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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 38, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818709

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describing the prevalence of chronic diseases and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors, evaluating the patterns of social distancing and the antibodies prevalence against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 symptoms in carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. METHODS Data from 77,075 individuals aged 20 to 59 from three steps of the EPICOVID-19 Brazil (a nationwide serological survey conducted between May and June, 2021) were assessed. The presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was examined by rapid tests. Self-reported prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease and heart disease were investigated. The prevalence of mask use, adherence to isolation measures and antibodies were evaluated separately amid carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases. The prevalence of symptoms was analyzed among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases with antibodies. RESULTS The prevalence of at least one chronic disease was 43%, higher in the Southeast region, among white and indigenous individuals, women, less schooled and in lower socioeconomic position. The use of masks when leaving home was similar among carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases (98%). The proportion of participants who reported adherence to isolation measures was higher amid carriers (15.9%) than non-carriers (24.9%) of chronic diseases. The prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was similar amongst carriers and non-carriers (2.4% and 2.3%). The prevalence of cough, dyspnea, palpitations and myalgia was significantly higher among carriers, but the proportion of symptomatic patients was similar between groups. CONCLUSION The prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil is high and the COVID-19 pandemic affects carriers and non-carriers of chronic diseases similarly. Carriers present more severe forms of COVID-19 and higher prevalence of symptoms. Greater adherence to social distancing measures among chronic patients is disassociated from a lower incidence of COVID-19 in this group.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a prevalência de doenças crônicas e fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos associados, avaliar os padrões de distanciamento social e a prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 e sintomas de covid-19 em portadores e não portadores de doenças crônicas. MÉTODOS Foram avaliados dados de 77.075 mil indivíduos de 20 a 59 anos de três etapas do inquérito sorológico de abrangência nacional Epicovid-19 Brasil, realizadas entre maio e junho de 2021. A presença de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 foi avaliada por teste rápido. Foram investigadas as prevalências autorreferidas de hipertensão, diabetes, asma, câncer, doença renal crônica e doença cardíaca. A prevalência de uso de máscara, de adesão a medidas de isolamento e de anticorpos foi avaliada separadamente entre portadores e não portadores de doenças crônicas. A prevalência de sintomas foi avaliada entre doentes crônicos e não doentes portadores de anticorpos. RESULTADOS A prevalência do pelo menos uma doença crônica foi de 43%, maior na região Sudeste, entre indivíduos brancos e indígenas, mulheres, menos escolarizados e em menor posição socioeconômica. O uso de máscara ao sair do domicílio não diferiu entre doentes crônicos e não doentes (98%). A proporção de participantes que referiram adesão ao isolamento foi maior entre doentes crônicos (15,9%) que entre não doentes (24,9%). A prevalência de anticorpos contra SARS-CoV-2 foi semelhante entre doentes crônicos e não doentes (2,4% e 2,3%). A prevalência de tosse, dispneia, palpitações e mialgia foi significativamente maior entre doentes crônicos, mas a proporção de sintomáticos não diferiu entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO A prevalência de doenças crônicas no país é alta e a pandemia de covid-19 atinge de forma semelhante doentes e não doentes. Doentes crônicos apresentam formas mais graves de covid-19 e maior prevalência de sintomas. A maior adesão às medidas de distanciamento social entre doentes crônicos não se reflete em menor incidência de covid-19 nesse grupo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053122, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794501

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where the greatest burden lies. Yet, there is little research concerning the specific issues involved in scaling up NCD interventions targeting low-resource settings. We propose to examine this gap in up to 27 collaborative projects, which were funded by the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) 2019 Scale Up Call, reflecting a total funding investment of approximately US$50 million. These projects represent diverse countries, contexts and adopt varied approaches and study designs to scale-up complex, evidence-based interventions to improve hypertension and diabetes outcomes. A systematic inquiry of these projects will provide necessary scientific insights into the enablers and challenges in the scale up of complex NCD interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply systems thinking (a holistic approach to analyse the inter-relationship between constituent parts of scaleup interventions and the context in which the interventions are implemented) and adopt a longitudinal mixed-methods study design to explore the planning and early implementation phases of scale up projects. Data will be gathered at three time periods, namely, at planning (TP), initiation of implementation (T0) and 1-year postinitiation (T1). We will extract project-related data from secondary documents at TP and conduct multistakeholder qualitative interviews to gather data at T0 and T1. We will undertake descriptive statistical analysis of TP data and analyse T0 and T1 data using inductive thematic coding. The data extraction tool and interview guides were developed based on a literature review of scale-up frameworks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC number 23482). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and more broadly through the GACD network.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Systems Analysis
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 768471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785433

ABSTRACT

