-clés: défis, les stratégies d'adaptation, COVID-19, Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Radiology , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(2): 252-257, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744873

ABSTRACT

The pandemic triggered by SARS-CoV-2 continuous to pose a global health threat, with cases of new infections and deaths still occurring despite increasing vaccination efforts. As in other regions of the world, the pandemic has led to unprecedented stretch of health and economic systems in countries in Africa. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has not been spared as the number of new infections continues to teeter amid a high level of vaccination hesitancy. Here, we provided a brief look at the background and biology of the virus. We also highlighted the epidemiology of the virus in Nigeria, as well as the challenges and opportunities it presents. Our review will add to the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 and the situation of the pandemic in Nigeria, and provide a better response to the pandemic and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(1): 82-90, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at increased risk of COVID-19 acquisition, severe disease, and poor outcomes. Yet, little is known about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among PLHIV in high HIV burden countries, such as Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine and identify predictors and reasons for vaccine hesitancy among patients living with HIV and attending a tertiary hospital in Kano, northern Nigeria. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods design, structured questionnaires were administered to a clinic- based sample of patients living with HIV (n = 344), followed by 20 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample. Logistic regression and the framework approach were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Less than half (46.2 %, n = 159) of the respondents were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Vaccine acceptance was higher among non-Muslim PLHIV (Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.26, 95 % Confidence Interval (95 % CI): 1.10-4.00), persons with high-risk perception (aOR = 2.43, 95 % CI:1.18-5.00), those who were not worried about infertility-related rumors (aOR = 13.54, 95 % CI:7.07-25.94) and persons who perceived antiretroviral drugs are protective against COVID-19 (aOR = 2.76, 95 % CI: 1.48-5.14). In contrast, vaccine acceptance was lower among persons who were not concerned about the potential effects of COVID-19-HIV co-infection (aOR = 0.20, 95 % CI:0.10-0.39). The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy included doubts about the existence of COVID-19, low-risk perception, anxiety about antiretroviral treatmentvaccine interactions, safety concerns, and infertility-related rumors. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 vaccine acceptance was low among PLHIV. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was associated with respondents' faith, risk perception, perception of the protective effects of antiretroviral treatment, concerns about COVID-19-HIV co-infection, and infertility-related rumors. Vaccination counseling should be integrated into HIV treatment services to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake among PLHIV in Kano, Nigeria and similar settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 233, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a pandemic. Oyo state, Nigeria with a population of 9,233,010, recorded the first case of COVID-19 on the 12th of March 2020 and it is among the highest contributing States to the nation's burden of the disease with 3267 confirmed cases, including 40 deaths as of date, with an overall test positivity rate of 18.1%, far higher compared to the National average within a limited period from recorded index case. A 'Hotspot strategy' was designed by the Presidential Task Force on COVID-19 and Oyo State was selected to implement the strategy through upscaling case detection, isolation and treatment, quarantine of contacts and strengthening public health and social measures. METHODS: We used a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 3 identified hotspot Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo State using mobile phones under Surveillance, Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System (SORMAS) platform to collect data from October to December 2020. Interventions comprised of enhanced active case search, contact line listing, contact investigation, and contact follow-up as well as to facilitate data collection and entry, community sensitization and management of alert/rumors. Baseline information and that after the 3-month period was then analyzed with the descriptive statistics presented. RESULTS: The implementation of the hotspot strategy was shown to have had a major impact in Irepo LGA, where more than a 100% increase in samples tested, confirmed cases, contacts listed and contacts followed were recorded, while there were no significance changes noticed in Ibadan North and Lagelu LGAs. However, test positivity rates among contacts were found to be quite high in Ibadan North LGA (48%), compared to the other two, even though Lagelu LGA (5.7%) tested more contacts than Ibadan North. CONCLUSION: The observed increase in number of samples tested, cases confirmed, contact