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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732056

ABSTRACT

Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at heightened risk for infection, morbidity, and mortality from COVID-19. However, health consequences of the pandemic extend far beyond those directly caused by the virus. This scoping review aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and well-being of PEH in North America and Europe. A systematic search of academic and grey literature was conducted in September 2021. To be included, studies had to include primary data related to the impact of the pandemic on health or well-being of PEH and be written in English. All potentially relevant references were independently screened by two reviewers, and minor conflicts were settled with input of a third reviewer. A total of 96 articles met criteria for inclusion. Data extraction was completed for all included studies, and findings synthesised and presented thematically. Numerous health impacts of the pandemic on PEH were identified, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, morbidity, mortality, and hospitalisation, fear of infection, access to housing, hygiene, PPE, food, as well as mental health, substance use, other health-related outcomes and treatment services. Gaps in the literature relating to persons using alcohol, access to mental health support, and violence were also identified. Implications for future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139358, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720888

ABSTRACT

There is evidence that the current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is of animal origin. As with a number of zoonotic pathogens, there is a risk of spillover into novel hosts. Here, we propose a hypothesized conceptual model that illustrates the mechanism whereby the SARS-CoV-2 could spillover from infected humans to naive wildlife hosts in North America. This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal waste water treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected. We use the existing literature on human coronaviruses, including SARS CoV, to support the potential pathways and mechanisms in the conceptual model. Although we focus on North America, our conceptual model could apply to other parts of the globe as well.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Betacoronavirus , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Feces/virology , Humans , Models, Biological , North America , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water/virology , Water Pollutants
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715305

ABSTRACT

Ageism has been well-documented in the United States, but ageism experiences in Canada remain less well-known. To address this gap, in the current research middle-aged and older Canadians completed a conversational interview in which they described their ageism experiences. Their descriptions were coded for life domain, perpetrator, and type of ageist communication. The most common domain in which ageist communication occurred was the public sphere, with perpetrators most often being strangers. Ageist communication most often involved age-based social or physical assumptions about the participant. In combination, these findings detail how ageism manifests in the everyday lives of Canadians and contribute to understanding the nuances of the expression of ageism in North America.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aged , Aging , Attitude , Canada , Communication , Humans , Middle Aged , North America
5.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(1): 75-76, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593888

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the real-world diagnostic performance of Radiological Society of North America COVID-19 consensus reporting guidelines among 2618 chest CT reports from the author's health care network from April 2020 through March 2021; reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction served as the reference. Typical findings exhibited sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 91%, similar to performance reported in research settings. PPV of 52% was lower than previously reported, attributed to low COVID-19 prevalence. Accuracy improved from 84% in April 2020 to 92% in March 2021 (p = .03).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Consensus , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North America , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Societies, Medical , Young Adult
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25431, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media is a rich source where we can learn about people's reactions to social issues. As COVID-19 has impacted people's lives, it is essential to capture how people react to public health interventions and understand their concerns. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate people's reactions and concerns about COVID-19 in North America, especially in Canada. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19-related tweets using topic modeling and aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA), and interpreted the results with public health experts. To generate insights on the effectiveness of specific public health interventions for COVID-19, we compared timelines of topics discussed with the timing of implementation of interventions, synergistically including information on people's sentiment about COVID-19-related aspects in our analysis. In addition, to further investigate anti-Asian racism, we compared timelines of sentiments for Asians and Canadians. RESULTS: Topic modeling identified 20 topics, and public health experts provided interpretations of the topics based on top-ranked words and representative tweets for each topic. The interpretation and timeline analysis showed that the discovered topics and their trend are highly related to public health promotions and interventions such as physical distancing, border restrictions, handwashing, staying home, and face coverings. After training the data using ABSA with human-in-the-loop, we obtained 545 aspect terms (eg, "vaccines," "economy," and "masks") and 60 opinion terms such as "infectious" (negative) and "professional" (positive), which were used for inference of sentiments of 20 key aspects selected by public health experts. The results showed negative sentiments related to the overall outbreak, misinformation and Asians, and positive sentiments related to physical distancing. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses using natural language processing techniques with domain expert involvement can produce useful information for public health. This study is the first to analyze COVID-19-related tweets in Canada in comparison with tweets in the United States by using topic modeling and human-in-the-loop domain-specific ABSA. This kind of information could help public health agencies to understand public concerns as well as what public health messages are resonating in our populations who use Twitter, which can be helpful for public health agencies when designing a policy for new interventions.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Public Health , Racism , Social Media , Canada , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Natural Language Processing , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1407-1418, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor with known anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in combination with standard of care for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, participants were enrolled from 101 centres across 12 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Hospitalised adults with COVID-19 receiving standard of care were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily baricitinib (4 mg) or matched placebo for up to 14 days. Standard of care included systemic corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, and antivirals, including remdesivir. The composite primary endpoint was the proportion who progressed to high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death by day 28, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. All-cause mortality by day 28 was a key secondary endpoint, and all-cause mortality by day 60 was an exploratory endpoint; both were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the safety population defined as all randomly allocated participants who received at least one dose of study drug and who were not lost to follow-up before the first post-baseline visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04421027. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 1525 participants were randomly assigned to the baricitinib group (n=764) or the placebo group (n=761). 1204 (79·3%) of 1518 participants with available data were receiving systemic corticosteroids at baseline, of whom 1099 (91·3%) were on dexamethasone; 287 (18·9%) participants were receiving remdesivir. Overall, 27·8% of participants receiving baricitinib and 30·5% receiving placebo progressed to meet the primary endpoint (odds ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·67 to 1·08], p=0·18), with an absolute risk difference of -2·7 percentage points (95% CI -7·3 to 1·9). The 28-day all-cause mortality was 8% (n=62) for baricitinib and 13% (n=100) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [95% CI 0·41-0·78]; nominal p=0·0018), a 38·2% relative reduction in mortality; one additional death was prevented per 20 baricitinib-treated participants. The 60-day all-cause mortality was 10% (n=79) for baricitinib and 15% (n=116) for placebo (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·47-0·83]; p=0·0050). The frequencies of serious adverse events (110 [15%] of 750 in the baricitinib group vs 135 [18%] of 752 in the placebo group), serious infections (64 [9%] vs 74 [10%]), and venous thromboembolic events (20 [3%] vs 19 [3%]) were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: Although there was no significant reduction in the frequency of disease progression overall, treatment with baricitinib in addition to standard of care (including dexamethasone) had a similar safety profile to that of standard of care alone, and was associated with reduced mortality in hospitalised adults with COVID-19. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , Asia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Double-Blind Method , Europe , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Treatment Outcome
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526853