Background: India which is home to more than one sixth of the world's population, accounts for more than two thirds of total deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCD). Out of this, hypertension and diabetes are the most common NCDs. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes remains a major challenge despite various national programs being run to curb the rising burden NCDs. In order to fill the knowledge gap, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes and hypertension were studied by using data from the STEPS survey among the adult population in two major northern Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Methods: Two state-wide NCD risk factors surveys were conducted using WHO STEPS methodology among 5,127 individuals in Punjab and 5,078 individuals in Haryana aged 18-69 years in the year 2014-15 and 2016-18. Standardized questionnaire was used to determine the behavioral risk factors in step one followed by anthropometric measurements for physical risk factors in step two and in the third step serum and urine samples were collected for biochemical risk factors. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in Punjab was 40.1% while that in Haryana was 26.2%. In Punjab, only 48.3% of the hypertensive were aware of their condition, 30.9% were on treatment while only 18.3% of the cases were controlled. While in Haryana 33.4% of the respondents were aware of their condition, 26.3% are on treatment while only 12% of the cases were controlled. Similarly, the prevalence of diabetes was 14.3 and 15.1% in Punjab and Haryana, respectively. In Punjab 34.2% of diabetics were aware of their condition, 28.2% were on treatment while only 14.2% of the cases were controlled. The awareness and control rates in Haryana were similar to that in Punjab. 29.5% of the respondents were aware of their condition, 22.4% were on treatment while only 13.8% of the cases of diabetes were controlled. Family history of diabetes and hypertension was found to be associated with higher odds of being aware, on treatment and controlled blood glucose and blood pressure levels in both Punjab and Haryana. Discussion: Hypertension and diabetes are a major public health problem in Punjab and Haryana and awareness, treatment and control rates are low which require specific interventions with a focus on access to treatment, regular follow up for better control. There is an urgent need to effectively implement the existing national NCD programmes in these states in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Young Adult
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 45, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been felt acutely in Latin America with several countries having among the highest numbers of SARS-CoV-2 cases and related deaths. Individuals living with underlying health conditions have an increased risk of severe disease or death from COVID-19. Patient advocacy organizations often provide supportive services to these individuals and can offer a unique perspective of the patient experience. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of COVID-19 on access to health services in Latin America, as reported by patient advocacy organizations representing individuals living with autoimmune, chronic, and noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2020 with patient advocacy organizations in Latin America to measure perceived effects from COVID-19 and reported access to health services among individuals living with autoimmune, chronic, and noncommunicable diseases. An original, online survey was developed and deployed in Spanish and Portuguese. Univariate and bivariate analysis was conducted across two main subject areas: perceived patient effects from COVID-19 and patient access to health services. The main outcomes of analysis considered patient access to care during COVID-19 based on type of chronic illness and geographical region in Latin America. RESULTS: A total of 81 survey responses were analyzed. A majority (83%) of patient advocacy organizations reported their patients experienced delays receiving their treatment and care services; 52% experienced delays of 30 days or more. Telemedicine was considered available, but not accessible to patients (37%) and a majority (76%) of patients faced challenges with electronic prescriptions. Patients were not likely to receive a multi-month prescription from their doctor (38%) or successfully fill it at the pharmacy (26%). CONCLUSIONS: According to responses from patient advocacy organizations, individuals living with noncommunicable diseases in Latin America have faced unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. As countries re-evaluate their health systems, it is critical that chronic diseases are considered so that all can fully realize the right to health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Advocacy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265458, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted health services and healthcare systems worldwide. Studies have shown that hospital admissions for causes related to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have decreased significantly during peak pandemic periods. An analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions for NCDs is essential to implement disability and mortality mitigation strategies for these groups. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions for NCDs in Brazil according to the type of NCD, sex, age group, and region of Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study conducted in Brazil. Data on hospital admissions from January 1, 2017 to May 31, 2021 were extracted from the Unified Health System's Hospital Admissions Information System. The hospital admission rates per 100,000 thousand inhabitants were calculated monthly according to the type of NCD, sex, age group, and region of Brazil. Poisson regression models were used to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of hospital admissions. In this study, the pre-pandemic period was set from January 1, 2017 to February 29, 2020 and the during-pandemic from March 1, 2020 to May 31, 2021. RESULTS: There was a 27.0% (95.0%CI: -29.0; -25.0%) decrease in hospital admissions for NCDs after the onset of the pandemic compared to that during the pre-pandemic period. Decreases were found for all types of NCDs-cancer (-23.0%; 95.0%CI: -26.0; -21.0%), diabetes mellitus (-24.0%; 95.0%CI: -25.0%; -22.0%), cardiovascular diseases (-30.0%; 95.0%CI: -31.0%; -28.0%), and chronic respiratory diseases (-29.0%; 95.0%CI: -30.0%; -27.0%). In addition, there was a decrease in the number of admissions, regardless of the age group, sex, and region of Brazil. The Northern and Southern regions demonstrated the largest decrease in the percentage of hospital admissions during the pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decrease in the hospitalization rate for NCDs in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic in a scenario of social distancing measures and overload of health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics
8.
