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1.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(3): 251-260, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937782

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2020, a novel comprehensive redefinition of fatty liver disease was proposed by an international panel of experts. This review aims to explore current evidence regarding the impact of this new definition on the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical trials for fatty liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The effectiveness of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was compared to the existing criteria for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent data robustly suggest the superior utility of MAFLD in identifying patients at high risk for metabolic dysfunction, the hepatic and extra-hepatic complications, as well as those who would benefit from genetic testing, including patients with concomitant liver diseases. This change in name and criteria also appears to have improved disease awareness among patients and physicians. SUMMARY: The transformation in name and definition from NAFLD to MAFLD represents an important milestone, which indicates significant tangible progress towards a more inclusive, equitable, and patient-centred approach to addressing the profound challenges of this disease. Growing evidence has illustrated the broader and specific contexts that have tremendous potential for positively influencing the diagnosis and treatment. In addition, the momentum accompanying this name change has included widespread public attention to the unique burden of this previously underappreciated disease.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology
2.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 46(5): 101894, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious public health issue that became rapidly pandemic. Liver injury and comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome, are associated with severe forms of the disease. This study sought to investigate liver injury, clinical features, and risk factors in patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively included all consecutive patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between February, 22 and May 15, 2020 at the emergency rooms of a French tertiary hospital. Medical history, symptoms, biological and imaging data were collected. RESULTS: Among the 1381 hospitalizations for COVID-19, 719 patients underwent liver tests on admission and 496 (68.9%) patients displayed abnormal liver tests. Aspartate aminotransferase was most commonly abnormal in 57% of cases, followed by gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin in 56.5%, 35.9%, 18.4%, 11.4%, and 5.8%. The presence of hepatocellular type more than 2xULN was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization and a worse course of severe disease (odd ratio [OR] 5.599; 95%CI: 1.27-23.86; p = 0.021; OR 3.404; 95% CI: 2.12-5.47; p < 0.001, respectively). A higher NAFLD fibrosis score was associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR 1.754; 95%CI: 1.27-2.43, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, patients with high fibrosis-4 index had a 3-fold greater risk of severe disease (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Abnormal liver tests are common in patients with COVID-19 and could predict the outcome. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver fibrosis are at higher risk of progressing to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(8): 940-946, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555658

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses steatosis and steatohepatitis. The cause may be multifactorial, and diagnosis requires correlation with clinical information and laboratory results. OBJECTIVE.­: To provide an overview of the status of histology diagnosis of steatosis, steatohepatitis, and associated conditions. DATA SOURCES.­: A literature search was performed using the PubMed search engine. The terms ''steatosis,'' ''steatohepatitis,'' ''nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),'' ''nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),'' "alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH)," ''type 2 diabetes (T2DM),'' "cryptogenic cirrhosis," "drug-induced liver injury (DILI)," "immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy," and "COVID-19 and liver" were used. CONCLUSIONS.­: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become the most common chronic liver disease in the United States. NASH is the progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The hallmarks of steatohepatitis are steatosis, ballooned hepatocytes, and lobular inflammation. NASH and alcoholic steatohepatitis share similar histologic features, but some subtle differences may help their distinction. NASH is commonly seen in patients with metabolic dysfunction but can also be caused by other etiologies. Examples are medications including newly developed immune checkpoint inhibitors and viral infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). NASH is also a common cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis but can be reversed. The results from recent clinical trials for NASH treatment are promising in reducing the severity of steatosis, ballooning, and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fatty Liver, Alcoholic , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Fatty Liver, Alcoholic/complications , Fatty Liver, Alcoholic/pathology , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/congenital , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology
4.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
5.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(2): 454-466, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330958

