Importance: Pregnancy intention assessment is a key element of preconception and contraceptive care. The association between a single screening question and the incidence of pregnancy is unknown. Objective: To prospectively evaluate the dynamics of pregnancy intention and pregnancy incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study (the Nurses' Health Study 3) was conducted from June 1, 2010, to April 1, 2022, in 18â¯376 premenopausal, nonpregnant female nurses aged 19 to 44 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pregnancy intention and pregnancy status were assessed at baseline and approximately every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between pregnancy intention and pregnancy incidence. Results: A total of 18â¯376 premenopausal, nonpregnant women (mean [SD] age, 32.4 [6.5] years) participated in the study. At baseline, 1008 women (5.5%) were trying to conceive, 2452 (13.3%) were contemplating pregnancy within 1 year, and the remaining 14â¯916 (81.2%) were neither trying to conceive nor thought they would be pregnant within 1 year. A total of 1314 pregnancies were documented within 12 months of pregnancy intention assessment. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy was 38.8% in women actively trying to conceive (median [IQR] time to pregnancy, 3.3 [1.5-6.7] months), 27.6% in women contemplating pregnancy (median [IQR] time to pregnancy, 6.7 [4.2-9.3] months), and 1.7% in women neither trying to conceive nor contemplating pregnancy (median [IQR] time to pregnancy, 7.8 [5.2-10.5] months) among those who became pregnant. Women who were actively trying to conceive were 23.1 times (95% CI, 19.5-27.4 times) and women who were contemplating pregnancy were 13.0 times (95% CI, 11.1-15.2 times) more likely to conceive within 12 months than women who were neither attempting nor contemplating pregnancy. Among women contemplating pregnancy at baseline who did not get pregnant during follow up, 18.8% were actively trying and 27.6% were not trying by 12 months. Conversely, only 4.9% of women neither trying to conceive nor contemplating pregnancy within 1 year at baseline changed pregnancy intention during follow up. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of reproductive-aged nurses in North America, pregnancy intention was highly fluid among women who were contemplating pregnancy but relatively stable among women trying to conceive and women who were neither trying to conceive nor contemplating pregnancy. Pregnancy intention was strongly associated with pregnancy incidence, but the median time to pregnancy points to a relatively short time window to initiate preconception care.
Subject(s)Intention , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Cohort Studies , Incidence , Prospective Studies , North America
Many medications have been reported to be associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) through pharmacovigilance data and published case reports. Whilst there are existing data available regarding drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy, there is no available synthesis of evidence to assess drug-induced TTP (DI-TTP). Despite this lack of evidence, patients with TTP are often advised against using many medications due to the theoretical risk of DI-TTP. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for an association of medications reported as potential triggers for TTP. Of 5098 records available 261 articles were assessed further for eligibility. Fifty-seven reports, totalling 90 patients, were included in the final analysis. There were no cases where the level of association was rated as definite or probable, demonstrating a lack of evidence of any drug causing DI-TTP. This paucity of evidence was also demonstrated in the pharmacovigilance data, where 613 drugs were reported as potential causes of TTP without assessment of the strength of association. This systematic review demonstrates the need for standardised reporting of potential drugs causing TTP. Many reports omit basic information and, therefore, hinder the chance of finding a causative link if one exists.
Subject(s)Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Thrombotic Microangiopathies , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Pharmacovigilance , North America
Subject(s)Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Humans , Global Health , Pandemics , North America/epidemiology
Telehealth (TH) broadly encompasses remote activities of clinical care (telemedicine), provider and patient education, and general health services. The use of synchronous video for TH first occurred in 1964 and then catapulted to the forefront in 2020 during the coronavirus disease 2019 public health emergency. Due to the sudden need for increased TH utilization by nearly all health care providers at that time, TH became essential to clinical practice. However, its sustainable future is unclear in part given that best practices for TH in pediatric gastroenterology (GI), hepatology, and nutrition remain undefined and non-standardized. Key areas for review include historical perspective, general and subspeciality usage, health care disparities, quality of care and the provider-patient interaction, logistics and operations, licensure and liability, reimbursement and insurance coverage, research and quality improvement (QI) priorities, and future use of TH in pediatric GI with a call for advocacy. This position paper from the Telehealth Special Interest Group of North American Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition provides recommendations for pediatric GI-focused TH best practices, reviews areas for research and QI growth, and presents advocacy opportunities.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Gastroenterology , Telemedicine , Child , Humans , Gastroenterology/education , Societies , North America , Societies, Medical
In our Information Technology (IT) based societies, social media plays an important role in communications and social networks for COVID-19. This study explores social responses for COVID-19 in North America, which is the most severe continent affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study employs social network analysis for Twitter among the US, Canada, and Mexico. This study finds that the 3 countries show different characteristics of social networks for COVID-19. For example, the Prime Minister plays the second most important role in the Canadian networks, whereas the Presidents play the most significant role in them, in the US, and Mexico. WHO shows a pivotal effect on social networks of COVID-19 in Canada and the US, whereas it does not affect them in Mexico. Canadians are interested in COVID-19 apps, the American people criticize the president and administration as incompetent in terms of COVID-19, and the Mexican people search for COVID-19 cases and the pandemic in Mexico. This study shows that governments and disease experts should understand social networks and communications of social network services, to develop effective COVID-19 policies according to the characteristics of their country.