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1.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean lifestyle with a Mediterranean diet and regular physical activity (PA) improves metabolic syndrome (MetS) characteristics and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The COVID-19 pandemic stopped healthy habits and increased NAFLD progression. OBJECTIVES: To assess how PA differences due to COVID-19 lockdown affected NAFLD parameters in adults with MetS. DESIGN: Longitudinal 2-year analysis of data obtained between COVID-19 pre- and post-lockdown in a parallel-group randomized trial (n = 57, aged 40-60 years old, with MetS and NAFLD). METHODS: NAFLD status and related parameters were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood collection analysis and related indexes. PA and fitness status were assessed by an Alpha-Fit test battery, accelerometers, validated Minnesota questionnaire and functional fitness score. During lockdown, study personnel telephoned patients to motivate them. Participants were grouped according to PA levels. RESULTS: The low PA group improved its fitness score tests (0.2) after lockdown more than the medium PA group, and it decreased its sedentary activity (-48.7 min/day), increased light (20.9 min/day) and moderate (32.3 min/day) PA intensities and improved sleep efficiency (0.6%) in comparison with the medium and high PA groups. The high PA group increased its steps per day more than the other groups. The low PA group was the only group that decreased its gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels (-17.0 U/L). All groups increased their fatty liver index (FLI) after lockdown, but the medium PA group increased its FLI more than the low PA group. Participants in the high PA group decreased their HDL-cholesterol levels more than participants in the medium PA group (-0.4 mg/dL). CONCLUSIONS: Stopping regular PA together with an unhealthy lifestyle leads to a worsening of MetS and NAFLD. COVID-19 lockdown induced a decrease in PA in more active people, but inactive people increased their PA levels. Motivation seemed to be very important during lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(6): 1322-1335, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864318

ABSTRACT

The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highest among Mexican-origin (MO) adults. Few studies have estimated the prevalence of NAFLD in this subpopulation, particularly by sex and age. We assessed the prevalence of NAFLD in a community sample of MO adults residing in a border region of southern Arizona and determined risk factors associated with NAFLD. A total of 307 MO adults (n = 194 women; n = 113 men) with overweight or obesity completed an in-person study visit, including vibration-controlled transient elastography (FibroScan) for the assessment of NAFLD status. A continuous attenuation parameter score of ≥288 dB/m (≥5% hepatic steatosis) indicated NAFLD status. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NAFLD. We identified 155 participants (50%) with NAFLD, including 52% of women and 48% of men; there were no sex differences in steatosis (men, 287.8 dB/m; women, 288.4 dB/m). Sex, age, patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) risk allele carrier status, comorbidities, and cultural and behavioral variables were not associated with NAFLD status. There was some evidence for effect modification of body mass index (BMI) by sex (Pinteraction  = 0.08). The estimated OR for an increase in BMI of 5 kg/m2 was 3.36 (95% CI, 1.90, 5.91) for men and 1.92 (95% CI, 1.40, 2.64) for women. In post hoc analyses treating steatosis as a continuous variable in a linear regression, significant effect modification was found for BMI by sex (Pinteraction  = 0.03), age (P = 0.05), and PNPLA3 risk allele carrier status (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Lifestyle interventions to reduce body weight, with consideration of age and genetic risk status, are needed to stem the higher rates of NAFLD observed for MO populations.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Adult , Female , Humans , Lipase/genetics , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 384, 2022 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on the association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with prognosis in COVID-19 has been limited. We investigated the association between the fatty liver index (FLI), a non-invasive and simple marker of NAFLD, and the severe complications of COVID-19 patients in South Korea. METHODS: We included 3122 COVID-19-positive patients from the nationwide COVID-19 cohort dataset in South Korea between January and June 2020. The FLI was calculated using triglyceride, body mass index, glutamyl transpeptidase, and waist circumference, which were obtained from the national health screening program data. Severe complications related to COVID-19 were defined as the composite of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit treatment, high-oxygen flow therapy, and death within 2 months after a COVID-19 infection. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis for the development of severe complications in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of FLI were 25.01 ± 22.64. Severe complications from COVID-19 occurred in 223 (7.14%) patients, including mechanical ventilation in 82 (2.63%) patients, ICU admission in 126 (4.04%), high-flow oxygen therapy in 75 (2.40%), and death in 94 (3.01%) patients, respectively. The multivariate analysis indicated that the highest tertile (T3) of FLI was positively associated with severe complications from COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.11-2.82), P = 0.017) compared with the lowest tertile (T1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that FLI, which represents NAFLD, was positively associated with an increased risk of severe complications from COVID-19. FLI might be used as a prognostic marker for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(4): 284-296, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692744

