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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245203

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related knowledge and behaviors remain essential for controlling the spread of disease, especially among vulnerable patients with advanced, chronic diseases. We prospectively assessed changes over 11 months in COVID-19-related testing, knowledge, and behaviors among patients with non-communicable diseases in rural Malawi using four rounds of telephone interviews between November 2020 to October 2021. The most commonly reported COVID-19-related risks among patients included visiting health facilities (35-49%), attending mass gatherings (33-36%), and travelling outside the district (14-19%). Patients reporting having experienced COVID-like symptoms increased from 30% in December 2020 to 41% in October 2021. However, only 13% of patients had ever received a COVID-19 test by the end of the study period. Respondents answered 67-70% of the COVID-19 knowledge questions correctly, with no significant changes over time. Hand washing, wearing face masks and maintaining a safe distance were the most frequently reported strategies to prevent the spreading of COVID-19. Wearing face masks significantly improved over time (p < 0.001). Although the majority reported accurate knowledge about COVID-19 and enhanced adherence to infection prevention measures over time, patients commonly visited locations where they could be exposed to COVID-19. Government and other stakeholders should increase COVID-19 testing accessibility to primary and secondary facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Malawi/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
3.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605861, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243455

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study assesses the opinions of health professionals in Malaysia on the disruption of non-communicable disease (NCD) services during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2020 to January 2022. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with 191 non-clinical public health workers and clinical health service workers in Malaysia from November 2021 to January 2022. Participants were recruited by the Malaysian Ministry of Health using major networks including key experts and practitioners. Secondary respondents were subsequently enrolled through snowballing. Results: The most notable issues raised by the survey participants relate to NCD service disruption, the redirection of NCD care resources, and NCD care being overburdened post-pandemic. Respondents also reported accounts of resilience and prompt reaction from the healthcare system, as well as calls for innovation. Conclusion: Most respondents perceived that the challenges arising from COVID-19 were mostly managed well by the healthcare system, which was able to provide the necessary services to NCD patients during this health emergency. However, the study identifies gaps in the health system response and preparedness capacity, and highlights solutions for strengthening NCD services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2833-2842, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234736

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the association between the self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable disease (NCD) and the adherence to social distancing and the use of health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study with Brazilian adults who participated in the ConVid- Behavior Survey, conducted online between April 24 and May 24, 2020(n = 45.161). This studyconsidered the following NCDs: diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, and cancer, and evaluated the use of health services and the adherence to social distancing, as well as estimated the prevalences and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 33,9% (95% CI: 32,5-35,3) referred to one or more NCD. Individuals with NCDsshowed a greater adherence to intense social distancing (aPR: 1,07;95% CI: 1,03-1,11), sought out health services more often (aPR:1,24; 95% CI:1,11-1,38), and found greater difficultyin scheduling doctor's appointments (aPR:1.52; 95% CI 1,35-1,71), receiving healthcare treatment (APR:1,50;95% CI:1,22-1,84) and medication (APR:2,17;95% CI:1,77-2,67), and performing examinations (APR:1,78;95% CI:1,50-2,10) and scheduled interventions (APR:1,65;95% CI:1,16-2,34). The presence of NCDs was associated with social distancing, seeking out health care, and difficulty in using health services.


Este estudo investiga a associação entre diagnóstico autorreferido de Doença Crônica Não Transmissível (DCNT) e adesão ao distanciamento social e utilização dos serviços de saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Estudo transversal com adultos brasileiros que participaram da ConVid Pesquisa de Comportamentos, realizada de 24 de abril a 24 de maio de 2020, via web (n = 45.161). Considerou as DCNT: diabetes, hipertensão, doença respiratória, doença do coração e câncer. Avaliou a utilização de serviços de saúde e a adesão ao distanciamento social. Estimou as prevalências e razões de prevalências ajustadas (RPa). 33,9% (IC95%: 32,5-35,3) referiu uma ou mais DCNT. Indivíduos com DCNT tiveram maior adesão ao distanciamento social intenso (RPa:1,07; IC95%:1,03-1,11), procuraram mais o serviço de saúde (RPa:1,24; IC95%:1,11-1,38) e tiveram mais dificuldades para marcar consulta (RPa:1,52; IC95%:1,35-1,71), conseguir atendimento de saúde (RPa:1,50; IC95%:1,22-1,84) e medicamentos (RPa:2,17; IC95%:1,77-2,67), realizar exames (RPa:1,78; IC95%:1,50-2,10) e intervenções programadas (RPa:1,65; IC95%:1,16-2,34). A presença de DCNT associou-se à maior adesão ao distanciamento social, procura por atendimento de saúde e dificuldade na utilização dos serviços de saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Glob Health ; 89(1): 21, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295129

