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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138464, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567894

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness due to COVID-19 because of a limited ability to physically distance and a higher burden of underlying health conditions. Objective: To describe and assess a hotel-based protective housing intervention to reduce incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PEH in Chicago, Illinois, with increased risk of severe illness due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed PEH who were provided protective housing in individual hotel rooms in downtown Chicago during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2 through September 3, 2020. Participants were PEH at increased risk for severe COVID-19, defined as (1) aged at least 60 years regardless of health conditions, (2) aged at least 55 years with any underlying health condition posing increased risk, or (3) aged less than 55 years with any underlying health condition posing substantially increased risk (eg, HIV/AIDS). Exposures: Participants were housed in individual hotel rooms to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; on-site health care workers provided daily symptom monitoring, regular SARS-CoV-2 testing, and care for chronic health conditions. Additional on-site services included treatment of mental health and substance use disorders and social services. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome measured was SARS-CoV-2 incidence, with SARS-Cov2 infection defined as a positive upper respiratory specimen using any polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay authorized for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration. Secondary outcomes were blood pressure control, glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c, and housing placements at departure. Results: Of 259 participants from 16 homeless shelters in Chicago, 104 (40.2%) were aged at least 65 years, 190 (73.4%) were male, 185 (71.4%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 49 (18.9%) were non-Hispanic White. There was an observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 incidence during the study period among the protective housing cohort (54.7 per 1000 people [95% CI, 22.4-87.1 per 1000 people]) compared with citywide rates for PEH residing in shelters (137.1 per 1000 people [95% CI, 125.1-149.1 per 1000 people]; P = .001). There was also an adjusted change in systolic blood pressure at a rate of -5.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.3 to -2.1 mm Hg) and hemoglobin A1c at a rate of -1.4% (95% CI, -2.4% to -0.4%) compared with baseline. More than half of participants (51% [n = 132]) departed from the intervention to housing of some kind (eg, supportive housing). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that protective housing was associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk PEH during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chicago. These findings suggest that with appropriate wraparound supports (ie, multisector services to address complex needs), such housing interventions may reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improve noncommunicable disease control, and provide a pathway to permanent housing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Homeless Persons , Housing , Noncommunicable Diseases , Program Evaluation , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago , Chronic Disease , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Problems
3.
Health Syst Reform ; 7(1): e1984865, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506226

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows that those with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are at higher risk for serious illness and mortality from COVID-19. In Kenya, about 50% of the COVID-19 patients who have died had an NCD. We sought to describe the challenges faced in accessing NCD medicines in Kenya during the pandemic, through a descriptive narrative informed by key stakeholders engaged in NCD service delivery and decision-making. Access to NCD medicines was affected at three levels, service delivery, health facility information systems and the medicines supply chain to health facilities. In response to these gaps, the Ministry of Health released clear directives and interim guidelines for continuity of NCD service delivery. However, implementation of guidelines was not apparent from conversations with county officials or from assessment of county services by the Ministry. Rather, heterogeneity was observed in counties' responsiveness to patient needs, where 5 out of 13 counties used mHealth technologies, while 5 had no established system to reach patients. COVID-19 amplified gaps that already existed in the system-particularly around lack of robust supply chains and sub-optimal health information systems. This descriptive paper will be useful to policy makers to provide a summary of the key challenges faced in accessing NCD medicines, identify gaps in medicines delivery, and make case for establishment of a more equitable health system to meet the needs of lower-income NCD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Kenya , Noncommunicable Diseases/drug therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497690

