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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21124, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493211

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have increased risk of mortality shortly after intubation. The aim of this study is to develop a model using predictors of early mortality after intubation from COVID-19. A retrospective study of 1945 intubated patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 Northwell hospitals in the greater New York City area was performed. Logistic regression model using backward selection was applied. This study evaluated predictors of 14-day mortality after intubation for COVID-19 patients. The predictors of mortality within 14 days after intubation included older age, history of chronic kidney disease, lower mean arterial pressure or increased dose of required vasopressors, higher urea nitrogen level, higher ferritin, higher oxygen index, and abnormal pH levels. We developed and externally validated an intubated COVID-19 predictive score (ICOP). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.78) in the derivation cohort and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67-0.75) in the validation cohort; both were significantly greater than corresponding values for sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) or CURB-65 scores. The externally validated predictive score may help clinicians estimate early mortality risk after intubation and provide guidance for deciding the most effective patient therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Arterial Pressure , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Young Adult
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390657

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global threat that has spread since the end of 2019, causing severe clinical sequelae and deaths, in the context of a world pandemic. The infection of the highly pathogenetic and infectious SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been proven to exert systemic effects impacting the metabolism. Yet, the metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiology and progression of COVID-19 are still unclear. Here, we present the results of a mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic analysis on a cohort of 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, classified according to disease severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Our analysis defines a clear signature of COVID-19 that includes increased serum levels of lactic acid in all the forms of the disease. Pathway analysis revealed dysregulation of energy production and amino acid metabolism. Globally, the variations found in the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect a more complex systemic perturbation induced by SARS-CoV-2, possibly affecting carbon and nitrogen liver metabolism.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Carbon/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolome , Nitrogen/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Discriminant Analysis , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(2): 525-538, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064417

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a comprehensive regulator of vascular and airway tone. Endogenous NO produced by nitric oxide synthases regulates multiple signaling cascades, including activation of soluble guanylate cyclase to generate cGMP, relaxing smooth muscle cells. Inhaled NO is an established therapy for pulmonary hypertension in neonates, and has been recently proposed for the treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the effects of endogenous and exogenous NO on protein S-nitrosylation, which is the selective and reversible covalent attachment of a nitrogen monoxide group to the thiol side chain of cysteine. This posttranslational modification targets specific cysteines based on the acid/base sequence of surrounding residues, with significant impacts on protein interactions and function. S-nitrosothiol (SNO) formation is tightly compartmentalized and enzymatically controlled, but also propagated by nonenzymatic transnitrosylation of downstream protein targets. Redox-based nitrosylation and denitrosylation pathways dynamically regulate the equilibrium of SNO-proteins. We review the physiological roles of SNO proteins, including nitrosohemoglobin and autoregulation of blood flow through hypoxic vasodilation, and pathological effects of nitrosylation including inhibition of critical vasodilator enzymes; and discuss the intersection of NO source and dose with redox environment, in determining the effects of protein nitrosylation.


Subject(s)
Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans , Hypoxia , Respiration
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