ABSTRACT

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), represented a high burden for low and middle-income countries. Patients with NCDs are at higher risk of COVID-19 and suffer worse clinical outcomes. We present mortality trends for myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, hypertension (HT), and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from 2005 to 2021 in Ecuador. The greatest increase in mortality observed in the pandemic was in AMI, T2DM, and HT. Factors related to COVID-19, health services, and patients with NCDs could contribute to these important increases in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , Ecuador/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 409, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The healthcare services for non-communicable diseases (NCD) are commonly affected by public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, all healthcare facilities in Bangkok had been overwhelmed by the extreme caseload of COVID-19. Health service resiliency is crucial for the continued service of healthcare facilities post pandemic. This study aims to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on NCD service disruption and addressed the resilience of healthcare services at the operational level. METHODS: Healthcare facility-based surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted among representatives of the facilities in Bangkok from April 2021 to July 2021. The web-based, self-administered questionnaire, was sent to directors or authorities of all healthcare facilities in Bangkok Thailand (n = 169). Two healthcare facilities from three levels of health services were purposively selected. The directors or medical doctors and nurses who are in charge of the NCD service, and working at the six selected health facilities, were invited to participate in the in-depth interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data from the in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The impact of COVID-19 on NCD service disruption in the second wave (2021) was more severe than in the first wave (2020). The main reasons for NCD service disruptions are insufficient staff, and the closure of some services offered by the healthcare facilities. Surprisingly, both the budget and medical supply for healthcare facilities in Bangkok are less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study revealed resilience capability i.e. absorptive, adaptive, and transformative capabilityamong the healthcare facilities that provide a continuum of care by increasing availability and accessibility to healthcare services for chronic illness as DM. The service disruption in Bangkok may alter from other provinces because of variations in COVID-19 incidence and health services contexts. CONCLUSION: During the public health crisis, using affordable and common digital technologies to ensure DM patients can access a continuum of care and providing alternative services such as mobile medical laboratories, medication delivery, and medical refill at drug stores can increase consistent monitoring of glycemic levels and use of prescribed medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Primary Health Care , Public Health , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
Health Secur ; 20(4): 286-297, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278303

ABSTRACT

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in the world, and 80% of all NCD deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that patients with NCDs are at increased risk of becoming severely ill from the virus. Disproportionate investment in vertical health programs can result in health systems vulnerable to collapse when resources are strained, such as during pandemics. Although NCDs are largely preventable, globally there is underinvestment in efforts to address them. Integrating health systems to collectively address NCDs and infectious diseases through a wide range of services in a comprehensive manner reduces the economic burden of healthcare and strengthens the healthcare system. Health system resiliency is essential for health security. In this article, we provide an economically sound approach to incorporating NCDs into routine healthcare services in LMICs through improved alignment of institutions that support prevention and control of both NCDs and infectious diseases. Examples from Zambia's multisector interventions to develop and support a national NCD action plan can inform and encourage LMIC countries to invest in systems integration to reduce the social and economic burden of NCDs and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Developing Countries , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Zambia/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266514

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the change in the incidence and variance of otorhinolaryngologic diseases during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The entire Korean population (~50 million) was evaluated for the monthly incidence of 11 common otorhinolaryngologic diseases of upper respiratory infection (URI), influenza, acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, acute laryngitis and bronchitis, stomatitis and related lesions, acute sinusitis, rhinitis, otitis media, and dizziness from January 2018 through March 2021 using the International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 codes with the data of the Korea National Health Insurance Service. The differences in the mean incidence of 11 common otorhinolaryngologic diseases before and during COVID-19 were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The differences in the variance of incidence before and during COVID-19 were compared using Levene's test. The incidence of all 11 otorhinolaryngologic diseases was lower during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (all p < 0.05). The variations in disease incidence by season were lower during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 for infectious diseases, including URI, influenza, acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, acute laryngitis and bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and otitis media (all p < 0.05), while it was not in noninfectious diseases, including stomatitis, rhinitis, and dizziness. As expected, the incidences of all otorhinolalryngolgic diseases were decreased. Additionally, we found that seasonal variations in infectious diseases disappeared during the COVID-19 pandemic, while noninfectious diseases did not.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Laryngitis , Noncommunicable Diseases , Otitis Media , Peritonsillar Abscess , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retropharyngeal Abscess , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Stomatitis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Retropharyngeal Abscess/epidemiology , Pandemics , Laryngitis/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Dizziness , Peritonsillar Abscess/epidemiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Bronchitis/epidemiology , Stomatitis/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3324, 2023 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287351