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463645

ABSTRACT

Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) account for 72% of the causes of death in Brazil. In 2013, 54 million Brazilians reported having at least one NCD. The implementation of e-Health in the Unified Health System (SUS) could fill gaps in access to health in primary health care (PHC). OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate telehealth strategies carried out within the scope of the Institutional Development Support Program of the Unified Health System (PROADI-SUS) and developed by Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz, between 2018 and 2021, on evaluation, supply, and problem-solving capacity for patients with NCDs. METHODOLOGY: a prospective and descriptive study of three projects in the telehealth areas, using document analysis. The Brasil Redes project used availability, implementation, and cost-effectiveness analysis, TELEconsulta Diabetes is a randomized clinical trial, and Regula Mais Brasil is focused on the waiting list for regulation of specialties. All those strategies were developed within the scope of the SUS. RESULTS: 161 patients were attended by endocrinology teleconsultation in one project and another two research projects, one evaluating Brazil's Telehealth Network Program, and another evaluating effectiveness and safety of teleconsultation in patients with diabetes mellitus referred from primary care to specialized care in SUS. Despite the discrepancy in the provision of telehealth services in the country, there was an increase in access to specialized care on the three projects and especially on the Regula Mais Brasil Collaborative project; we observed a reduction on waiting time and favored distance education processes. CONCLUSION: the three projects offered subsidies for decision-making by the Ministry of Health in e-Health and two developed technologies that could be incorporated into SUS.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Telemedicine , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 222, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social mobilisation is potentially a key tool in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in fragile settings. This formative study addressed existing and potential social mobilisation mechanisms seeking behaviour to tackle NCDs in El Salvador, with an emphasis on the implications in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with health workers, government officials, NGO leaders, and community members. Interviews addressed mechanisms for social mobilisation which existed prior to COVID-19, the ways in which these mechanisms tackled NCDs, the impact of COVID-19 on social mobilisation activities and new, emerging mechanisms for social mobilisation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Findings indicate a growing awareness of NCDs within communities, with social mobilisation activities seen as valuable in tackling NCDs. However, major barriers to NCD prevention and treatment provision remain, with COVID-19 constraining many possible social mobilisation activities, leaving NCD patients with less support. Factors linked with effective social mobilisation of communities for NCD prevention included strong engagement of community health teams within community structures and the delivery of NCD prevention and management messages through community meetings with trusted health professionals or community members. There are gender differences in the experience of NCDs and women were generally more engaged with social mobilisation activities than men. In the context of COVID-19, traditional forms of social mobilisation were challenged, and new, virtual forms emerged. However, these new forms of engagement did not benefit all, especially those in hard-to-reach rural areas. In these contexts, specific traditional forms of mobilisation such as through radio (where possible) and trusted community leaders - became increasingly important. CONCLUSIONS: New mechanisms of fostering social mobilisation include virtual connectors such as mobile phones, which enable mobilisation through platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. However, traditional forms of social mobilisation hold value for those without access to such technology. Therefore, a combination of new and traditional mechanisms for social mobilisation hold potential for the future development of social mobilisation strategies in El Salvador and, as appropriate, in other fragile health contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , El Salvador , Female , Humans , Male , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 23-32, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436191

