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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 993531, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119747

ABSTRACT

Background: A growing body of research shows that individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and heart disease, are more likely to suffer from severe COVID-19 and, subsequently, death. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of COVID-19-related knowledge on mental health, healthcare behaviors, and quality of life among the elderly with NCDs in Northern Thailand. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 450 elderly people with NCDs, living in the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand. Random sampling was applied to select the subjects. Data collection included demographic information, COVID-19-related knowledge, healthcare behaviors, the Suanprung Stress Test-20, the Thai General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) for the assessment of mental health, and the Thai version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Results: Almost half of the participants (45.6%) had poor knowledge about COVID-19. More than half of the sample had high stress (52.0%) and a low score in healthcare behaviors (64.9%), while approximately one-third of the participants had mental health problems (34.0%). The overall quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic was moderate (70.7%). The score of COVID-19-related knowledge was significantly correlated with scores of stress (r = -0.85), mental health (r = -0.74), healthcare behaviors (r = 0.50), and quality of life (r = 0.33). Multiple linear regression found that history of COVID-19 detection and COVID-19-related knowledge were associated with scores of stress and quality of life (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that history of COVID-19 detection (OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.45-13.84) and COVID-19-related knowledge (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.17-0.31) were associated with mental health problem (p < 0.05). Discussion: The findings emphasize the importance of COVID-19-related knowledge concerning the improvement of self-care behaviors and quality of life in the elderly population with NCDs during the pandemic, especially due to the high rate of stress and mental health problems documented in our sample. Health education interventions for this vulnerable population should be organized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Aged , Mental Health , Quality of Life/psychology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self Care , Pandemics
2.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(4): 1736-1746, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109262

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected certain high-risk populations, including those with underlying chronic illnesses and those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. METHODS: Our study evaluated county-level rates of fully vaccinated populations after classifying counties based on rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and socioeconomic inequities below the 25th percentile of overall distribution of counties for each measure as low, counties above the 75th percentile as high, and all other counties as medium. RESULTS: Counties with higher rates of non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic disparities had lower COVID-19 vaccination coverage than did counties with lower rates of non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic disparities. Co-occurrence of high NCD and high socioeconomic vulnerability among counties in the lower half of vaccination coverage was also found for some counties. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of low rates of vaccine coverage, high rates of NCDs, and high rates of socioeconomic disparities as a syndemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Vaccines , Humans , United States , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Syndemic , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099522

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and their correlation with COVID-19 disease severity among patients infected in Dubai. Clinical and demographic data were extracted from hospital records of 34,687 COVID-19 patients who visited or were admitted into Dubai hospitals between 28 January 2020 and 30 September 2020. Prevalence of co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients were assessed. The main risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity were also identified using three regression models. All co-morbidities were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity in the bivariate analysis (p-value ≤ 0.05) except for vitamin-D deficiency and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Patients with ischemic heart diseases (AOR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.15), pulmonary and other heart diseases (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.32) and chronic kidney diseases (AOR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.25) had higher odds of severe COVID-19 symptoms. Suffering from multiple co-morbidities increased the odds of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms substantially in comparison to having only one co-morbidity i.e., (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI 1.76-2.60) to (AOR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.97). Identifying these risk factors could assist in the early recognition of high-risk populations and ensure the most appropriate preventive measures and required medical management during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071421