ABSTRACT

Many people's life situations are changing as a result of restrictions being imposed by national governments to limit the spread of the virus. These may be associated with additional factors (emotional or financial, for example) that influence eating behavior and physical activity levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to show whether there is a relationship between a changing life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. An online survey was conducted between 28 April and 16 July 2020 with 921 participants from European countries and countries outside Europe (South and North America, Australia). An analysis of the obtained results showed an unfavorable relationship between a change in life situation during the pandemic and eating behavior as well as physical activity. This was observed mainly among students who returned to their family homes and respondents whose working hours increased. Students were more likely to snack between meals (51.13%, p < 0.001) and to consume more sweets (45.11%, p < 0.001) and savory snacks (30.83%, p < 0.001). Those whose working hours had increased, consumed morefast foods (13.57%, p < 0.05) during that time. On the other hand, the study results indicated that a change in life situation during the pandemic can also have a positive impact on eating behavior and physical activity. This was exhibited by individuals who transitioned to remote working. An improvement in the regularity of eating (38.86%, p < 0.001) was recorded for this group. The relationship between a change in life situation and eating behavior was further emphasized by the fact that people whose life situation had not changed were more likely to declare no change in the regularity of eating (62.86%, p < 0.001) and snacking (61.71%, p < 0.001). At the same time, they were less likely to exhibit a higher intake of sweets (22.29%, p < 0.01) and salty snacks (13.14%, p < 0.01). The study results indicated that a change in the nutritional situation during the pandemic may have had both negative and positive effects on eating behavior and physical activity. Finding these relationships may help identify groups that are particularly vulnerable to reduced diet quality and reduced levels of physical activity. Considering the immunomodulating effects of diets and the fact that physical activity is essential for maintaining good health, further research in this area is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , North America , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Young Adult
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3443-3452, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526424

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is phylogenetically related to bat coronaviruses (CoVs), specifically SARS-related CoVs from the Eurasian bat family Rhinolophidae. As this human pandemic virus has spread across the world, the potential impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on native North American bat populations are unknown, as is the ability of North American bats to serve as reservoirs or intermediate hosts able to transmit the virus to humans or to other animal species. To help determine the impacts of the pandemic virus on North American bat populations, we experimentally challenged big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with SARS-CoV-2 under BSL-3 conditions. We inoculated the bats both oropharyngeally and nasally, and over the ensuing three weeks, we measured infectivity, pathology, virus concentrations in tissues, oral and rectal virus excretion, virus transmission, and clinical signs of disease. We found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in any examined bat, including no viral excretion, no transmission, no detectable virus in tissues, and no signs of disease or pathology. Based on our findings, it appears that big brown bats are resistant to infection with the SARS-CoV-2. The potential susceptibility of other North American bat species to SARS-CoV-2 remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256630, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518353