ABSTRACT

Objective: This analysis described the clinical features of COVID-19 in the early phase of the pandemic in Ghana. Methods: Data were extracted from two national COVID-19 treatment centers in Ghana for over 11 weeks(from March to May 2020). Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Modified Ordered Logistic and Negative Binomial Regression analysis were applied to establish factors associated with illness severity and Non-communicable Disease (NCDs) counts respectively. All analysis was conducted at the 95% confidence level (p-value ≤ 0.05) using Stata 16. Results: Among the 275 patients, the average age was 40.7±16.4, with a preponderance of males (54.5%). The three commonest symptoms presented were cough (21.3%), headache (15.7%), and sore throat (11.7%). Only 7.6% of the patients had a history of fever. Most patients were asymptomatic (51.65). Approximately 38.9% have an underlying co-morbid NCDs, with Hypertension (32.1%), Diabetes (9.9%), and Asthma (5.2%) being the three commonest. The odds of Moderate/severe (MoS) was significantly higher for those with unknown exposures to similar illness [aOR(95%CI) = 4.27(1.12-10.2)] compared with non-exposure to similar illness. An increased unit of NCD's count significantly increased the odds of COVID-19 MoS illness by 26%[cOR(95%CI) =1.26(1.09-1.84)] and 67% (adjusting for age) [aOR(95%CI)=1.67(1.13-2.49)]. Conclusion: The presence of cardiovascular co-morbidities dictated the frequency of reported symptoms and severity of COVID-19 infection in this sample of Ghanaians. Physicians should be aware of the presence of co-morbid NCDs and prepare to manage effectively among COVID-19 patients. Funding: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Regression Analysis
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051107, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity refers to the presence of two or more chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in a given individual. It is associated with premature mortality, lower quality of life (QoL) and greater use of healthcare resources. The burden of multimorbidity could be huge in the low and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Ethiopia. However, there is limited evidence on the magnitude of multimorbidity, associated risk factors and its effect on QoL and functionality. In addition, the evidence base on the way health systems are organised to manage patients with multimorbidity is sparse. The knowledge gleaned from this study could have a timely and significant impact on the prevention, management and survival of patients with NCD multimorbidity in Ethiopia and in LMICs at large. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study has three phases: (1) a cross-sectional quantitative study to determine the magnitude of NCD multimorbidity and its effect on QoL and functionality, (2) a qualitative study to explore organisation of care for patients with multimorbidity, and (3) a longitudinal quantitative study to investigate disease progression and patient outcomes over time. A total of 1440 patients (≥40 years) on chronic care follow-up will be enrolled from different facilities for the quantitative studies. The quantitative data will be collected from multiple sources using the KoBo Toolbox software and analysed by STATA V.16. Multiple case study designs will be employed to collect the qualitative data. The qualitative data will be coded and analysed by Open Code software thematically. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical clearance has been obtained from the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University (protocol number 003/2021). Subjects who provide written consent will be recruited in the study. Confidentiality of data will be strictly maintained. Findings will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Ambulatory Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Outpatients , Quality of Life
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 180, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has experienced great improvements in life expectancy (LE) at birth over the last three decades. Despite consistent increases in LE for both males and females in Ethiopia, the country has simultaneously witnessed an increasing discrepancy in LE between males and females. METHODS: This study used Pollard's actuarial method of decomposing LE to compare age- and cause- specific contributions to changes in sex differences in LE between 1995 and 2015 in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Life expectancy at birth in Ethiopia increased for both males and females from 48.28 years and 50.12 years in 1995 to 65.59 years and 69.11 years in 2015, respectively. However, the sex differences in LE at birth also increased from 1.85 years in 1995 to 3.51 years in 2015. Decomposition analysis shows that the higher male mortality was consistently due to injuries and respiratory infections, which contributed to 1.57 out of 1.85 years in 1995 and 1.62 out of 3.51 years in 2015 of the sex differences in LE. Increased male mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) also contributed to the increased difference in LE between males and females over the period, accounting for 0.21 out of 1.85 years and 1.05 out of 3.51 years in 1995 and 2015, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While injuries and respiratory infections causing male mortality were the most consistent causes of the sex differences in LE in Ethiopia, morality from NCDs is the main cause of the recent increasing differences in LE between males and females. However, unlike the higher exposure of males to death from injuries due to road traffic injuries or interpersonal violence, to what extent sex differences are caused by the higher male mortality compared to female mortality from respiratory infection diseases is unclear. Similarly, despite Ethiopia's weak social security system, an explanation for the increased sex differences after the age of 40 years due to either longer female LE or reduced male LE should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Health Status Disparities , Life Expectancy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Wounds and Injuries , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Expectancy/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360798