listed and investigated as well as test positivity rate in the 3 LGAs after the intervention implies that the hotspot strategy can be said to have contributed positively to the sensitivity of COVID-19 surveillance in Oyo State, Nigeria. This implies that strengthening this 'hotspot strategy' may be a key area of focus to improve COVID-19 surveillance sensitivity and response and in turn may help in breaking the transmission and bringing the pandemic to a halt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community Health Workers are globally recognised as crucial members of healthcare systems in low and middle-income countries, but their role and experience during COVID-19 is not well-understood. This study aimed to explore factors that influence CHWs' ability and willingness to work in the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos. DESIGN: A generic qualitative study exploring Community Health Workers experiences and perceptions of working during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: 15 semi-structured, in-depth, video interviews were conducted with Community Health Workers purposively sampled across seven of Lagos' Local Government Areas with the highest COVID-19 burden. Interviews explored Community Health Workers' attitudes towards COVID-19, its management, and their experiences working in Lagos. Data was analysed thematically using the framework method. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified. 1. Influences on ability to undertake COVID-19 Role: Trust and COVID-19 knowledge were found to aid Community Health Workers in their work. However, challenges included exhaustion due to an increased workload, public misconceptions about COVID-19, stigmatisation of COVID-19 patients, delayed access to care and lack of transportation. 2. Influences on willingness to work in COVID-19 Role: Community Health Workers' perceptions of COVID-19, attitudes towards responsibility for COVID-19 risk at work, commitment and faith appeared to increase willingness to work. 3. Suggested Improvements: Financial incentives, provision of adequate personal protective equipment, transportation, and increasing staff numbers were seen as potential strategies to address many of the challenges faced. CONCLUSION: Despite Community Health Workers being committed to their role, they have faced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. Changes to their working environment may make their role during disease outbreaks more fulfilling and sustainable. International input is required to enhance Nigeria's policies and infrastructure to better support Community Health Workers during both current and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers/psychology , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Knowledge , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transportation , Workload , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264371, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging variants of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has claimed over 3000 lives in Nigeria and vaccination remains a means of reducing the death toll. Despite ongoing efforts by the government to ensure COVID-19 vaccination of most residents to attain herd immunity, myths and beliefs have adversely shaped the perception of most Nigerians, challenging the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing the awareness, perception, and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerian adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional online nationwide study was conducted from April to June 2021 among Nigerian adult population using the snowballing method. Descriptive analysis was used to summarise the data. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify the predictors of COVID-19 uptake among the respondents. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 1058 completed forms were analysed and 63.9% were females. The mean age was 40.8 years±12.2 years. Most of the respondents (740; 69.5%) had satisfactory awareness of the vaccination exercise. The media was the main source of information. Health workers reported higher level of awareness (aOR = 1.822, 95% CI: 1.388-2.524, p<0.001). Respondents that are Christians and Muslims had better awareness compared to the unaffiliated (aOR = 6.398, 95% CI: 1.918-21.338, P = 0.003) and (aOR = 7.595, 95% CI: 2.280-25.301, p<0.001) respectively. There is average score for perception statements (566; 53.2%) towards COVID-19 vaccination. Close to half of the respondents (44.2%) found the short period of COVID-19 production worrisome. Majority of the respondents were willing to get the vaccine (856; 80.9%). Those without a prior diagnosis of COVID-19 had a lower willingness to get vaccinated (aOR = 0.210 (95% CI: 0.082-0.536) P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high level of awareness, willingness to receive the vaccine and moderate perception towards the vaccination activities. Influencing factors that significantly affects awareness were religion, occupation, education and prior diagnosis of COVID-19; for perception and willingness-occupation, and prior diagnosis of the COVID-19 were influencing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , /psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination , /trends
14.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(1): 33-46, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686064