Lancet ; 399(10331): 1266-1278, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757951

ABSTRACT

Most countries have made little progress in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.4, which calls for a reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by a third from 2015 to 2030. In this Health Policy paper, we synthesise the evidence related to interventions that can reduce premature mortality from the major NCDs over the next decade and that are feasible to implement in countries at all levels of income. Our recommendations are intended as generic guidance to help 123 low-income and middle-income countries meet SDG target 3.4; country-level applications require additional analyses and consideration of the local implementation and utilisation context. Protecting current investments and scaling up these interventions is especially crucial in the context of COVID-19-related health system disruptions. We show how cost-effectiveness data and other information can be used to define locally tailored packages of interventions to accelerate rates of decline in NCD mortality. Under realistic implementation constraints, most countries could achieve (or almost achieve) the NCD target using a combination of these interventions; the greatest gains would be for cardiovascular disease mortality. Implementing the most efficient package of interventions in each world region would require, on average, an additional US$18 billion annually over 2023-30; this investment could avert 39 million deaths and generate an average net economic benefit of $2·7 trillion, or $390 per capita. Although specific clinical intervention pathways would vary across countries and regions, policies to reduce behavioural risks, such as tobacco smoking, harmful use of alcohol, and excess sodium intake, would be relevant in nearly every country, accounting for nearly two-thirds of the health gains of any locally tailored NCD package. By 2030, ministries of health would need to contribute about 20% of their budgets to high-priority NCD interventions. Our report concludes with a discussion of financing and health system implementation considerations and reflections on the NCD agenda beyond the SDG target 3.4 and beyond the SDG period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Sustainable Development
9.
Public Health ; 205: 157-163, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Germany, deaths of SARS-CoV-2-positive persons are reported as 'death related to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19' to the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's main infectious disease institution. In 177 COVID-19-associated deaths reported in Regensburg, Germany, from October 2020 to January 2021, we investigated how deaths following SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported and whether cases with a death attributed to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 death [CD]) differed from cases with a reported death from other causes (non-COVID-19 death [NCD]). STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We analysed descriptive data on the numbers of cases, deaths, age, sex, symptoms and hospitalizations. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and performed Chi-squared/Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for comparison of medians. RESULTS: Deaths attributed to COVID-19 occurred primarily in elderly patients. The mortality rate and the case fatality ratio (CFR) increased with age. The median age and the prevalence of risk factors were similar between CD and NCD. Respiratory symptoms and pneumonia at the time of diagnosis were associated with death reported as CD. The odds of CD attribution in cases hospitalized because of COVID-19 were 6-fold higher than the odds of NCD (OR: 6.00; 95% CI: 1.32 to 27.22). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory symptoms/pneumonia at the time of diagnosis and hospitalization due to COVID-19 were associated with attributing a death to COVID-19. Numbers of COVID deaths need to be interpreted with caution. Criteria that facilitate attributing the cause of death among SARS-CoV-2 cases more uniformly could make these figures more comparable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Public Health ; 205: 139-149, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Alarming rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been observed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where most refugees reside. There is concern Syrian refugees may experience significant NCD-related health needs, which have significant health implications, including in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and which must be addressed by health systems in neighbouring host countries. Although primary studies on this topic exist, there has been no comprehensive synthesis of the existing evidence base. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesise evidence on the prevalence of NCDs among Syrian refugees residing in neighbouring host countries. STUDY DESIGN: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The review was carried out in line with PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD420201970430). MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PubMed databases were searched from 1 January 2011 to 1 November 2021. Peer-reviewed studies reporting prevalence data on the five most common NCDs among adult Syrian refugees living in Turkey, Lebanon or Jordan were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence studies. Meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the pooled prevalence of these NCDs in community and primary care settings. RESULTS: A total of 466 citations were identified, 18 of which were included, representing 237,723 Syrian refugees. In community settings, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus type II, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and arthritis was 24% (95% confidence interval: 17-32), 12% (8-15), 5% (3-7), 4% (3-5) and 11% (7-14), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension 35% (33-36) and diabetes mellitus type II 48% (24-72) were significantly higher in primary care settings. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of NCDs among Syrian refugees. Evidence-based preventive and management interventions for NCDs are needed in this context to address acute health needs during the COVID-19 pandemic and the longer-term health burden of NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Refugees , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Syria/epidemiology