ABSTRACT

Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, has been increasing worldwide. Changes in dietary and physical activity patterns, along with genetic conditions, are the main factors that modulate the metabolism of individuals, leading to the development of NCDs. Obesity, diabetes, metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are classified in this group of chronic diseases. Therefore, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of these diseases leads us to develop more accurate and effective treatments to reduce or mitigate their prevalence in the population. Given the global relevance of NCDs and ongoing research progress, this article reviews the current understanding about NCDs and their related risk factors, with a focus on obesity, diabetes, MAFLD, and CVDs, summarizing the knowledge about their pathophysiology and highlighting the currently available and emerging therapeutic strategies, especially pharmacological interventions. All of these diseases play an important role in the contamination by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as in the progression and severity of the symptoms of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, we briefly explore the relationship between NCDs and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e30, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare worldwide. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where people may have limited access to affordable quality care, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to have a particularly adverse impact on the health and healthcare of individuals with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A World Health Organization survey found that disruption of delivery of healthcare for NCDs was more significant in LMICs than in high-income countries. However, the study did not elicit insights into the day-to-day impacts of COVID-19 on healthcare by front-line healthcare workers (FLHCWs). AIM: To gain insights directly from FLHCWs working in countries with a high NCD burden, and thereby identify opportunities to improve the provision of healthcare during the current pandemic and in future healthcare emergencies. METHODS: We recruited selected frontline healthcare workers (general practitioners, pharmacists, and other medical specialists) from nine countries to complete an online survey (n = 1347). Survey questions focused on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on clinical practice and NCDs; barriers to clinical care during the pandemic; and innovative responses to the many challenges presented by the pandemic. FINDINGS: The majority of FLHCWs responding to our survey reported that their care of patients had been impacted both adversely and positively by the public health measures imposed. Most FLHCs (95%) reported a deterioration in the mental health of their patients. CONCLUSIONS: Continuity of care for NCDs as part of pandemic preparedness is needed so that chronic conditions are not exacerbated by public health measures and the direct impacts of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , Delivery of Health Care , Developing Countries , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Physicians , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 813-817, 2021 Jun.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335595

ABSTRACT

The relevance of the study included that scarcity of evidence about the burdens of diseases in Ethiopia, in particular to non-communicable diseases along with the impact of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The systematic analysis and content analysis using GBD 2019 database and health metrics datasets of 2020 was used to analyze diseases burdens trends of Ethiopia. The descriptive retrospective analysis has been performed, and reported in text and charts method. RESULTS: The result of the study showed increment of crude death and premature death due to both communicable and non-communicable diseases such as enteric infections, cardiovascular, neoplasm, others. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 would be the headache of Ethiopia health systems due to double burdens of diseases have steadily been shooting at ground. Hence, the nation should incite local based innovation work proactively and integrate all health services to fight with COVID-19 based on the experience of Russia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Retrospective Studies
15.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(10): 2899-2907, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Policies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of noncommunicable (NCD) patients while affecting NCD prevention and risk factor control. AIMS: To discuss how the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the health management of NCD patients, identify which aspects should be carried forward into future NCD management, and propose collaborative efforts among public-private institutions to effectively shape NCD care models. METHODS: The NCD Partnership, a collaboration between Upjohn and the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, held a virtual Advisory Board in July 2020 with multiple stakeholders; healthcare professionals (HCPs), policymakers, researchers, patient and informal carer advocacy groups, patient empowerment organizations, and industry experts. RESULTS: The Advisory Board identified barriers to NCD care during the COVID-19 pandemic in four areas: lack of NCD management guidelines; disruption to integrated care and shift from hospital-based NCD care to more community and primary level care; infodemics and a lack of reliable health information for patients and HCPs on how to manage NCDs; lack of availability, training, standardization, and regulation of digital health tools. CONCLUSIONS: Multistakeholder partnerships can promote swift changes to NCD prevention and patient care. Intra- and inter-communication between all stakeholders should be facilitated involving all players in the development of clinical guidelines and digital health tools, health and social care restructuring, and patient support in the short-, medium- and long-term future. A comprehensive response to NCDs should be delivered to improve patient outcomes by providing strategic, scientific, and economic support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Caregivers , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1927332, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Syndemics are characterized by the clustering of two or more health conditions, their adverse interaction, and contextual factors that create the conditions for clustering and/or interaction that worsens health outcomes. Studying syndemics entails drawing on diverse disciplines, including epidemiology and anthropology. This often means collaboration between researchers with different scholarly backgrounds, who share and - ideally - integrate their findings. OBJECTIVE: This article examines how context within syndemics has been defined and studied. METHODS: A literature review of empirical studies focusing on syndemics involving non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mental health conditions was conducted and the full text of 13 articles was analyzed. The review was followed-up with semi-structured interviews with 11 expert researchers working in the field. RESULTS: The review and interviews highlighted a relatively consistent definition of syndemics. The reviewed studies of NCD-related syndemics tended to focus on micro-level context, suggesting a need to analyze further underlying structural factors. In their syndemics research, respondents described working with other disciplines and, although there were some challenges, welcomed greater disciplinary diversity. Methodological gaps, including a lack of mixed methods and longitudinal studies, were identified, for which further interdisciplinary collaborations would be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: NCD-related syndemics research would benefit from further analysis of structural factors and the interconnections between syndemic components across multiple levels, together with more ambitious research designs integrating quantitative and qualitative methods. Research on the COVID-19 pandemic can benefit from a syndemics approach, particularly to understand vulnerability and the unequal impacts of this public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic
17.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 698741, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323099

