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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(2): 326-341, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1) is caused by URAT1/SLC22A12 dysfunction, resulting in urolithiasis and exercise-induced AKI (EIAKI). However, because there is no useful experimental RHUC1 animal model, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying EIAKI have yet to be elucidated. We established a high HPRT activity Urat1-Uox double knockout (DKO) mouse as a novel RHUC1 animal model for investigating the cause of EIAKI and the potential therapeutic effect of xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitors (XOIs). METHODS: The novel Urat1-Uox DKO mice were used in a forced swimming test as loading exercise to explore the onset mechanism of EIAKI and evaluate related purine metabolism and renal injury parameters. RESULTS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice had uricosuric effects and elevated levels of plasma creatinine and BUN as renal injury markers, and decreased creatinine clearance observed in a forced swimming test. In addition, Urat1-Uox DKO mice had increased NLRP3 inflammasome activity and downregulated levels of Na+-K+-ATPase protein in the kidney, as Western blot analysis showed. Finally, we demonstrated that topiroxostat and allopurinol, XOIs, improved renal injury and functional parameters of EIAKI. CONCLUSIONS: Urat1-Uox DKO mice are a useful experimental animal model for human RHUC1. The pathogenic mechanism of EIAKI was found to be due to increased levels of IL-1ß via NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and Na+-K+-ATPase dysfunction associated with excessive urinary urate excretion. In addition, XOIs appear to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of EIAKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism , Organic Anion Transporters/deficiency , Urate Oxidase/deficiency , Xanthine Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Organic Anion Transporters/genetics , Physical Exertion , Pyridines/pharmacology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/drug therapy , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/etiology , Renal Tubular Transport, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Urate Oxidase/genetics , Urinary Calculi/drug therapy , Urinary Calculi/etiology , Urinary Calculi/metabolism
4.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810043

ABSTRACT

In the field of drug discovery, the nitrile group is well represented among drugs and biologically active compounds. It can form both non-covalent and covalent interactions with diverse biological targets, and it is amenable as an electrophilic warhead for covalent inhibition. The main advantage of the nitrile group as a warhead is mainly due to its milder electrophilic character relative to other more reactive groups (e.g., -CHO), reducing the possibility of unwanted reactions that would hinder the development of safe drugs, coupled to the ease of installation through different synthetic approaches. The covalent inhibition is a well-assessed design approach for serine, threonine, and cysteine protease inhibitors. The mechanism of hydrolysis of these enzymes involves the formation of a covalent acyl intermediate, and this mechanism can be exploited by introducing electrophilic warheads in order to mimic this covalent intermediate. Due to the relevant role played by the cysteine protease in the survival and replication of infective agents, spanning from viruses to protozoan parasites, we will review the most relevant and recent examples of protease inhibitors presenting a nitrile group that have been introduced to form or to facilitate the formation of a covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine active site residue.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Proteases , Parasitic Diseases , Cysteine/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Nitriles/pharmacology
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2505, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747189

ABSTRACT

Mpro, the main protease of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is essential for the viral life cycle. Accordingly, several groups have performed in silico screens to identify Mpro inhibitors that might be used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. We selected more than five hundred compounds from the top-ranking hits of two very large in silico screens for on-demand synthesis. We then examined whether these compounds could bind to Mpro and inhibit its protease activity. Two interesting chemotypes were identified, which were further evaluated by characterizing an additional five hundred synthesis on-demand analogues. The compounds of the first chemotype denatured Mpro and were considered not useful for further development. The compounds of the second chemotype bound to and enhanced the melting temperature of Mpro. The most active compound from this chemotype inhibited Mpro in vitro with an IC50 value of 1 µM and suppressed replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in tissue culture cells. Its mode of binding to Mpro was determined by X-ray crystallography, revealing that it is a non-covalent inhibitor. We propose that the inhibitors described here could form the basis for medicinal chemistry efforts that could lead to the development of clinically relevant inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Nitriles/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Quinazolines/chemistry , Quinazolines/metabolism , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742493