11.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(1): 1-2, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732379
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 263, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the ability of healthcare systems to ensure the continuity of health services for patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The issue of remote consultations has emerged. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, remote consultations were not routinely provided or covered by public health funding in Latvia. This study aimed to describe the dynamics of consultations and the volume of remote consultations provided for patients with particular NCD and explore clinicians' experiences of providing remote consultations during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. METHODS: A mixed-method study focusing on the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia in Spring 2020 was conducted. Quantitative data from the National Health Services were analysed to assess the dynamics of consultations for patients with selected NCDs. Qualitative data were collected through 34 semi-structured interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and specialists and were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used for participant selection. RESULTS: During the period with the strongest restrictions of scheduled on-site consultations, a decrease in the total number of consultations was observed for a variety of NCDs. A significant proportion of consultations in this period were provided remotely. GPs provided approximately one-third of cancer-related consultations and almost half of consultations for the other selected conditions remotely. Among specialists, endocrinologists had the highest proportion of remote consultations (up to 72.0%), while urologists had the lowest (16.4%). Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed five themes: 1) Adjusting in a time of confusion and fear, 2) Remote consultations: safety versus availability, 3) Sacrifice and loss of privacy, 4) Advantages and disadvantages of communication technologies, and 5) Different form of communication and a health literacy challenge. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia, disruptions to health care services decreased the total number of consultations for patients with NCDs provided by both GPs and specialists. In this period, remote consultations proved to be an important instrument for ensuring the continuity of health care for patients with NCDs, and the necessity to develop a well-designed system for telemedicine in Latvia was highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Remote Consultation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Latvia/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 255-260, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of COVID-19 depends on a lot of social and economic factors. THE AIM: to study the influence of country's gross domestic product, population prevalence of overweight/ obesity, NCD mortality, and vaccination on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with two phases: correlation-regression interrelations in 1) all world countries; 2) all world non-island countries. The study includes the following data from 218 world countries: COVID-19 morbidity/mortality rates, GDP per capita, the prevalence of overweight/ obesity, NCD mortality among adults (both sexes), people fully vaccinated against COVID-19. RESULTS: An average percentage of the prevalence of overweight among adults in world countries by 2019 was 47.31 ± 15.99%, obesity 18.34 ± 9.64%, while the prevalence by 2016 were 39% and 13%, respectively. Overweight and obesity among adults during three years grew by 21.2% and 40.8%, respectively. Data from the world countries provide significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between COVID-19 morbidity, and: GDP (r = 0.517), overweight (r = 0.54), obesity (r = 0.528), NCD mortality (r = 0.537); COVID-19 mortality, and: GDP (r = 0.344), overweight (r = 0.514), obesity (r = 0.489), NCD mortality (r = 0.611); GDP, and: overweight (r = 0.507), obesity (r = 0.523), NCD mortality (r = 0.35), fully vaccinated people (r = 0.754). An increase in fully vaccinated people, from 3% to 30% of world population, decreases new confirmed COVID-19 cases, although the dependence was not significant (p = 0.07). Data from non-island world countries provides more highly significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between COVID-19 morbidity, and: GDP (r = 0.616), overweight (r = 0.581), obesity (r = 0.583); COVID-19 mortality, and: GDP (r = 0.43), overweight (r = 0.556), obesity (r = 0.539); GDP, and: overweight (r = 0.601), obesity (r = 0.633). The differences of correlation coefficients between data of 176 world countries and data of 143 world non-island countries were not significant (Z-scores<1.29; p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence of a significant impact of overweight/obesity prevalence on the increase in COVID-19 morbidity/mortality. Countries with higher GDP have a high overweight/obesity prevalence and possibility to get vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health , Gross Domestic Product , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e7, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including type-2 diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Maintaining quality care for these conditions is important but data on the impact of COVID-19 on NCD care in South Africa are sparse. AIM:  This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on facility and community-based NCD care and management during the first COVID-19 wave. SETTING:  Two public health sector primary care sites in the Cape Town Metro, including a Community Orientated Primary Care (COPC) learning site. METHODS:  A rapid appraisal with convergent mixed-methods design, including semi-structured interviews with facility and community health workers (CHWs) (n = 20) and patients living with NCDs (n = 8), was used. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans by qualified interviewers. Transcripts were analysed by thematic content analysis. Quantitative data of health facility attendance, chronic dispensing unit (CDU) prescriptions and routine diabetes control were sourced from the Provincial Health Data Centre and analysed descriptively. RESULTS:  Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: disruption (cancellation of services, fear of infection, stress and anxiety), service reorganisation (communication, home delivery of medication, CHW scope of work, risk stratification and change management) and outcomes (workload and morale, stigma, appreciation and impact on NCD control). There was a drop in primary care attendance and an increase in CDU prescriptions and uncontrolled diabetes. CONCLUSION:  This study described the service disruption together with rapid reorganisation and change management at primary care level during the first COVID-19 wave. The changes were strengthened by the COPC foundation in one of the study sites. The impact of COVID-19 on primary-level NCD care and management requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Community Health Workers , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
15.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(3): 1832-1837, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626452

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic and treatment services for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) face significant challenges in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Python programing language to extract and classify messages for help posted on the social networking platform microblog by NCD patients in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China. We found of all NCD patients, the most frequently recorded conditions were basic chronic diseases (42.50%), acute critical diseases (35.53%), malignant tumours (15.10%), and patients requiring haemodialysis (6.79%). Regarding COVID-19, 54.70% of patients reported suspected symptoms of infection, 32.01% were diagnosed with comorbidities, and 13.29% were non-COVID-19 patients. According to the analysis of the needs of the patients, 82.46% of the patients reported "No beds were available in the hospital", 25.31% of patients needed nucleic acid tests. Our results confirmed it is difficult to meet the regular needs in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with NCDs. Effective prevention and management of NCDs in public health emergencies has become an urgent issue to be addressed. During the COVID-19 epidemic, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the prevention and control of NCD patients, especially those with chronic disease. Governments and medical and health institutions at all levels should improve treatment mechanisms during major epidemics and ensure the uninterrupted treatment of patients with NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Health Services , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1036-1044, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are no data on the association between clinical course and comorbidity in Iranian patients with COVID-19. AIMS: To determine noncommunicable disease (NCD), clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. METHODS: This multicentric retrospective observational study was performed on all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Isfahan from 17 February to 6 April 2020. We recruited 5055 patients. Data on clinical course and comorbid NCDs such as hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were collected. Statistical analyses were done by Mann-Whitney U, χ2 and logistic regression tests using Stata version 14. RESULTS: DM and hypertension were the most prevalent comorbidities in patients with positive and negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of mortality-associated factors was significant for DM [1.35 (1.07-1.70)], CHD [1.58 (1.26-1.96)], CRD [2.18 (1.58-3.0)], and cancer [3.55 (2.42-5.21)]. These results remained significant for cancer after adjustment for age, sex and clinical factors. Among patients with positive RT-PCR, death was significantly associated with CRD and cancer, while this association disappeared after adjustment for all potential confounders. There was a significant association between NCDs and higher occurrence of low oxygen saturation, mechanical ventilation requirement and intensive care unit admission after adjustment for age and sex. CONCLUSION: The presence of NCDs alone did not increase mortality in patients with COVID-19, after adjustment for all potential confounders including clinical factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 152, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The steady rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide has been a key global health challenge. Governments have the primary responsibility for taking action to prevent and control NCDs. Given the growing importance of globalization of healthcare as well as the increasing use of soft power, governments need to identify challenges and opportunities to enhance global health diplomacy (GHD) for NCD prevention and control. The purpose of this qualitative research was to explain the challenges and opportunities of GHD for NCDs in Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2020 using a qualitative approach and through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 21 experts and specialists in related fields such as health policy, healthcare management, epidemiology and other related specialties. The participants were selected from all levels of diplomacy, including global, regional and national levels, with at least 3 years of experience in managerial, executive and scientific activities. Data analysis was performed by content analysis with an inductive approach. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: The identified challenges were categorized into five main themes, including content challenges, structural challenges, process challenges, governance challenges and cultural challenges. Opportunities extracted from the interviews were also categorized into four main themes, including strong political will, utilizing the capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), multisectoral collaborations and a well-developed health system. CONCLUSIONS: NCD prevention and control requires a multilateral collaboration-based solution. Recognition of the challenges and opportunities in GHD can help draw significant lessons for building the necessary capacities and implementing more effective policies to prevent and control NCDs.