ABSTRACT

In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) set a comprehensive set of nine global voluntary targets, including the landmark "25 by 25" mortality reduction target, and 25 indicators. WHO has also highlighted the importance of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) surveillance as a key action by Member States in addressing NCDs. This study aimed to examine the current national NCD surveillance tools, activities and performance in Malaysia based on the WHO Global Monitoring Framework for NCDs and to highlight gaps and priorities moving forward. A desk review was conducted from August to October in 2020, to examine the current national NCD surveillance activities in Malaysia from multiple sources. Policy and program documents relating to NCD surveillance in Malaysia from 2010 to 2020 were identified and analyzed. The findings of this review are presented according to the three major themes of the Global Monitoring Framework: monitoring of exposure/risk factor, monitoring of outcomes and health system capacity/response. Currently, there is a robust monitoring system for NCD Surveillance in Malaysia for indicators that are monitored by the WHO NCD Global Monitoring Framework, particularly for outcome and exposure monitoring. However, Malaysia still lacks data for the surveillance of the health system indicators of the framework. Although Malaysia has an NCD surveillance in place that is adequate for the WHO NCD Global Monitoring Framework, there are areas that require strengthening. The country must also look beyond these set of indicators in view of the increasing burden and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes incorporating mental health indicators and leveraging on alternate sources of data relating to behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311132

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Child malnutrition (undernutrition) and adult non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major global public health problems. While convincing evidence links prenatal malnutrition with increased risk of NCDs, less is known about the long-term sequelae of malnutrition in childhood. We therefore examined evidence of associations between postnatal malnutrition, encompassing documented severe childhood malnutrition in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) or famine exposure, and later-life cardiometabolic NCDs. METHODS: Our peer-reviewed search strategy focused on 'severe childhood malnutrition', 'LMICs', 'famine', and 'cardiometabolic NCDs' to identify studies in Medline, Embase, Global Health, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. We synthesised results narratively and assessed study quality with the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence checklist. RESULTS: We identified 57 studies of cardiometabolic NCD outcomes in survivors of documented severe childhood malnutrition in LMICs (n=14) and historical famines (n=43). Exposure to severe malnutrition or famine in childhood was consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (7/8 studies), hypertension (8/11), impaired glucose metabolism (15/24) and metabolic syndrome (6/6) in later life. Evidence for effects on lipid metabolism (6/11 null, 5/11 mixed findings), obesity (3/13 null, 5/13 increased risk, 5/13 decreased risk) and other outcomes was less consistent. Sex-specific differences were observed in some cohorts, with women consistently at higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Severe malnutrition or famine during childhood is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic NCDs, suggesting that developmental plasticity extends beyond prenatal life. Severe malnutrition in childhood thus has serious implications not only for acute morbidity and mortality but also for survivors' long-term health. Heterogeneity across studies, confounding by prenatal malnutrition, and age effects in famine studies preclude firm conclusions on causality. Research to improve understanding of mechanisms linking postnatal malnutrition and NCDs is needed to inform policy and programming to improve the lifelong health of severe malnutrition survivors.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Malnutrition , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Famine , Female , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Poverty , Pregnancy
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290851

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Multimorbidity , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity , Phobic Disorders , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
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