ABSTRACT

Advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are treated with androgen pathway directed therapy (APDT). However, this treatment invariably fails and the cancer becomes castration resistant. To elucidate resistance mechanisms and to provide a more predictive pre-clinical research platform reflecting tumor heterogeneity, we established organoids from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of bone metastatic prostate cancer, PCSD1. APDT-resistant PDX-derived organoids (PDOs) emerged when cultured without androgen or with the anti-androgen, enzalutamide. Transcriptomics revealed up-regulation of neurogenic and steroidogenic genes and down-regulation of DNA repair, cell cycle, circadian pathways and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 host viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Time course analysis of the cell cycle in live cells revealed that enzalutamide induced a gradual transition into a reversible dormant state as shown here for the first time at the single cell level in the context of multi-cellular, 3D living organoids using the Fucci2BL fluorescent live cell cycle tracker system. We show here a new mechanism of castration resistance in which enzalutamide induced dormancy and novel basal-luminal-like cells in bone metastatic prostate cancer organoids. These PDX organoids can be used to develop therapies targeting dormant APDT-resistant cells and host factors required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Organoids/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/genetics , Androgens/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/metabolism , Bone Neoplasms/secondary , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transplantation, Heterologous , Virus Internalization
7.
Science ; 374(6575): 1586-1593, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666355

ABSTRACT

The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. Alongside vaccines, antiviral therapeutics are an important part of the healthcare response to countering the ongoing threat presented by COVID-19. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of PF-07321332, an orally bioavailable SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor with in vitro pan-human coronavirus antiviral activity and excellent off-target selectivity and in vivo safety profiles. PF-07321332 has demonstrated oral activity in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 model and has achieved oral plasma concentrations exceeding the in vitro antiviral cell potency in a phase 1 clinical trial in healthy human participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacokinetics , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacokinetics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Nature ; 601(7894): 496, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641925

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(12): e0010001, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Colombia, organochloride, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides are broadly used to control Aedes aegypti populations. However, Colombian mosquito populations have shown variability in their susceptibility profiles to these insecticides, with some expressing high resistance levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility status of ten Colombian field populations of Ae. aegypti to two pyrethroids; permethrin (type-I pyrethroid) and lambda-cyhalothrin (type-II pyrethroid). In addition, we evaluated if mosquitoes pressured with increasing lambda-cyhalothrin concentrations during some filial generations exhibited altered allelic frequency of these kdr mutations and the activity levels of some metabolic enzymes. RESULTS: Mosquitoes from all field populations showed resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. We found that resistance profiles could only be partially explained by kdr mutations and altered enzymatic activities such as esterases and mixed-function oxidases, indicating that other yet unknown mechanisms could be involved. The molecular and biochemical analyses of the most pyrethroid-resistant mosquito population (Acacías) indicated that kdr mutations and altered metabolic enzyme activity are involved in the resistance phenotype expression. CONCLUSIONS: In this context, we propose genetic surveillance of the mosquito populations to monitor the emergence of resistance as an excellent initiative to improve mosquito-borne disease control measures.


Subject(s)
Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Animals , Colombia , Insect Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Nitriles/pharmacology , Permethrin/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 103: 108463, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587490