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the discount rates for money and health outcomes in the Thai context, including the discount rates for communicable and non-communicable diseases. Moreover, this study aimed to explore the socio-demographic characteristics that influence discounting. The computer-based experimental design was used to obtain time preferences for money and health in a total of 1202 Chiang Mai province population, aged 25-50, individually interviewed by trained interviewers. Money-related questions were carried out in all subjects. For health-related questions, all subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio for response to questions about Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (N = 602) and air pollution (N = 600). A choice-based elicitation procedure was performed in the experiment to obtain the indifference values from subjects' time preferences. The cumulative weighting functions were generated using the indifference values to indicate the degree of discounting. The discount factors were computed from the cumulative weighting functions. The discount rates were estimated using a continuous approximation based on the relationship between the discount factors and the parameters governing the discounting model. The Tobit model was applied to investigate the relationships between discounting and socio-demographic characteristics. Discounting for money was greater than discounting for health. Money and health had annual discount rates of 6.2% and 1.3%, respectively. Furthermore, in the COVID -19 situation, the annual discount rate for health was higher than that in the air pollution situation (2.4% vs. 0.7%). Generation X subjects (aged 42 years and above), children under the age of 15 in the household, and underlying diseases were positively related to discounting, while household income was negatively related to discounting. Health should be discounted at a lower rate than money. Moreover, different discount rates should be considered for different types of diseases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Apathy , COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology
11.
Health Syst Reform ; 9(1): 2183552, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280587

ABSTRACT

Latin America has experienced a rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) which is having repercussions on the structuring of healthcare delivery and social protection for vulnerable populations. We examined catastrophic (CHE) and excessive (EHE, impoverishing and/or catastrophic) health care expenditures in Mexican households with and without elderly members (≥65 years), by gender of head of the households, during 2000-2020. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data for 380,509 households from eleven rounds of the National Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Male- and female-headed households (MHHs and FHHs) were matched using propensity scores to control for gender bias in systematic differences regarding care-seeking (demand for healthcare) preferences. Adjusted probabilities of positive health expenditures, CHE and EHE were estimated using probit and two-stage probit models, respectively. Quintiles of EHE by state among FHHs with elderly members were also mapped. CHE and EHE were greater among FHHs than among MHHs (4.7% vs 3.9% and 5.5% vs 4.6%), and greater in FHHs with elderly members (5.8% vs 4.9% and 6.9% vs 5.8%). EHE in FHHs with elderly members varied geographically from 3.9% to 9.1%, being greater in less developed eastern, north-central and southeastern states. Compared with MHHs, FHHs face greater risks of CHE and EHE. This vulnerability is exacerbated in FHHs with elderly members, because of gender intersectional vulnerability. The present context, marked by a growing burden of NCDs and inequities amplified by COVID-19, makes key interlinkages across multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) apparent, and calls for urgent measures that strengthen social protection in health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Health Expenditures , Family Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexism , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
12.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 33(1): 14, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278153