ABSTRACT

This review evaluates the ability of the fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) identifying fibrosis stages, long-time prognosis in chronic liver disease, and short-time outcomes in acute liver injury. FIB-4 was accurate in predicting the absence or presence of advanced fibrosis with cut-offs of 1.0 and 2.65 for viral hepatitis B, 1.45 and 3.25 for viral hepatitis C, 1.30 (<65 years), 2.0 (≥65 years), and 2.67 for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), respectively, but had a low-to-moderate accuracy in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and autoimmune hepatitis. It performed better in excluding fibrosis, so we built an algorithm for identifying advanced fibrosis by combined methods and giving work-up and follow-up suggestions. High FIB-4 in viral hepatitis, NAFLD, and ALD was associated with significantly high hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality. Additionally, FIB-4 showed the ability to predict high-risk varices with cut-offs of 2.87 and 3.91 in cirrhosis patients and predict long-term survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after hepatectomy. In acute liver injury caused by COVID-19, FIB-4 had a predictive value for mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality. Finally, FIB-4 may act as a screening tool in the secondary prevention of NAFLD in the high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Neoplasms , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Fibrosis , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(7): 3333-3339, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severity of disease and outcomes in patient with COVID-19 has been associated with several risk factors tied to the metabolic syndrome. AIMS: We conducted a study with the objective of describing the association between the baseline Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19 among patients at risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with at least two risk factors for metabolic syndrome diagnosed with COVID-19. The main exposure of interest was FIB-4 index prior to infection, categorized into three previously validated age-specific levels. The main outcomes of interest were disease requiring hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We included 373 patients [median age, 62 years; 194 male (52%); median number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, 3]. The median FIB-4 index was 1.10 (interquartile range 0.78-1.61). In models adjusting for diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, patients with intermediate FIB-4 index had 67% higher odds of hospitalization compared to those in the low category {odds ratio (OR) 1.67 [(95% CI 1.06-2.64); p = 0.03]} and patients with high FIB-4 index had higher odds of mortality compared to intermediate and low category with an OR 2.22 (95% CI 1.20-4.12; p = 0.01). However, when we evaluated components of FIB-4 (age and AST/ALT ratio), we found that age alone was the best predictor of hospitalization and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients at risk of NAFLD with COVID-19 infection, elevated pre-infection FIB-4 index was associated with worsened clinical outcomes, but age was the strongest predictor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 813-822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients represent a vulnerable population that may be susceptible to more severe COVID-19. Moreover, not only the underlying NAFLD may influence the progression of COVID-19, but the COVID-19 may affect the clinical course of NAFLD as well. However, comprehensive evidence on clinical outcomes in patients with NAFLD is not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and meta-analysis the evidence on clinical outcomes in NAFLD patients with COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central were searched from inception through November 2020. Epidemiological studies assessing the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with NAFLD were included. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess study quality. Generic inverse variance method using RevMan was used to determine the pooled estimates using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen studies consisting of 1851 NAFLD patients, were included. Significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies, and studies were of moderate to high quality [mean, (range):8 (6, 8)]. For NAFLD patients, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for the severe COVID-19 was 2.60 (95%CI:2.24-3.02; p < 0.001) (studies,n:8), aOR for admission to ICU due to COVID-19 was 1.66 (95%CI:1.26-2.20; p < 0.001) (studies,n:2), and aOR for mortality for was 1.01 (95%CI:0.65-1.58; p = 0.96) (studies,n:2). CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection and admission to ICU due to COVID-19 with no difference in mortality was observed between NAFLD and non-NAFLD patients. Future studies should include the mortality outcome to conclusively elucidate the impact of NAFLD in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5494, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125236

ABSTRACT

It is important to pay attention to the indirect effects of the social distancing implemented to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on children and adolescent health. The aim of the present study was to explore impacts of a reduction in physical activity caused by COVID-19 outbreak in pediatric patients diagnosed with obesity. This study conducted between pre-school closing and school closing period and 90 patients aged between 6- and 18-year-old were included. Comparing the variables between pre-school closing period and school closing period in patients suffering from obesity revealed significant differences in variables related to metabolism such as body weight z-score, body mass index z-score, liver enzymes and lipid profile. We further evaluated the metabolic factors related to obesity. When comparing patients with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), only hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was the only difference between the two time points (p < 0.05). We found that reduced physical activity due to school closing during COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated obesity among children and adolescents and negatively affects the HbA1C increase in NAFLD patients compared to non-NAFLD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Glucose Intolerance/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Adolescent , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/virology , Child , Exercise , Female , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Lipids/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Ann Hepatol ; 20: 100271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFT) abnormalities are reported in up to 50% of COVID-19 patients, and metabolic comorbidities are associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with COVID-19 and their association with clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted. The risk for liver steatosis was estimated by HSI > 36, and risk for advanced liver fibrosis with APRI > 1.0, NAFLD FS > 0.675 and/or FIB-4 > 3.25. Clinical outcomes were admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and mortality. RESULTS: Of 155 patients, 71.6% were male (n = 111), and 28.4% (n = 44) were obese. Abnormal LFT were present in 96.8% (n = 150), prevalence of steatosis was 42.6% (n = 66) and of significative liver fibrosis was 44.5% (n = 69). Liver fibrosis by FIB-4 was associated with risk of ICU admission (OR 1.74 [95%CI 1.74-2.68; p = 0.023]) and mortality (OR 6.45 [95%CI 2.01-20.83, p = 0.002]); no independent associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of steatosis and significant liver fibrosis was high in COVID-19 patients but was not associated with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 701-710, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytokine storm has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examine the incidence of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing compensated chronic liver disease (CLD). METHODS: From 20 Jan 2020 to 7 Feb 2020, we studied 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to either Fuyang Second People's Hospital (FYSPH), Anhui or the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (PLAGH) in Beijing, China. Pre-existing CLD includes those with liver cirrhosis assessed by APRI/FIB-4 score and /or ultrasound; NAFLD as identified by either ultrasound or hepatic steatosis index with significant liver fibrosis and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or hepatitis C (CHC) infection. The diagnosis, grading of severity and clinical management of COVID-19 patients complied to the guideline and clinical protocol issued by the China National Health Commission. All patients had liver function test at least twice weekly till discharge with full recovery or death. RESULTS: In total, 3 had liver cirrhosis, 6 patients had CHB, 13 had NAFLD with significant liver fibrosis (one also had CHB). On admission, none had liver decompensation. COVID-19 disease progression was significantly less frequent in non-CLD patients (10/118 8.5%) than CLD patients (13/22 59.1%, p < 0.001). One patient with CLD had acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). CONCLUSION: Disease progression is significantly higher in those COVID-19 patients with CLD as compared to those with no CLD. ACLF can also occur in patient with pre-existing compensated CLD who had severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Coronavirus Infections , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods
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