ABSTRACT

Therapeutics that impair the innate immune responses of the liver during the inflammatory cytokine storm like that occurring in COVID-19 are greatly needed. Much interest is currently directed toward Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors as potential candidates to mitigate this life-threatening complication. Accordingly, this study investigated the influence of the novel JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib (RXB) on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and systemic hyperinflammation in mice to simulate the context occurring in COVID-19 patients. Mice were orally treated with RXB (75 and 150 mg/kg) 2 h prior to the intravenous administration of Con A (20 mg/kg) for a period of 12 h. The results showed that RXB pretreatments were efficient in abrogating Con A-instigated hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, LDH), necrosis (histopathology), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and nuclear proliferation due to damage (PCNA). The protective mechanism of RXB were attributed to i) prevention of Con A-enhanced hepatic production and systemic release of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A, which coincided with decreasing infiltration of immune cells (monocytes, neutrophils), ii) reducing Con A-induced hepatic overexpression of IL-1ß and CD98 alongside NF-κB activation, and iii) lessening Con A-induced consumption of GSH and GSH peroxidase and generation of oxidative stress products (MDA, 4-HNE, NOx) in the liver. In summary, JAK inhibition by RXB led to eminent protection of the liver against Con A-deleterious manifestations primarily via curbing the inflammatory cytokine storm driven by TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A.


Subject(s)
Concanavalin A/toxicity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/chemically induced , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Aldehydes/metabolism , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Inflammation/chemically induced , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitrites/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidase/metabolism , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage
12.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(1): 445-458, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491383

ABSTRACT

In addition to respiratory complications produced by SARS-CoV-2, accumulating evidence suggests that some neurological symptoms are associated with the disease caused by this coronavirus. In this study, we investigated the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 stimulation on neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. Analyses of culture supernatants revealed an increase in the production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß and iNOS/NO. S1 also increased protein levels of phospho-p65 and phospho-IκBα, as well as enhanced DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These effects of the protein were blocked in the presence of BAY11-7082 (1 µM). Exposure of S1 to BV-2 microglia also increased the protein levels of NLRP3 inflammasome and enhanced caspase-1 activity. Increased protein levels of p38 MAPK was observed in BV-2 microglia stimulated with the spike protein S1 (100 ng/ml), an action that was reduced in the presence of SKF 86,002 (1 µM). Results of immunofluorescence microscopy showed an increase in TLR4 protein expression in S1-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition with TAK 242 (1 µM) and transfection with TLR4 small interfering RNA resulted in significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-6 production in S1-stimulated BV-2 microglia. These results have provided the first evidence demonstrating S1-induced neuroinflammation in BV-2 microglia. We propose that induction of neuroinflammation by this protein in the microglia is mediated through activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, possibly as a result of TLR4 activation. These results contribute to our understanding of some of the mechanisms involved in CNS pathologies of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Microglia/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Furans/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Microglia/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/pathology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , RNA, Small Interfering , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
13.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470935

ABSTRACT

Excessive host inflammation following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We recently reported that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit (S1) induces pro-inflammatory responses by activating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages. A standardized extract of Asparagus officinalis stem (EAS) is a unique functional food that elicits anti-photoaging effects by suppressing pro-inflammatory signaling in hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B-exposed skin fibroblasts. To elucidate its potential in preventing excessive inflammation in COVID-19, we examined the effects of EAS on pro-inflammatory responses in S1-stimulated macrophages. Murine peritoneal exudate macrophages were co-treated with EAS and S1. Concentrations and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Expression and phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins were analyzed using western blotting and fluorescence immunomicroscopy. EAS significantly attenuated S1-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 in a concentration-dependent manner without reducing cell viability. EAS also markedly suppressed the S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß. However, among the TLR4 signaling proteins, EAS did not affect the degradation of inhibitor κBα, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 subunit, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase p54 subunit after S1 exposure. In contrast, EAS significantly suppressed S1-induced phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Attenuation of S1-induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-1ß by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 was greater than that by the Akt inhibitor perifosine, and the effects were potentiated by simultaneous treatment with both inhibitors. These results suggest that EAS attenuates S1-induced IL-6 and IL-1ß production by suppressing p44/42 MAPK and Akt signaling in macrophages. Therefore, EAS may be beneficial in regulating excessive inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asparagus Plant/chemistry , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Asparagus Plant/metabolism , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Stems/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374423