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the change in the incidence and variance of otorhinolaryngologic diseases during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The entire Korean population (~50 million) was evaluated for the monthly incidence of 11 common otorhinolaryngologic diseases of upper respiratory infection (URI), influenza, acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, acute laryngitis and bronchitis, stomatitis and related lesions, acute sinusitis, rhinitis, otitis media, and dizziness from January 2018 through March 2021 using the International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 codes with the data of the Korea National Health Insurance Service. The differences in the mean incidence of 11 common otorhinolaryngologic diseases before and during COVID-19 were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The differences in the variance of incidence before and during COVID-19 were compared using Levene's test. The incidence of all 11 otorhinolaryngologic diseases was lower during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (all p < 0.05). The variations in disease incidence by season were lower during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 for infectious diseases, including URI, influenza, acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, acute laryngitis and bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and otitis media (all p < 0.05), while it was not in noninfectious diseases, including stomatitis, rhinitis, and dizziness. As expected, the incidences of all otorhinolalryngolgic diseases were decreased. Additionally, we found that seasonal variations in infectious diseases disappeared during the COVID-19 pandemic, while noninfectious diseases did not.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Laryngitis , Noncommunicable Diseases , Otitis Media , Peritonsillar Abscess , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retropharyngeal Abscess , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Stomatitis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Retropharyngeal Abscess/epidemiology , Pandemics , Laryngitis/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Dizziness , Peritonsillar Abscess/epidemiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Bronchitis/epidemiology , Stomatitis/epidemiology
6.
S Afr Med J ; 112(9): 747-752, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported comorbid disease, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac and renal disease, malignancy, HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and obesity, to be associated with COVID­19 mortality. National demographic surveys have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed and untreated comorbid disease in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the number of individuals with previously undiagnosed HIV, TB and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among patients hospitalised with COVID­19, and the level of medical control of these chronic diseases. METHODS: We conducted a sentinel surveillance study to collect enhanced data on HIV, TB and NCDs among individuals with COVID­19 admitted to 16 secondary-level public hospitals in six of the nine provinces of SA. Trained surveillance officers approached all patients who met the surveillance case definition for inclusion in the study, and consenting patients were enrolled. The data collection instrument included questions on past medical history to determine the self-reported presence of comorbidities. The results of clinical and laboratory testing introduced as part of routine clinical care for hospitalised COVID­19 patients were collected for the study, to objectively determine the presence of hypertension, diabetes, HIV and TB and the levels of control of diabetes and HIV. RESULTS: On self-reported history, the most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (n=1 658; 51.5%), diabetes (n=855; 26.6%) and HIV (n=603; 18.7%). The prevalence of self-reported active TB was 3.1%, and that of previous TB 5.5%. There were 1 254 patients admitted with COVID­19 (39.0%) who met the body mass index criteria for obesity. On clinical and laboratory testing, 87 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV, 29 with TB, 215 with diabetes and 40 with hypertension during their COVID­19 admission. There were 151/521 patients living with HIV (29.0%) with a viral load >1 000 copies/mL and 309/570 (54.2%) with a CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Among 901 patients classified as having diabetes, 777 (86.2%) had a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5%. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high prevalence of comorbid conditions among individuals with COVID­19 admitted to public hospitals in SA. In addition, a significant number of patients had previously undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, HIV and active TB, and many and poorly controlled chronic disease, as evidenced by high HbA1c levels in patients with diabetes, and high viral loads and low CD4 levels in patients with HIV. The findings highlight the importance of strengthening health systems and care cascades for chronic disease management, which include prevention, screening for and effectively treating comorbidities, and ensuring secure and innovative supplies of medicines in primary healthcare during the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs) are multifaceted, and the health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic are far-reaching, especially for NCDs. Physical distancing and quarantine can lead to the poor management of NCDs because the visual tracking of them has been replaced with medical digital technology, that is, smartphone apps. This study aimed to explore medical digital technology applications for NCDs for follow-up during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The participants in this study were 400 adult patients with NCDs; they were selected by systematic random sampling. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Yanbu General Hospital and primary-care health centers in Yanbu Al-Baher, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The tools used in this study were a structured questionnaire to collect the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients and their health history, an NCD questionnaire to assess follow-up of the patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and a medical digital technologies questionnaire to explore the medical digital technology applications. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 47.32 ± 14.362 years, and 62.8% of them were female and 372 were male. Of the patients, 69.2% and 57.5% had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and hypertension, respectively; 52.4% were followed up monthly, and 29.75% used medical digital technology applications such as Tabeby Online to monitor their health. Furthermore, 71.75% and 75.5% of the patients used the Sehhaty and Tawakkalna medical digital applications, respectively. Overall, 38.7% of the patients were satisfied with using medical digital technology applications used for follow-up during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The study concluded that the services that use networks, smartphones, and medical digital technology applications on the Saudi Ministry of Health website and mobile applications to improve the quality of the health-care system, and that provide health services for noncommunicable or communicable diseases, are not effective. This is because the patients lack awareness of these services, with most of the chronic patients being elderly with lower levels of education and computer literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Digital Technology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2231633, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059196