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the impact of the accessibility and quality of medical care provided to patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs) during COVID-19 pandemic on the course and outcome of COVID-19 infection. The study included 132 patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19 and having one or more concomitant CNCDs. The patients were divided into two groups based on the quality of the initial CNCD therapy they received. Group 1 involved 58 patients (42%) who received treatment according to clinical guidelines and had a compensated CNCD. Group 2 consisted of 76 patients (58%) who received treatment that was not in line with modern clinical guidelines and/or had a decompensated CNCD. All 'red zone' hospitalized patients were surveyed. In particular, they were asked questions related to the quality and accessibility of medical care during COVID-19 pandemic and their satisfaction with the medical care received during the pandemic. Reduced access to medical care (the failure to have the therapy received timely evaluated and adjusted) during COVID-19 pandemic affects the quality of the therapy received by patients with CNCDs. Generally, an unfavorable course and outcome of COVID-19 infection are typical for patients receiving a non-optimal CNCD therapy as compared to patients receiving a therapy that meets current clinical guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e070085, 2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This article presents the Americas regional results of the WHO non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Country Capacity Survey from 2019 to 2021, on NCD service capacity and disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Information on public sector primary care services for NCDs, and related technical inputs from 35 countries in the Americas region are provided. PARTICIPANTS: All Ministry of Health officials managing a national NCD programme, from a WHO Member State in the Americas region, were included throughout this study. Government health officials from countries that are not WHO Member States were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: The availability of evidence-based NCD guidelines, essential NCD medicines and basic technologies in primary care, cardiovascular disease risk stratification, cancer screening and palliative care services were measured in 2019, 2020 and 2021. NCD service interruptions, reassignments of NCD staff during the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation strategies to reduce disruptions for NCD services were measured in 2020 and 2021. RESULTS: More than 50% of countries reported a lack of comprehensive package of NCD guidelines, essential medicines and related service inputs. Extensive disruptions in NCD services resulted from the pandemic, with only 12/35 countries (34%), reporting that outpatient NCD services were functioning normally. Ministry of Health staff were largely redirected to work on the COVID-19 response, either full time or partially, reducing the human resources available for NCD services. Six of 24 countries (25%) reported stock out of essential NCD medicines and/or diagnostics at health facilities which affected service continuity. Mitigation strategies to ensure continuity of care for people with NCDs were deployed in many countries and included triaging patients, telemedicine and teleconsultations, and electronic prescriptions and other novel prescribing practices. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this regional survey suggest significant and sustained disruptions, affecting all countries regardless of the country's level of investments in healthcare or NCD burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Essential , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Ambulatory Care
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 43: 212, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252051

ABSTRACT

Introduction: patients with chronic non-communicable diseases (chronic liver diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, neurologic diseases, chronic kidney diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension), primarily poor, rural and neglected populations, have had difficulty accessing health care and have been severely impacted both socially and financially in during the pandemic. As a result, this study was designed to assess the perceived impact of COVID-19 on routine care of chronic non-communicable disease patients in Ethiopia. Methods: a cross-section survey was conducted among 404 participants from April 1st 2021 to May 30th 2021. Data were collected via interviewer administered questionnaires administered by pre-tested interviewers on socio-demographic characteristics, treatment and clinical features and routine care questionnaires that have been adapted and modified from different literatures. The study consisted of all adult outpatients with at least one chronic non-communicable disease who were followed up. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 23. Results: of the 422 participants, 404 responded for a response rate of 95.7%. One out of two (203, 50.2%) participants was aged 40 to 50 years. Ninety-one out of hundred (367, 90.8%) participants continued to receive routine care face-to-face during COVID-19. One-third (141, 34.9%) of study participants had good management of the chronic non-communicable diseases care in the middle of pandemic. A total of 167(41.34%) participants thought they were moderately affected changes in healthcare services since the COVID-19 outbreak. Nearly one-third (130, 32.2%) of participants were sometimes affected by medication shortages since the start of COVID-19. Conclusion: this study highlights that most participants continued to receive routine care face-to-face during the COVID-19. About forty-one out of 100 participants perceived that they were moderately affected changes in healthcare services since the outbreak of COVID-19. One-third of participants sometimes perceived that they were affected by medication shortages since the start of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
16.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06006, 2023 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250749