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become an epidemic, much like other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology of NAFLD, particularly involving insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation, is not only closely linked to that of those NCDs but also to a severe course of the communicable disease COVID-19. Genetics alone cannot explain the large increase in the prevalence of NAFLD during the past 2 decades and the increase that is projected for the next decades. Impairment of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, which has been propelled by the worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, is most likely behind the increase in people with NAFLD. As the prevalence of NAFLD varies among subgroups of patients with diabetes and prediabetes identified by cluster analyses, stratification of people with diabetes and prediabetes by major pathological mechanistic pathways might improve the diagnosis of NAFLD and prediction of its progression. In this Review, we aim to understand how diabetes can affect the development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to advanced liver damage. First, we emphasise the extent to which NAFLD and diabetes jointly occur worldwide. Second, we address the major mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes, and we discuss whether these mechanisms place NAFLD in an important position to better understand the pathogenesis of NCDs and communicable diseases, such as COVID-19. Third, we address whether this knowledge can be used for personalised treatment of NAFLD in the future. Finally, we discuss the current treatment strategies for people with type 2 diabetes and their effectiveness in treating the spectrum of hepatic diseases from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prediabetic State , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/metabolism
5.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667256

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown dramatically changed people's lifestyles. Diet, physical activity, and the PNPLA3 gene are known risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim: To evaluate changes in metabolic and hepatic disease in NAFLD patients after the COVID-19 lockdown. Three hundred and fifty seven NAFLD patients were enrolled, all previously instructed to follow a Mediterranean diet (MD). Anthropometric, metabolic, and laboratory data were collected before the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy and 6 months apart, along with ultrasound (US) steatosis grading and information about adherence to MD and physical activity (PA). In 188 patients, PNPLA3 genotyping was performed. After the lockdown, 48% of patients gained weight, while 16% had a worsened steatosis grade. Weight gain was associated with poor adherence to MD (p = 0.005), reduced PA (p = 0.03), and increased prevalence of PNPLA3 GG (p = 0.04). At multivariate analysis (corrected for age, sex, MD, PA, and PNPLA3 GG), only PNPLA3 remained independently associated with weight gain (p = 0.04), which was also associated with worsened glycemia (p = 0.002) and transaminases (p = 0.02). During lockdown, due to a dramatic change in lifestyles, half of our cohort of NAFLD patients gained weight, with a worsening of metabolic and hepatologic features. Interestingly, the PNPLA3 GG genotype nullified the effect of lifestyle and emerged as an independent risk factor for weight gain, opening new perspectives in NAFLD patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Genotype , Humans , Life Style , Lipase/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(12): 1578-1581, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595632

ABSTRACT

AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently encountered disease that was declared a pandemic by WHO in 2020. Obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may aggravate the severity of COVID-19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between MAFLD and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control study, enrolling 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of fatty liver by computed tomography scan. All medical records of eligible patients were reviewed including demographic, clinical, laboratory parameters and data regarding the presence of NAFLD and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: NAFLD was identified in 22/71 (31%) of the study group. Out of 71, thirteen suffered from severe COVID-19. NAFLD patients had more severe COVID-19 compared with non-NAFLD subjects, 8/22 (36.3%) vs. 5/49(10.2%), (P < 0.005), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NAFLD subjects were more likely to have severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 14.48, P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION: NAFLD represents a high risk for severe COVID-19 irrespective to gender, and independent of metabolic syndrome specifically in male gender. Moreover, obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were also significantly associated with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Syndrome , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586178

ABSTRACT

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Management , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/therapy
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(24): 11212-11220, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511334