ABSTRACT

Importance: Older Syrian refugees have a high burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and economic vulnerability. Objectives: To develop and internally validate a predictive model to estimate inability to manage NCDs in older Syrian refugees, and to describe barriers to NCD medication adherence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested prognostic cross-sectional study was conducted through telephone surveys between September 2020 and January 2021. All households in Lebanon with Syrian refugees aged 50 years or older and who received humanitarian assistance from a nongovernmental organization were invited to participate. Refugees who self-reported having chronic respiratory disease (CRD), diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), or hypertension were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from November 2021 to March 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was self-reported inability to manage any NCD (including CRD, CVD, diabetes, or hypertension). Predictors of inability to manage any NCD were assessed using logistic regression models. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques, which gave an estimate of optimism. The optimism-adjusted discrimination is presented using the C statistic, and calibration of the model is presented using calibration slope (C slope). Results: Of 3322 older Syrian refugees, 1893 individuals (median [IQR] age, 59 [54-65] years; 1089 [57.5%] women) reported having at least 1 NCD, among whom 351 (10.6% overall; 18.6% of those with ≥1 NCD) had CRD, 781 (23.7% overall; 41.4% of those with ≥1 NCD) had diabetes, 794 (24.1% overall; 42.2% of those with ≥1 NCD) had history of CVD, and 1388 (42.3% overall; 73.6% of those with ≥1 NCD) had hypertension. Among individuals with NCDs, 387 participants (20.4%) were unable to manage at least 1 of their NCDs. Predictors for inability to manage NCDs were age, nonreceipt of cash assistance, household water insecurity, household food insecurity, and having multiple chronic diseases, with an adjusted C statistic of 0.650 (95% CI, 0.620-0.676) and C slope of 0.871 (95% CI, 0.729-1.023). The prevalence of nonadherence to medication was 9.2%, and the main reasons for nonadherence were unaffordability of medication (40.8%; 95% CI, 33.4%-48.5%) and the belief that they no longer required the medication after feeling better (22.4%; 95% CI, 16.4%-29.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the predictors of inability to manage NCDs among older Syrian refugees in Lebanon were mainly related to financial barriers. Context-appropriate assistance is required to overcome financial barriers and enable equitable access to medication and health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Refugees , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Syria/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055247

ABSTRACT

A range of health-related and behavioral risk factors are associated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality. In the present study, we assess the association between incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate due to COVID-19 and the prevalence of hypertension, obesity, overweight, tobacco and alcohol use in the Peruvian population aged ≥15 years during the first and second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this ecological study, we used the prevalence rates of hypertension, overweight, obesity, tobacco, and alcohol use obtained from the Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar (ENDES) 2020 and 2021. We estimated the crude incidence and mortality rates (per 100,000 habitants) and case fatality rate (%) of COVID-19 in 25 Peruvian regions using data from the Peruvian Ministry of Health that were accurate as of 31 December 2021. Spearman correlation and lineal regression analysis was applied to assess the correlations between the study variables as well as multivariable regression analysis adjusted by confounding factors affecting the incidence and mortality rate and case fatality rate of COVID-19. In 2020, adjusted by confounding factors, the prevalence rate of obesity (ß = 0.582; p = 0.037) was found to be associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate (per 100,000 habitants). There was also an association between obesity and the COVID-19 case fatality rate (ß = 0.993; p = 0.014). In 2021, the prevalence of obesity was also found to be associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate (ß = 0.713; p = 0.028); however, adjusted by confounding factors, including COVID-19 vaccination coverage rates, no association was found between the obesity prevalence and the COVID-19 mortality rate (ß = 0.031; p = 0.895). In summary, Peruvian regions with higher obesity prevalence rates had higher COVID-19 mortality and case fatality rates during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, adjusted by the COVID-19 vaccination coverage, no association between the obesity prevalence rate and the COVID-19 mortality rate was found during the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 263, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the ability of healthcare systems to ensure the continuity of health services for patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The issue of remote consultations has emerged. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, remote consultations were not routinely provided or covered by public health funding in Latvia. This study aimed to describe the dynamics of consultations and the volume of remote consultations provided for patients with particular NCD and explore clinicians' experiences of providing remote consultations during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. METHODS: A mixed-method study focusing on the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia in Spring 2020 was conducted. Quantitative data from the National Health Services were analysed to assess the dynamics of consultations for patients with selected NCDs. Qualitative data were collected through 34 semi-structured interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and specialists and were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Purposive maximum variation sampling was used for participant selection. RESULTS: During the period with the strongest restrictions of scheduled on-site consultations, a decrease in the total number of consultations was observed for a variety of NCDs. A significant proportion of consultations in this period were provided remotely. GPs provided approximately one-third of cancer-related consultations and almost half of consultations for the other selected conditions remotely. Among specialists, endocrinologists had the highest proportion of remote consultations (up to 72.0%), while urologists had the lowest (16.4%). Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed five themes: 1) Adjusting in a time of confusion and fear, 2) Remote consultations: safety versus availability, 3) Sacrifice and loss of privacy, 4) Advantages and disadvantages of communication technologies, and 5) Different form of communication and a health literacy challenge. CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia, disruptions to health care services decreased the total number of consultations for patients with NCDs provided by both GPs and specialists. In this period, remote consultations proved to be an important instrument for ensuring the continuity of health care for patients with NCDs, and the necessity to develop a well-designed system for telemedicine in Latvia was highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Remote Consultation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Latvia/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025129