ABSTRACT

We report the COVID-19 experience across Nigeria from March 2020 to March 2021. Demographics were obtained from Nigerian Centre for Disease Control. By 21 March 2021, 161,737 people were confirmed positive for SARS-COV-2. Overall, testing rates were 0.8% of the population, with positivity rates of 9.6%, complete recovery rates without longterm sequelae of 91.4%, and case fatality rates of 1.3%. Most Nigerian regions contributed to figures for cases and deaths in 2021. The picture may change as testing is scaled up to include community testing. Given so-called "pandemic fatigue" among the general population, various conspiracy theories being prevalent, and the recent introduction of COVID-19 vaccines in Nigeria, we assume that Nigeria is at a pivotal stage of the outbreak. Effort must be made by government to learn successful strategies in other countries to adapt to prevent a rise in case numbers and deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2100244, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Because of the global COVID-19 pandemic, health care organizations introduced guidelines for modifications to health and cancer medical care delivery to mitigate transmission and ensure quality health outcomes. To examine the extent and impact of these modifications on oncology service disruptions in Nigeria, we surveyed oncology patients across selected public and private cancer treatment centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participating in the study were 15 tertiary cancer treatment centers across 12 Nigerian states. We recruited adult patients with cancer (18+ years) on active treatment to complete a self-administered survey on cancer care during COVID-19. We conducted descriptive and multivariate data analysis using Stata 16.1. RESULTS: Respondents were (n = 1,072), female (65.7%), ages 18-49 years (50.3%), and married (80.7%). The top two cancers were breast and prostate. Overall, 17.3% of respondents reported disruptions to cancer care, and more than half (51.0%) reported difficulties accessing care. Changes in chemotherapy regimens or route of administration were reported in 8.4% of respondents. Odds for any disruption were highest for older patients, western states, patients with prostate cancer, and patients with two or more flu symptoms. Odds for radiotherapy cancellation were highest for older patients, those with prostate cancer, and those with medium service perception. CONCLUSION: This study investigated COVID-19-influenced cancer treatment disruptions in Nigeria. Patients with cancer experienced significant disruptions to cancer care. Vulnerable patients are most likely to be negatively affected. Policies and strategies aimed at minimizing service disruptions while maintaining cancer patients' safety should be a priority for all health care institutions in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05028, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687375

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses serious threats to public health globally, and the emerging mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genomes has become one of the major challenges of disease control. In the second epidemic wave in Nigeria, the roles of co-circulating SARS-CoV-2 Alpha (ie, B.1.1.7) and Eta (ie, B.1.525) variants in contributing to the epidemiological outcomes were of public health concerns for investigation. Methods: We developed a mathematical model to capture the transmission dynamics of different types of strains in Nigeria. By fitting to the national-wide COVID-19 surveillance data, the transmission advantages of SARS-CoV-2 variants were estimated by likelihood-based inference framework. Results: The reproduction numbers were estimated to decrease steadily from 1.5 to 0.8 in the second epidemic wave. In December 2020, when both Alpha and Eta variants were at low prevalent levels, their transmission advantages (against the wild type) were estimated at 1.51 (95% credible intervals (CrI) = 1.48, 1.54), and 1.56 (95% CrI = 1.54, 1.59), respectively. In January 2021, when the original variants almost vanished, we estimated a weak but significant transmission advantage of Eta against Alpha variants with 1.14 (95% CrI = 1.11, 1.16). Conclusions: Our findings suggested evidence of the transmission advantages for both Alpha and Eta variants, of which Eta appeared slightly more infectious than Alpha. We highlighted the critical importance of COVID-19 control measures in mitigating the outbreak size and relaxing the burdens to health care systems in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 688, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671561

ABSTRACT

Disparities in SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance have limited our understanding of the viral population dynamics and may delay identification of globally important variants. Despite being the most populated country in Africa, Nigeria has remained critically under sampled. Here, we report sequences from 378 SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected in Oyo State, Nigeria between July 2020 and August 2021. In early 2021, most isolates belonged to the Alpha "variant of concern" (VOC) or the Eta lineage. Eta outcompeted Alpha in Nigeria and across West Africa, persisting in the region even after expansion of an otherwise rare Delta sub-lineage. Spike protein from the Eta variant conferred increased infectivity and decreased neutralization by convalescent sera in vitro. Phylodynamic reconstructions suggest that Eta originated in West Africa before spreading globally and represented a VOC in early 2021. These results demonstrate a distinct distribution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Nigeria, and emphasize the need for improved genomic surveillance worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Africa, Western , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nigeria/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Young Adult
18.
Vaccine ; 40(13): 2114-2121, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671280