Subject(s)
Diplomacy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Global Health , Health Policy , Humans , Iran , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2163, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to analyze the trends of premature mortality caused from four major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in Nanjing between 2007 and 2018 and project the ability to achieve the "Healthy China 2030" reduction target. METHODS: Mortality data of four major NCDs for the period 2007-2018 were extracted from the Death Information Registration and Management System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Population data for Nanjing were provided by the Nanjing Bureau of Public Security. The premature mortality was calculated using the life table method. Joinpoint regression model was used to estimate the average annual percent changes (AAPC) in mortality trends. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2018, the premature mortality from four major NCDs combined in Nanjing decreased from 15.5 to 9.5%, with the AAPC value at - 4.3% (95% CI [- 5.2% to - 3.4%]). Overall, it can potentially achieve the target, with a relative reduction 28.6%. The premature mortality from cancer, CVD, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes all decreased, with AAPC values at - 4.2, - 5.0%, - 5.9% and - 1.6% respectively. A relative reduction of 40.6 and 41.2% in females and in rural areas, but only 21.0 and 12.8% in males and in urban areas were projected. CONCLUSION: An integrated approach should be taken focusing on the modifiable risk factors across different sectors and disciplines in Nanjing. The prevention and treatment of cancers, diabetes, male and rural areas NCDs should be enhanced.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Noncommunicable Diseases , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Tables , Male , Mortality, Premature , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138464, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567894

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness due to COVID-19 because of a limited ability to physically distance and a higher burden of underlying health conditions. Objective: To describe and assess a hotel-based protective housing intervention to reduce incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PEH in Chicago, Illinois, with increased risk of severe illness due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed PEH who were provided protective housing in individual hotel rooms in downtown Chicago during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2 through September 3, 2020. Participants were PEH at increased risk for severe COVID-19, defined as (1) aged at least 60 years regardless of health conditions, (2) aged at least 55 years with any underlying health condition posing increased risk, or (3) aged less than 55 years with any underlying health condition posing substantially increased risk (eg, HIV/AIDS). Exposures: Participants were housed in individual hotel rooms to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; on-site health care workers provided daily symptom monitoring, regular SARS-CoV-2 testing, and care for chronic health conditions. Additional on-site services included treatment of mental health and substance use disorders and social services. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome measured was SARS-CoV-2 incidence, with SARS-Cov2 infection defined as a positive upper respiratory specimen using any polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay authorized for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration. Secondary outcomes were blood pressure control, glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c, and housing placements at departure. Results: Of 259 participants from 16 homeless shelters in Chicago, 104 (40.2%) were aged at least 65 years, 190 (73.4%) were male, 185 (71.4%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 49 (18.9%) were non-Hispanic White. There was an observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 incidence during the study period among the protective housing cohort (54.7 per 1000 people [95% CI, 22.4-87.1 per 1000 people]) compared with citywide rates for PEH residing in shelters (137.1 per 1000 people [95% CI, 125.1-149.1 per 1000 people]; P = .001). There was also an adjusted change in systolic blood pressure at a rate of -5.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.3 to -2.1 mm Hg) and hemoglobin A1c at a rate of -1.4% (95% CI, -2.4% to -0.4%) compared with baseline. More than half of participants (51% [n = 132]) departed from the intervention to housing of some kind (eg, supportive housing). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that protective housing was associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk PEH during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chicago. These findings suggest that with appropriate wraparound supports (ie, multisector services to address complex needs), such housing interventions may reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improve noncommunicable disease control, and provide a pathway to permanent housing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Homeless Persons , Housing , Noncommunicable Diseases , Program Evaluation , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago , Chronic Disease , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Problems
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