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(7): 469-477, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002925

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the delivery of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) services globally as health systems are overwhelmed by the response to the pandemic. Aims: The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean conducted an assessment to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on NCD-related services, programmes, funding and consideration of NCDs in COVID-19 response. Methods: Data were collected from countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) in mid-2020 through a web-based questionnaire on NCD services-related infrastructure, policies and plans, staffing, funding, NCD services disruptions and their causes, disruption mitigation strategies, data collection on comorbidity, surveillance, and suggestions for WHO technical guidance. The data were exported into Microsoft Excel and summarized. Countries were grouped according to socioeconomic level. Results: Nineteen of the 22 countries in the EMR responded: 95% had NCD staff reallocated to support their COVID-19 response. Lower-income countries were less likely to include NCDs in their pandemic response plans and more likely to report disruption of services. The most commonly disrupted services were hypertension management (10 countries 53%), dental care (10 countries 53%), rehabilitation (9 countries 47%), palliative care (9 countries 47%) and asthma management (9 countries 47%). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the continuity of NCD-related services in EMR countries. The ability to mitigate service disruptions varied noticeably between countries. The mitigation measures implemented included triaging of patients, novel NCD medicines supply chains and dispensing interventions, and the use of digital health and telemedicine. Guidance and support for systems resilience, preparedness and response to crises are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , World Health Organization
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063150, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993028

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant spill-over effect on people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) over the long term, beyond the direct effect of COVID-19 infection. Evaluating changes in health outcomes, health service use and costs can provide evidence to optimise care for people with NCDs during and after the pandemic, and to better prepare outbreak responses in the future. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a population-based cohort study using electronic health records of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA) CMS, economic modelling and serial cross-sectional surveys on health service use. This study includes people aged ≥18 years who have a documented diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease or chronic kidney disease with at least one attendance at the HA hospital or clinic between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019, and without COVID-19 infection. Changes in all-cause mortality, disease-specific outcomes, and health services use rates and costs will be assessed between pre-COVID-19 and-post-COVID-19 pandemic or during each wave using an interrupted time series analysis. The long-term health economic impact of healthcare disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic will be studied using microsimulation modelling. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson/negative binomial regression will be used to evaluate the effect of different modes of supplementary care on health outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Hong Kong, the HA Hong Kong West Cluster (reference number UW 21-297). The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979239

