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1.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(8): 5897-5907, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345533

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it essential to explore alternative antiviral materials. Alginate is a biodegradable, renewable, biocompatible, water-soluble and antiviral biopolymer with many potential biomedical applications. In this regard, this review shows 17 types of viruses that have been tested in contact with alginate and its related biomaterials. Most of these studies show that alginate-based materials possess little or no toxicity and are able to inhibit a wide variety of viruses affecting different organisms: in humans by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, Sindbis virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, poliovirus type 1, rabies virus, rubella virus, and the influenza virus; in mice by the murine norovirus; in bacteria by the T4 coliphage, and in plants by the tobacco mosaic virus and the potato virus X. Many of these are enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, which render alginate-based materials highly promising in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alginates/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Hepatovirus/drug effects , Humans , Norovirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic accelerates, the supply of personal protective equipment remains under strain. To combat shortages, re-use of surgical masks and filtering facepiece respirators has been recommended. Prior decontamination is paramount to the re-use of these typically single-use only items and, without compromising their integrity, must guarantee inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other contaminating pathogens. AIM: We provide information on the effect of time-dependent passive decontamination (infectivity loss over time during room temperature storage in a breathable bag) and evaluate inactivation of a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate and a non-enveloped model virus as well as mask and respirator integrity following active multiple-cycle vaporised hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), and dry heat (DH) decontamination. METHODS: Masks and respirators, inoculated with infectious porcine respiratory coronavirus or murine norovirus, were submitted to passive decontamination or single or multiple active decontamination cycles; viruses were recovered from sample materials and viral titres were measured via TCID50 assay. In parallel, filtration efficiency tests and breathability tests were performed according to EN standard 14683 and NIOSH regulations. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Infectious porcine respiratory coronavirus and murine norovirus remained detectable on masks and respirators up to five and seven days of passive decontamination. Single and multiple cycles of VHP-, UVGI-, and DH were shown to not adversely affect bacterial filtration efficiency of masks. Single- and multiple UVGI did not adversely affect respirator filtration efficiency, while VHP and DH induced a decrease in filtration efficiency after one or three decontamination cycles. Multiple cycles of VHP-, UVGI-, and DH slightly decreased airflow resistance of masks but did not adversely affect respirator breathability. VHP and UVGI efficiently inactivated both viruses after five, DH after three, decontamination cycles, permitting demonstration of a loss of infectivity by more than three orders of magnitude. This multi-disciplinal approach provides important information on how often a given PPE item may be safely reused.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Decontamination/methods , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Norovirus/drug effects , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Reuse , Hot Temperature , Humans , Masks/microbiology , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , Ultraviolet Therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical/microbiology , Volatilization
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Bacteria/drug effects , COVID-19 , Disinfection/methods , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Norovirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627994

ABSTRACT

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ≥2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Norovirus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Saxifragaceae , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Calicivirus, Feline/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Hemagglutination Tests , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/drug effects
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