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease, caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly spreading around the world, poses a major threat to the global public health. Herein, we demonstrated the binding mechanism of PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir to the coronavirus 3-chymotrypsin-like-protease (3CLpro) by means of docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The analysis of MD trajectories of 3CLpro with PF-07321332, α-ketoamide, lopinavir, and ritonavir revealed that 3CLpro-PF-07321332 and 3CLpro-α-ketoamide complexes remained stable compared with 3CLpro-ritonavir and 3CLpro-lopinavir. Investigating the dynamic behavior of ligand-protein interaction, ligands PF-07321332 and α-ketoamide showed stronger bonding via making interactions with catalytic dyad residues His41-Cys145 of 3CLpro. Lopinavir and ritonavir were unable to disrupt the catalytic dyad, as illustrated by increased bond length during the MD simulation. To decipher the ligand binding mode and affinity, ligand interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteases and binding energy were calculated. The binding energy of the bespoke antiviral PF-07321332 clinical candidate was two times higher than that of α-ketoamide and three times than that of lopinavir and ritonavir. Our study elucidated in detail the binding mechanism of the potent PF-07321332 to 3CLpro along with the low potency of lopinavir and ritonavir due to weak binding affinity demonstrated by the binding energy data. This study will be helpful for the development and optimization of more specific compounds to combat coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lactams/pharmacology , Leucine/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Proline/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
15.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1646-1650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320278

ABSTRACT

The chemical structure of PF-07321332, the first orally available Covid-19 clinical candidate, has recently been revealed by Pfizer. No information has been provided about the interaction pattern between PF-07321332 and its biomolecular counterpart, the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). In the present work, we exploited Supervised Molecular Dynamics (SuMD) simulations to elucidate the key features that characterise the interaction between this drug candidate and the protease, emphasising similarities and differences with other structurally related inhibitors such as Boceprevir and PF-07304814. The structural insights provided by SuMD will hopefully be able to inspire the rational discovery of other potent and selective protease inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Lactams/chemistry , Leucine/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Proline/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Lactams/pharmacology , Leucine/pharmacology , Ligands , Nitriles/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Proline/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Software
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4068, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294463

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 attacks various organs, most destructively the lung, and cellular entry requires two host cell surface proteins: ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Downregulation of one or both of these is thus a potential therapeutic approach for COVID-19. TMPRSS2 is a known target of the androgen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor; androgen receptor activation increases TMPRSS2 levels in various tissues, most notably prostate. We show here that treatment with the antiandrogen enzalutamide-a well-tolerated drug widely used in advanced prostate cancer-reduces TMPRSS2 levels in human lung cells and in mouse lung. Importantly, antiandrogens significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in lung cells. In support of this experimental data, analysis of existing datasets shows striking co-expression of AR and TMPRSS2, including in specific lung cell types targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Together, the data presented provides strong evidence to support clinical trials to assess the efficacy of antiandrogens as a treatment option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemical synthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
17.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2481-2497, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289949

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented itself as one of the most critical public health challenges of the century, with SARS-CoV-2 being the third member of the Coronaviridae family to cause a fatal disease in humans. There is currently only one antiviral compound, remdesivir, that can be used for the treatment of COVID-19. To identify additional potential therapeutics, we investigated the enzymatic proteins encoded in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. In this study, we focussed on the viral RNA cap methyltransferases, which play key roles in enabling viral protein translation and facilitating viral escape from the immune system. We expressed and purified both the guanine-N7 methyltransferase nsp14, and the nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase with its activating cofactor, nsp10. We performed an in vitro high-throughput screen for inhibitors of nsp14 using a custom compound library of over 5000 pharmaceutical compounds that have previously been characterised in either clinical or basic research. We identified four compounds as potential inhibitors of nsp14, all of which also showed antiviral capacity in a cell-based model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Three of the four compounds also exhibited synergistic effects on viral replication with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Caps/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorobenzenes/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Assays , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/isolation & purification , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Indazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/isolation & purification , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Trifluperidol/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
18.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174233, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260717