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the susceptibility and consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We retrospectively collected data from 218 adult COVID-19 patients who showed no evidence of excessive alcohol consumption and underwent abdominal ultrasound examinations. Of these patients, 39.4% patients had been diagnosed with NAFLD, which indicates a much higher prevalence of NAFLD than that reported in the general population. Significantly elevated white blood cell count (p = 0.008), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.000), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.006) and C reactive protein (p = 0.012) were found in the patients with NAFLD. These patients also had significantly higher proportions of hypertension (p = 0.006) and diabetes (p = 0.049) than the non-NAFLD cases. No significant differences existed in the severity, mortality, viral shedding time and length of hospital stay between patients with or without NAFLD in the sample population. However, subgroup analyses found that in patients with normal body mass index (BMI), NAFLD sufferers were more likely to experience a severe event (30.0% vs 11.5%, p = 0.021). Kaplan-Meier curve (log-rank p = 0.017) and Cox regression (HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.17-9.04, p = 0.023) analyses confirmed that before and after adjusting for gender, age and comorbidities, NAFLD patients with normal BMI had a higher incidence of suffering severe events. People with NAFLD may have a higher proportion of COVID-19. NAFLD may be correlated with the severity of COVID-19 patients in the normal BMI group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
10.
Hepatology ; 74(6): 3316-3329, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The surge in unhealthy alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic may have detrimental effects on the rising burden of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) on liver transplantation (LT) in the USA. We evaluated the effect of the pandemic on temporal trends for LT including ALD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using data from United Network for Organ Sharing, we analyzed wait-list outcomes in the USA through March 1, 2021. In a short-period analysis, patients listed or transplanted between June 1, 2019, and February 29, 2020, were defined as the "pre-COVID" era, and after April 1, 2020, were defined as the "COVID" era. Interrupted time-series analyses using monthly count data from 2016-2020 were constructed to evaluate the rate change for listing and LT before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rates for listings (P = 0.19) and LT (P = 0.14) were unchanged during the pandemic despite a significant reduction in the monthly listing rates for HCV (-21.69%, P < 0.001) and NASH (-13.18%; P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in ALD listing (+7.26%; P < 0.001) and LT (10.67%; P < 0.001) during the pandemic. In the COVID era, ALD (40.1%) accounted for more listings than those due to HCV (12.4%) and NASH (23.4%) combined. The greatest increase in ALD occurred in young adults (+33%) and patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (+50%). Patients with ALD presented with a higher acuity of illness, with 30.8% of listings and 44.8% of LT having a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium score ≥30. CONCLUSIONS: Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic, ALD has become the most common indication for listing and the fastest increasing cause for LT. Collective efforts are urgently needed to stem the rising tide of ALD on health care resources.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/etiology , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cost of Illness , End Stage Liver Disease/epidemiology , End Stage Liver Disease/etiology , Female , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/trends , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/etiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/epidemiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/surgery , Liver Transplantation/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
11.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 439-441, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The development of COVID-19 vaccines has progressed with encouraging safety and efficacy data. Concerns have been raised about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to explore the safety and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in NAFLD. METHODS: This multicenter study included patients with NAFLD without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All patients were vaccinated with 2 doses of inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and overall incidence of adverse reactions within 28 days, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response at least 14 days after the whole-course vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 381 patients with pre-existing NAFLD were included from 11 designated centers in China. The median age was 39.0 years (IQR 33.0-48.0 years) and 179 (47.0%) were male. The median BMI was 26.1 kg/m2 (IQR 23.8-28.1 kg/m2). The number of adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection and adverse reactions within 28 days totaled 95 (24.9%) and 112 (29.4%), respectively. The most common adverse reactions were injection site pain in 70 (18.4%), followed by muscle pain in 21 (5.5%), and headache in 20 (5.2%). All adverse reactions were mild and self-limiting, and no grade 3 adverse reactions were recorded. Notably, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 364 (95.5%) patients with NAFLD. The median neutralizing antibody titer was 32 (IQR 8-64), and the neutralizing antibody titers were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: The development of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressed rapidly, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. This study now shows that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe with good immunogenicity in the large population of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444271

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was and still is a global burden with more than 178,000,000 cases reported so far. Although it mainly affects respiratory organs, COVID-19 has many extrapulmonary manifestations, including, among other things, liver injury. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain direct and indirect impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the liver. Studies have shown that around 15-30% of patients with COVID-19 have underlying liver disease, and 20-35% of patients with COVID-19 had altered liver enzymes at admission. One of the hypotheses is reactivation of an underlying liver disease, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Some studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with severe COVID-19 and poor outcome; nevertheless, other studies showed no significant difference between groups in comparing complications and clinical outcomes. Patients with NAFLD may suffer severe COVID-19 due to other comorbidities, especially cardiovascular diseases. The link between NAFLD and COVID-19 is not clear yet, and further studies and research are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282091

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a major public health pandemic. Risk factors for severe infection and poorer outcomes include cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lifestyle interventions, including diet and physical activity modifications, are the current recommended treatment for NAFLD. In this communication, the authors discuss the crossover link between NAFLD and severe COVID-19 infection and the impact of essential public health measures to suppress the spread of COVID-19 on exercise and physical activity participation in patients with NAFLD. The future of exercise prescription and the potential use of digital technology in addressing NAFLD healthcare needs in the COVID-19 era are also explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise Therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Female , Humans , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(22): 3064-3072, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270140