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a worldwide phenomenon and a serious threat to pandemic control efforts. Until recently, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was not the cause of low vaccine coverage in Nigeria; vaccine scarcity was the problem. As the global supply of COVID-19 vaccines improves in the second half of 2021 and more doses are deployed in Nigeria, the supply/demand dynamic will switch. Vaccine acceptance will become a key driver of coverage; thus, amplifying the impact of vaccine hesitancy. Conspiracy theories and misinformation about COVID-19 are rampant and have been shown to drive vaccine hesitancy and refusal. This study systematically elicits the misinformation and conspiracy theories circulating about COVID-19 among the Nigerian public to understand relevant themes and potential message framing for communication efforts to improve vaccine uptake. METHODS: From February 1 to 8, 2021, we conducted 22 focus group discussions and 24 key informant interviews with 178 participants from six states representing the six geopolitical zones. Participants were purposively selected and included sub-national program managers, healthcare workers, and community members. All interviews were iteratively analyzed using a framework analysis approach. RESULTS: We elicited a total of 33 different conspiracy theories or misinformation that participants had heard about the COVID-19 virus, pandemic response, or vaccine. All participants had heard some misinformation. The leading claim was that COVID-19 was not real, and politicians took advantage of the situation and misused funds. People believed certain claims based on distrust of government, their understanding of Christian scripture, or their lack of personal experience with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to report a thematic analysis of the range of circulating misinformation about COVID-19 in Nigeria. Our findings provide new insights into why people believe these theories, which could help the immunization program improve demand generation communication for COVID-19 vaccines by targeting unsubstantiated claims.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 45-47, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654578

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic poses serious threats to global public health, Nigeria faces a potential public health crisis owing to COVID-19 and other infectious diseases, such as Lassa fever (LF) and malaria. In this study, we discuss the possible determinants behind the decreased number of LF cases in Nigeria, which was likely due to the synergistic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemic curve of LF seems to have deviated from the general seasonal scale seen in past years, which could be due to underreporting of cases. In addition, partial compliance with nonpharmaceutical interventions, limited resources, or human behavior could be contributing factors. Thus, we suggest that better differentiation in terms of human and resource allocation between COVID-19 and LF could help curtail the transmission effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lassa Fever , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Lassa Fever/epidemiology , Lassa Fever/prevention & control , Lassa virus , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262524, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration for schistosomiasis started in 2014 across Taraba State. Surprisingly in 2020, an outbreak of schistosomiasis was reported in Takum local government area. This epidemiological investigation therefore assessed the current status of infection, analyzed associated risk factors and arrested the outbreak through community sensitization activities and mass treatment of 3,580 persons with praziquantel tablets. METHODS: Epidemiological assessment involving parasitological analysis of stool and urine samples were conducted among 432 consenting participants in five communities. Samples were processed using Kato-Katz and urine filtration techniques. Participants data on demography, water contact behavior and access to water, sanitation and hygiene facilities were obtained using standardized questionnaires. Data were analysed using SPSS 20.0 and significance level was set at 95%. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 34.7% was observed, with 150 participants infected with both species of Schistosoma parasite. By communities, prevalence was higher in Birama (57.7%), Barkin Lissa (50.5%) and Shibong (33.3%). By species', S. haematobium infection was significantly higher than S. mansoni (28.9% vs 9.5%), with higher proportion of younger males infected (p<0.05). The condition of WASH is deplorable. About 87% had no latrines, 67% had no access to improved source of potable water and 23.6% relied on the river as their main source of water. Infections was significantly associated with water contact behaviors like playing in water (OR:1.50, 95% CI: 1.01-2.25) and swimming (OR:1.55, 95% CI: 1.04-2.31). CONCLUSION: It is important to reclassify the treatment needs of Takum LGA based on the findings of this study. Furthermore, efforts targeted at improving access to WASH, reducing snail population, improving health education and strengthening surveillance systems to identify schistosomiasis hotspots will be a step in the right direction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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