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, access to health care for people living with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been significantly disrupted. Calls have been made to adapt health systems and innovate service delivery models to improve access to care. We identified and summarized the health systems adaptions and interventions implemented to improve NCD care and their potential impact on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: We comprehensively searched Medline/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Global Health, PsycINFO, Global Literature on coronavirus disease, and Web of Science for relevant literature published between January 2020 and December 2021. While we targeted articles written in English, we also included papers published in French with abstracts written in English. Results: After screening 1313 records, we included 14 papers from six countries. We identified four unique health systems adaptations/interventions for restoring, maintaining, and ensuring continuity of care for people living with NCDs: telemedicine or teleconsultation strategies, NCD medicine drop-off points, decentralization of hypertension follow-up services and provision of free medication to peripheral health centers, and diabetic retinopathy screening with a handheld smartphone-based retinal camera. We found that the adaptations/interventions enhanced continuity of NCD care during the pandemic and helped bring health care closer to patients using technology and easing access to medicines and routine visits. Telephonic aftercare services appear to have saved a significant amount of patients' time and funds. Hypertensive patients recorded better blood pressure controls over the follow-up period. Conclusions: Although the identified measures and interventions for adapting health systems resulted in potential improvements in access to NCD care and better clinical outcomes, further exploration is needed to establish the feasibility of these adaptations/interventions in different settings given the importance of context in their successful implementation. Insights from such implementation studies are critical for ongoing health systems strengthening efforts to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and future global health security threats for people living with NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/standards , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Internationality
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 11(4): e525-e533, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the world's leading cause of death and disability. Global implementation of WHO-recommended NCD policies has been increasing with time, but in 2019 fewer than half of these policies had been implemented globally. In 2022, WHO released updated data on NCD policy implementation, on the basis of surveys conducted in 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine whether the trajectory of global policy implementation changed during this period. METHODS: In this repeated cross-sectional analysis, we used data from the 2015, 2017, 2020, and 2022 WHO progress monitors to calculate NCD policy implementation scores for all 194 WHO member states. We used Welch's ANOVA and Games-Howell post-hoc pairwise testing to examine changes in mean implementation scores for 19 WHO-recommended NCD policies, with assessment at the global, geographical, geopolitical, and country-income levels. We collated sales data on tobacco, alcohol, and junk foods to examine the association between changes in sales and the predicted probability of implementation of policies targeting these products. We also calculated the Corporate Financial Influence Index (CFII) for each country, which was used to assess the association between corporate influence and policy implementation. We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between product sales and the probability of implementing related policies. The relationship between CFII and policy implementation was assessed with Pearson's correlation analysis and random-effects multivariate regression. FINDINGS: Across the 194 countries, in the years preceding publication of each progress monitor, mean total policy implementation score (out of a potential 18·0) was 7·0 (SD 3·5) in 2014, 8·2 (3·5) in 2016, 8·6 (3·6) in 2019, and 8·6 (3·6) in 2021. Only the differences in mean implementation score between 2014 and the other three report years were deemed statistically significant (pairwise p<0·05). Thus the steady improvement in mean global NCD policy implementation stalled in 2021 at 47·8%. However, from 2019 to 2021, we identified shifts in individual policies: global mean implementation scores increased for policies on tobacco, clinical guidelines, salt, and child food marketing, and decreased for policies on alcohol, breastmilk substitute marketing, physical activity mass media campaigns, risk factor surveys, and national NCD plans and targets. Six of the seven policies with the lowest levels of implementation (global mean score <0·4 out of a potential 1·0) in both 2019 and 2021 were related to tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. From 2020 onwards, we identified weak or no associations between sales of tobacco, alcohol, and junk foods and the predicted probability of implementing policies related to each commodity. Country-level CFII was significantly associated with total policy implementation score (Pearson's r -0·49, 95% CI -0·59 to -0·36), and this finding was supported in multivariate modelling for all policies combined and for all commercial policies except alcohol policies. INTERPRETATION: NCD policy implementation has stagnated. Progress in the implementation of some policies is matched by decreased implementation of others, particularly those related to unhealthy commodities. To prevent NCDs and their consequences, and attain the Sustainable Development Goals, the rate of NCD policy adoption must be substantially and urgently increased before the next NCD progress monitor and UN high-level meeting on NCDs in 2024. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Child , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1043597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238296