ABSTRACT

The rapid global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has become a major health issue with higher morbidity and mortality rates. Besides respiratory symptoms, a growing body of evidence indicates a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations including liver involvement. In this regard, several data supported an association between COVID-19 infection and liver injury in adults, while in children there is compelling but currently limited evidence. In particular, patients with COVID-19 have shown a higher risk of liver injury (mainly expressed as increased transaminase levels or hepatic steatosis). Conversely, a greater risk of more severe forms of COVID-19 infection has been observed in subjects with pre-existing chronic liver diseases. The dramatic interplay between COVID-19 and liver damage has been related to the inflammatory pathways chronically active in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and acutely in those affected by COVID-19, but other different pathogenic mechanisms have also been supposed. Of note, patients with previous metabolic comorbidities also had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 infection. This emphasizes the pathogenic interrelation of the inflammatory pathways with a dysregulated metabolic milieu in COVID-19 patients. Taking into account the prognostic role of fatty liver in COVID-19 patients and its intrinsic relationship with metabolic abnormalities even in childhood, a strict monitoring of this condition is recommended. We aimed to summarize the most recent evidence regarding the potential interplay between pediatric fatty liver and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Child , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 813-822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients represent a vulnerable population that may be susceptible to more severe COVID-19. Moreover, not only the underlying NAFLD may influence the progression of COVID-19, but the COVID-19 may affect the clinical course of NAFLD as well. However, comprehensive evidence on clinical outcomes in patients with NAFLD is not well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and meta-analysis the evidence on clinical outcomes in NAFLD patients with COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central were searched from inception through November 2020. Epidemiological studies assessing the clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with NAFLD were included. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess study quality. Generic inverse variance method using RevMan was used to determine the pooled estimates using the random-effects model. RESULTS: Fourteen studies consisting of 1851 NAFLD patients, were included. Significant heterogeneity was observed among the studies, and studies were of moderate to high quality [mean, (range):8 (6, 8)]. For NAFLD patients, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for the severe COVID-19 was 2.60 (95%CI:2.24-3.02; p < 0.001) (studies,n:8), aOR for admission to ICU due to COVID-19 was 1.66 (95%CI:1.26-2.20; p < 0.001) (studies,n:2), and aOR for mortality for was 1.01 (95%CI:0.65-1.58; p = 0.96) (studies,n:2). CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection and admission to ICU due to COVID-19 with no difference in mortality was observed between NAFLD and non-NAFLD patients. Future studies should include the mortality outcome to conclusively elucidate the impact of NAFLD in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
18.
Ann Hepatol ; 20: 100271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFT) abnormalities are reported in up to 50% of COVID-19 patients, and metabolic comorbidities are associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with COVID-19 and their association with clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted. The risk for liver steatosis was estimated by HSI > 36, and risk for advanced liver fibrosis with APRI > 1.0, NAFLD FS > 0.675 and/or FIB-4 > 3.25. Clinical outcomes were admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and mortality. RESULTS: Of 155 patients, 71.6% were male (n = 111), and 28.4% (n = 44) were obese. Abnormal LFT were present in 96.8% (n = 150), prevalence of steatosis was 42.6% (n = 66) and of significative liver fibrosis was 44.5% (n = 69). Liver fibrosis by FIB-4 was associated with risk of ICU admission (OR 1.74 [95%CI 1.74-2.68; p = 0.023]) and mortality (OR 6.45 [95%CI 2.01-20.83, p = 0.002]); no independent associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of steatosis and significant liver fibrosis was high in COVID-19 patients but was not associated with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Adult , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13338, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial evidence from China suggests that most vulnerable subjects to COVID-19 infection suffer from pre-existing illness, including metabolic abnormalities. The pandemic characteristics and high-lethality rate of COVID-19 infection have raised concerns about interactions between virus pathobiology and components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We harmonized the information from the recent existing literature on COVID-19 acute pandemic and mechanisms of damage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as an example of chronic (non-communicable) metabolic pandemic. RESULTS: COVID-19-infected patients are more fragile with underlying metabolic illness, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic lung diseases (e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema) and metabolic syndrome. During metabolic abnormalities, expansion of metabolically active fat ('overfat condition') parallels chronic inflammatory changes, development of insulin resistance and accumulation of fat in configuring NAFLD. The deleterious interplay of inflammatory pathways chronically active in NAFLD and acutely in COVID-19-infected patients, can explain liver damage in a subgroup of patients and might condition a worse outcome in metabolically compromised NAFLD patients. In a subgroup of patients with NAFLD, the underlying liver fibrosis might represent an additional and independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness, irrespective of metabolic comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD can play a role in the outcome of COVID-19 illness due to frequent association with comorbidities. Initial evidences suggest that increased liver fibrosis in NAFLD might affect COVID-19 outcome. In addition, long-term monitoring of post-COVID-19 NAFLD patients is advisable, to document further deterioration of liver damage. Further studies are required in this field.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Insulin Resistance , Liver/immunology , Liver/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/immunology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(4): 273-280, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612198

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified in patients in Wuhan, China. The virus, subsequently named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, spread worldwide and the disease (coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Older adults and individuals with comorbidities have been reported as being more vulnerable to COVID-19. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have compromised immune function due to cirrhosis and are more susceptible to infection. However, it is unclear if patients with CLD are more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications than other populations. The high number of severe cases of COVID-19 has placed an unusual burden on health systems, compromising their capacity to provide the regular care that patients with CLD require. Hence, it is incredibly crucial at this juncture to provide a set of interim recommendations on the management of patients with CLD during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/therapy , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Purines , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Ultrasonography/methods
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