ABSTRACT

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is rate-limiting enzyme in biosynthesis of pyrimidone which catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotate to orotate. Orotate is utilized in the biosynthesis of uridine-monophosphate. DHODH inhibitors have shown promise as antiviral agent against Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, Influenza, Epstein Barr and Picornavirus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of DHODH inhibitors are also coming up. In this review, we have reviewed the safety and efficacy of approved DHODH inhibitors (leflunomide and teriflunomide) against COVID-19. In target-centered in silico studies, leflunomide showed favorable binding to active site of MPro and spike: ACE2 interface. In artificial-intelligence/machine-learning based studies, leflunomide was among the top 50 ligands targeting spike: ACE2 interaction. Leflunomide is also found to interact with differentially regulated pathways [identified by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and reactome pathway analysis of host transcriptome data] in cogena based drug-repurposing studies. Based on GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), leflunomide was found to target pathways enriched in COVID-19. In vitro, both leflunomide (EC50 41.49 ± 8.8 µmol/L) and teriflunomide (EC50 26 µmol/L) showed SARS-CoV-2 inhibition. In clinical studies, leflunomide showed significant benefit in terms of decreasing the duration of viral shredding, duration of hospital stay and severity of infection. However, no advantage was seen while combining leflunomide and IFN alpha-2a among patients with prolonged post symptomatic viral shredding. Common adverse effects of leflunomide were hyperlipidemia, leucopenia, neutropenia and liver-function alteration. Leflunomide/teriflunomide may serve as an agent of importance to achieve faster virological clearance in COVID-19, however, findings needs to be validated in bigger sized placebo controlled studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Crotonates/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toluidines/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Crotonates/adverse effects , Crotonates/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates/adverse effects , Hydroxybutyrates/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/adverse effects , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Nitriles/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/adverse effects , Toluidines/therapeutic use
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11130, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246392

ABSTRACT

The sex discordance in COVID-19 outcomes has been widely recognized, with males generally faring worse than females and a potential link to sex steroids. A plausible mechanism is androgen-induced expression of TMPRSS2 and/or ACE2 in pulmonary tissues that may increase susceptibility or severity in males. This hypothesis is the subject of several clinical trials of anti-androgen therapies around the world. Here, we investigated the sex-associated TMPRSS2 and ACE2 expression in human and mouse lungs and interrogated the possibility of pharmacologic modification of their expression with anti-androgens. We found no evidence for increased TMPRSS2 expression in the lungs of males compared to females in humans or mice. Furthermore, in male mice, treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide did not decrease pulmonary TMPRSS2. On the other hand, ACE2 and AR expression was sexually dimorphic and higher in males than females. ACE2 was moderately suppressible with enzalutamide administration. Our work suggests that sex differences in COVID-19 outcomes attributable to viral entry are independent of TMPRSS2. Modest changes in ACE2 could account for some of the sex discordance.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgens , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenylthiohydantoin/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Smokers
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21448, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242034

ABSTRACT

The in vitro interactions of isavuconazole with colistin were evaluated against 15 clinical Candida auris isolates by a microdilution checkerboard technique based on the EUCAST reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing and by agar diffusion using isavuconazole gradient concentration strips with or without colistin incorporated RPMI agar. Interpretation of the checkerboard results was done by the fractional inhibitory concentration index and by response surface analysis based on the Bliss model. By checkerboard, combination was synergistic for 93% of the isolates when interpretation of the data was done by fractional inhibitory concentration index, and for 80% of the isolates by response surface analysis interpretation. By agar diffusion test, although all MICs in combination decreased compared to isavuconazole alone, only 13% of the isolates met the definition of synergy. Essential agreement of EUCAST and gradient concentration strip MICs at +/- 2 log2 dilutions was 93.3%. Antagonistic interactions were never observed for any technique or interpretation model used.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Colistin/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Agar , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Synergism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
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