ABSTRACT

Individuals with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the lived experience of patients with NCDs during the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of COVID-19 on their self-care. An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used that involved in-depth interviews with patients who received medical services from a family medicine clinic, along with caregivers who responded on their behalf. An inductive thematic approach was utilized to analyze the data. Interview respondents included 17 patients with NCDs and four caregivers. The patients had a mean age of 65.7 ± 11.3 years and were diagnosed with an NCD, a mean of 4.8 ± 1.1 years previously. Self-care practices used during the pandemic were classified as therapeutic or preventive. Patients responded to changes in healthcare services by seeking in-person services for their acute illnesses and accepting remote services for underlying chronic conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic influenced the self-care practices of patients with NCDs. Most patients paid more attention to self-care during this time, while some became more concerned with other aspects of their life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Self Care
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 535, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study determined if non-communicable disease status, HIV status, COVID-19 status and co-habiting were associated with COVID-19 test status in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data of 5945 respondents age 18-years-old and above from 31 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected through an online survey conducted between June and December 2020, were extracted. The dependent variable was COVID-19 status (testing positive for COVID-19 and having symptoms of COVID-19 but not getting tested). The independent variables were non-communicable disease status (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, heart conditions, respiratory conditions, depression), HIV positive status, COVID-19 status (knowing a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 and someone who died from COVID-19) and co-habiting (yes/no). Two binary logistic regression models developed to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables were adjusted for age, sex, employment, sub region and educational status. RESULTS: Having a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR:6.747), knowing someone who died from COVID-19 infection (AOR:1.732), and living with other people (AOR:1.512) were significantly associated with higher odds of testing positive for COVID-19 infection, while living with HIV was associated with significantly lower odds of testing positive for COVID-19 infection (AOR:0.284). Also, respondents with respiratory conditions (AOR:2.487), self-reported depression (AOR:1.901), those who had a close friend who tested positive for COVID-19 infection (AOR:2.562) and who knew someone who died from COVID-19 infection (AOR:1.811) had significantly higher odds of having symptoms of COVID-19 infection but not getting tested. CONCLUSION: Non-communicable diseases seem not to increase the risk for COVID-19 positive test while cohabiting seems to reduce this risk. The likelihood that those who know someone who tested positive to or who died from COVID-19 not getting tested when symptomatic suggests there is poor contact tracing in the region. People with respiratory conditions and depression need support to get tested for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1109, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Age-standardised noncommunicable disease (NCD) mortality and the proportion of the elderly population in Latvia are high, while public health and health care systems are underresourced. The emerging COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns about its detrimental impact on all-cause and noncommunicable disease mortality in Latvia. We estimated the timing and number of excess all-cause and cause-specific deaths in 2020 in Latvia due to COVID-19 and selected noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: A time series analysis of all-cause and cause-specific weekly mortality from COVID-19, circulatory diseases, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and chronic lower respiratory diseases from the National Causes of Death Database from 2015 to 2020 was used by applying generalised additive modelling (GAM) and joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: Between weeks 14 and 52 (from 1 April to 29 December) of 2020, a total of 3111 excess deaths (95% PI 1339 - 4832) were estimated in Latvia, resulting in 163.77 excess deaths per 100 000. Since September 30, with the outbreak of the second COVID-19 wave, 55% of all excess deaths have occurred. Altogether, COVID-19-related deaths accounted for only 28% of the estimated all-cause excess deaths. A significant increase in excess mortality was estimated for circulatory diseases (68.91 excess deaths per 100 000). Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were listed as the underlying cause in almost 60% of COVID-19-contributing deaths. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause mortality and mortality from circulatory diseases significantly increased in Latvia during the first pandemic year. All-cause excess mortality substantially exceeded reported COVID-19-related deaths, implying COVID-19-related mortality during was significantly underestimated. Increasing mortality from circulatory diseases suggests a negative cumulative effect of COVID-19 exposure and reduced access to healthcare services for NCD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Latvia/epidemiology , Mortality , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
17.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(6): 367-383, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disability and mortality burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have risen worldwide; however, the NCD burden among adolescents remains poorly described in the EU. METHODS: Estimates were retrieved from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. Causes of NCDs were analysed at three different levels of the GBD 2019 hierarchy, for which mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were extracted. Estimates, with the 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), were retrieved for EU Member States from 1990 to 2019, three age subgroups (10-14 years, 15-19 years, and 20-24 years), and by sex. Spearman's correlation was conducted between DALY rates for NCDs and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) of each EU Member State. FINDINGS: In 2019, NCDs accounted for 86·4% (95% uncertainty interval 83·5-88·8) of all YLDs and 38·8% (37·4-39·8) of total deaths in adolescents aged 10-24 years. For NCDs in this age group, neoplasms were the leading causes of both mortality (4·01 [95% uncertainty interval 3·62-4·25] per 100 000 population) and YLLs (281·78 [254·25-298·92] per 100 000 population), whereas mental disorders were the leading cause for YLDs (2039·36 [1432·56-2773·47] per 100 000 population) and DALYs (2040·59 [1433·96-2774·62] per 100 000 population) in all EU Member States, and in all studied age groups. In 2019, among adolescents aged 10-24 years, males had a higher mortality rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs than females (11·66 [11·04-12·28] vs 7·89 [7·53-8·23]), whereas females presented a higher DALY rate per 100 000 population due to NCDs (8003·25 [5812·78-10 701·59] vs 6083·91 [4576·63-7857·92]). From 1990 to 2019, mortality rate due to NCDs in adolescents aged 10-24 years substantially decreased (-40·41% [-43·00 to -37·61), and also the YLL rate considerably decreased (-40·56% [-43·16 to -37·74]), except for mental disorders (which increased by 32·18% [1·67 to 66·49]), whereas the YLD rate increased slightly (1·44% [0·09 to 2·79]). Positive correlations were observed between DALY rates and SDIs for substance use disorders (rs=0·58, p=0·0012) and skin and subcutaneous diseases (rs=0·45, p=0·017), whereas negative correlations were found between DALY rates and SDIs for cardiovascular diseases (rs=-0·46, p=0·015), neoplasms (rs=-0·57, p=0·0015), and sense organ diseases (rs=-0·61, p=0·0005). INTERPRETATION: NCD-related mortality has substantially declined among adolescents in the EU between 1990 and 2019, but the rising trend of YLL attributed to mental disorders and their YLD burden are concerning. Differences by sex, age group, and across EU Member States highlight the importance of preventive interventions and scaling up adolescent-responsive health-care systems, which should prioritise specific needs by sex, age, and location. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adolescent , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Life Expectancy , Male , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(Suppl 5)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923215