ABSTRACT

Problem: The two waves of COVID-19 severely affected the healthcare system in India. The government responded to the first wave with a strict nationwide lockdown which disrupted primary care, including the management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The second wave overwhelmed healthcare facilities leading to inadequate access to hospital services. Collectively, these issues required urgent responses, including the adaptation of primary care. Approach: The Low-Cost Effective Care Unit (LCECU) of Christian Medical College, Vellore (CMC) has a network of community volunteers, community health workers, an outreach nurse, social workers and doctors who operate clinics in six poorer areas of Vellore. The network adapted quickly, responding to the lockdown during the first wave and ensuring ongoing primary care for patients with non-communicable diseases. During the second wave, the team developed a system in collaboration with other CMC departments to provide home-based care for patients with COVID-19. Local setting: The LCECU is a 48-bed unit of the Department of Family Medicine, part of the 3,000-bed CMC. It originated in 1982, aiming to care for the poor populations of Vellore town. It has been actively working among urban communities since 2002, with a focus on delivering Community Oriented Primary Care (COPC), for six poor urban communities since 2016. Relevant changes: During the first wave of COVID the LCECU team ensured patients with NCDs had uninterrupted primary care and medications by visiting them in their homes. The team also addressed food insecurity by organizing a daily lunch service for 600 people for over 2 months. In the second wave, the team responded to community needs by organizing and delivering home-based care to monitor patients affected by COVID-19. Lessons learned: The COVID-19 pandemic raises many questions about the preparedness of health systems for disasters that disproportionately affect marginalized populations globally. COVID-19 is only one of the many potential disasters, including non-communicable diseases, mental health problems, pollution, climate change, and lifestyle illness. There is an urgent need to study models of care that support vulnerable communities in an accessible, cost-effective, and patient-oriented way, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This paper outlines lessons on how the LCECU team addressed disaster management:1. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of primary care-based rapid response interventions in disaster management.2. The LCECU model demonstrated the effectiveness of a primary care intervention based on pre-existing networks and familiarity between primary care teams and the community.3. Establishing community-based health care via interdisciplinary teams, including community health workers, community volunteers, outreach nurses, and doctors, is key.4. Addressing other social determinants of health, such as food insecurity, is an important component of care delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Primary Health Care
19.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2022 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245506

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop and test a causal relationship among perceived self-efficacy (PSE), health literacy (HL), access to COVID-19 preventive material (ACPM), social networks (SN), and health-promoting behaviors (HPBs). Multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit 250 older adults with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) from Thai urban and rural communities. The data were collected with self-reported questionnaires. Data analyses used descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The results indicated that participants in urban communities had higher PSE, ACPM, HL, SN, and HPBs than rural participants. The fitness parameters of the modified model (χ2 = 71.936, df = 58, p-value = 0.103, χ2/df = 1.240; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.031; standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.042; goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.964; normed-fit index (NFI) = 0.964; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.993) indicated its suitability as the research model. HPBs were directly positively influenced by PSE (ß = 0.40, p < 0.001), ACPM (ß = 0.24, p < 0.001), HL (ß = 0.19, p < 0.01), and SN (ß = 0.01, p < 0.05). Therefore, taking all predicting variables together could explain 81.0% of the variance in HPBs. Multidisciplinary healthcare teams could use these findings to establish proper interventions or healthcare activities to increase HPBs among older adults, particularly in this era of the "new normal".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Aged , Rural Population , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Latent Class Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 317, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic may have created great psychological stress among vulnerable populations. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and explore the association between physical activities (PA) and anxiety risk in people with non-communicable diseases during the period of COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey from February 25 to April 20, 2020, the period of COVID-19 lockdown in Shanghai. Up to 8000 patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension were selected using multi-stage cluster random sampling. PA level was measured based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire using Metabolic Equivalent for Task scores, while symptoms of anxiety were assessed by the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations of type and level of PA with the risk of anxiety. RESULTS: Of a total 4877 eligible patients, 2602 (53.4%) reported with anxiety, and 2463 (50.5%), 123 (2.5%) and 16 (0.3%) reported with mild, moderate, and severe anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety was higher in the females, the elders, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and patients with diabetes, and the associations of anxiety with sex, age, smoking, drinking and diagnosis of diabetes were significant. A significant negative association was observed for housework activities (OR 0.53, 95%CI: [0.45, 0.63], p < 0.001) and trip activities (OR 0.55, 95%CI: [0.48, 0.63], p < 0.001) with anxiety, but no significant was found for exercise activities (OR 1.06, 95%CI: [0.94, 1.20], p = 0.321). Compared with patients with a low PA level, those with a moderate (OR 0.53, 95%CI: [0.44, 0.64], p < 0.001) or a high PA level (OR 0.51, 95%CI: [0.43, 0.51], p < 0.001) had a lower prevalence of anxiety. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of anxiety in patients with hypertension, diabetes, or both during the COVID-19 lockdown. The negative associations of housework and trip activities with anxiety highlight the potential benefit of PA among patients with non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Pandemics , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Exercise
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