ABSTRACT

People living with non-communicable diseases (PLWNCDs) are at greater risk of severe COVID-19 illness. This case study highlights the adaptations that were made to humanitarian health programmes in five countries to reduce exposure risk for PLWNCDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Common adaptations included facility-level administrative and engineering controls, improved triaging, change in prescribing practices, decrease in frequency of stable patient visits, shift to remote consultations and expanded scope of responsibility for existing community health workers. Despite fears of the impact on health service utilisation, PLWNCDs continued to seek services and changes in utilisation rates between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods were attributed more to factors like population changes, COVID-19 travel restrictions, closure of other health services, and enhanced health education and community engagement. This study highlights the resilience and creativity of frontline health staff and managers, and their ability to make quick shifts in service delivery modalities in response to changes in risk for client groups in accordance with the evolving contextual reality. Other contextual changes such as infectious disease outbreaks, conflicts and natural disasters happen regularly within humanitarian settings, and specific groups are often more at risk. With more specific information about risks for different client groups, targeted approaches can be done to ensure that those most at risk of a specific threat are able to ensure access to sustained services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917455

ABSTRACT

The huge burden and vulnerability imposed by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted how healthy lifestyle behaviors and the well-being of people living with NCDs need to be prioritized. The aim of our study is to better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthy lifestyle behaviors and perceived mental and physical health among adults living with NCDs, as compared to people without NCDs. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a global online survey through Qualtrics. Over four months, 3550 participants from 65 countries worldwide responded to the survey. The study included 3079 surveys with no missing data (complete survey responses) that were used for analysis. People with NCDs were more likely to report statistically significant worsening physical health (p = 0.001) and statistically insignificant worsening mental health (p = 0.354) when compared to pre-pandemic levels. They reported lower rates of smoking during the pandemic than those without NCDs, and a statistically significant (p < 0.001) relationship was found between weight gain and NCDs. Therefore, the perceived physical and mental health, including changes in body weight and tobacco consumption, of people with NCDs were significantly impacted during the pandemic. In conclusion, this study indicates that the pandemic had a significant impact on perceived physical and mental health, changes in body weight, and tobacco consumption among people with NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059254, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902008

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies indicate people with diabetes mellitus (DM) may have varying treatment outcomes when receiving treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and that TB infection or its treatment may predispose them to develop an abnormal blood glucose or type 2 DM. This has implications for Eswatini which is a high TB burden country and with increasing cases of non-communicable diseases including DM. This study will describe the epidemiology of DM-TB comorbidity in a prospective cohort of patients receiving TB treatment and identify best practices for integration of care for non-communicable diseases into TB services in Eswatini. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will employ a mixed-methods approach. Data from a prospective cohort of newly enrolled patients with TB at 12 health facilities from 1 June 2022 to 30 September 2022, and followed up to 30 April 2023, will be used. For the qualitative, key informants who provide TB services at the health facilities will be interviewed. Quantitative data from patients will be analysed descriptively and by tests of association and multivariate modelling. Key informant interviews from healthcare workers will be analysed using content analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research has been approved by the Eswatini Health and Human Research Review Board and participant confidentiality will be maintained. COVID-19 safety measures to reduce the risk of infection or transmission by researchers and participants have been instituted. Key programmatic findings and how they can impact healthcare delivery and access will be presented to the specific programme in the Eswatini Ministry of Health and other relevant stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Noncommunicable Diseases , Tuberculosis , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Eswatini/epidemiology , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy
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