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a respiratory infection caused by bacteria or viruses; it affects many individuals, especially in developing and underdeveloped nations, where high levels of pollution, unhygienic living conditions, and overcrowding are relatively common, together with inadequate medical infrastructure. Pneumonia causes pleural effusion, a condition in which fluids fill the lung, causing respiratory difficulty. Early diagnosis of pneumonia is crucial to ensure curative treatment and increase survival rates. Chest X-ray imaging is the most frequently used method for diagnosing pneumonia. However, the examination of chest X-rays is a challenging task and is prone to subjective variability. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis system for automatic pneumonia detection using chest X-ray images. We employed deep transfer learning to handle the scarcity of available data and designed an ensemble of three convolutional neural network models: GoogLeNet, ResNet-18, and DenseNet-121. A weighted average ensemble technique was adopted, wherein the weights assigned to the base learners were determined using a novel approach. The scores of four standard evaluation metrics, precision, recall, f1-score, and the area under the curve, are fused to form the weight vector, which in studies in the literature was frequently set experimentally, a method that is prone to error. The proposed approach was evaluated on two publicly available pneumonia X-ray datasets, provided by Kermany et al. and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), respectively, using a five-fold cross-validation scheme. The proposed method achieved accuracy rates of 98.81% and 86.85% and sensitivity rates of 98.80% and 87.02% on the Kermany and RSNA datasets, respectively. The results were superior to those of state-of-the-art methods and our method performed better than the widely used ensemble techniques. Statistical analyses on the datasets using McNemar's and ANOVA tests showed the robustness of the approach. The codes for the proposed work are available at https://github.com/Rohit-Kundu/Ensemble-Pneumonia-Detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/virology , Deep Learning , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Neural Networks, Computer , North America , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thorax/pathology , X-Rays
12.
Sleep Health ; 7(6): 666-674, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sleep may be especially important for maintaining health and well-being in daily life amid the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This preregistered study examined the associations of sleep quality, duration, and efficiency with next-day physical symptoms, affect, and stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in North America, in addition to evaluating individual differences in COVID-19 threat as a moderator. METHOD: From mid-March to early August 2020, 1025 adults from Canada and the United States aged 18-91 reported COVID-19 threat at baseline and subsequently completed twice-daily diaries for one week about their sleep, negative affect, stressors, and physical symptoms. RESULTS: Within-persons, nights with better-than-usual sleep quality predicted lower next-day negative affect, physical symptoms, and stressor occurrence. Better-than-usual sleep efficiency and longer-than-usual sleep duration also predicted lower next-day physical symptoms. COVID-19 threat ratings moderated several of these associations, such that individuals with higher COVID-19 threat showed weaker within-person associations of sleep duration and efficiency with next-day well-being, compared to individuals with lower-to-moderate levels of COVID-19 threat. For the reversed direction of association, stressor occurrence predicted shorter-than-usual sleep that night, but no other links between daily well-being and subsequent sleep were observed. DISCUSSION: Sleep quality, efficiency, and duration were important predictors of daily health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the protective associations between sleep and next-day well-being were attenuated among people with higher COVID-19 threat. These findings highlight the role of heightened stress contexts when considering the benefits of sleep on daily health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , United States/epidemiology
13.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol ; 133(1): 34-41, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess resident and faculty perception of the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the training experience, education, and psychological well-being of oral medicine (OM) residents. STUDY DESIGN: An anonymous 16-item online questionnaire was e-mailed to faculty and residents of all Commission on Dental Accreditation-accredited OM residency programs in North America. Survey questions asked about the pandemic's effect on resident educational, clinical, and research activities and the well-being of the residents. Survey data were collected using Qualtrics XM. RESULTS: Forty participants (52.5% residents and 47.5% faculty members) responded to the survey. Regarding the effect on clinical activities, 67.5% reported 50% or less reduction in patient volume seen by residents at its worst during the pandemic. With respect to educational activities, most reported a complete switch of didactic training (85.3%), academic examinations (60%), and off-site resident rotations (45%) to a virtual platform. Research activities were affected the most; 55% reported complete cessation for some time. Thirty-three percent perceived a negative effect, 18% perceived no effect, 11% perceived a positive effect, and 38% were unsure regarding the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 on resident morale. Despite the interruptions in the clinical, research, and educational activities, 62.5% expected on-time resident graduation. CONCLUSION: Despite constraints due to the pandemic, OM residency programs successfully continued clinical activities, didactic training, and research productivity through virtual means and a hybrid delivery care model while supporting their residents' morale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Humans , Mental Health , North America/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Genet Couns ; 30(5): 1325-1335, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473863

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has upended genetic counseling (GC) graduate students' lives, as they have been forced to transition, manage, and acclimate to life during a pandemic. The current study is a first step in understanding their lived experiences during this historic, global event. We investigated academic and personal challenges, intolerance of uncertainty, and psychological well-being of GC students (n = 248) who trained during the pandemic (GC-COV cohort) and those who did not (GC-NoCOV cohort). Participants completed an online survey (July-September 2020) that used validated measures of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Psychological Well-Being. To assess the academic and personal challenges students experienced during GC graduate training, we developed a 43-item measure. Principal axis factoring of the items revealed categories of challenges related to the following: Academic & Professional Development, Self-Regulation & Resilience, Institutional & Program Leadership, and Financial Stability. There was no cohort difference in Psychological Well-Being. Linear mixed-effects modeling showed significant cohort differences in challenges. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the GC-COV cohort's Psychological Well-Being was statistically significantly predicted by Institutional & Program Leadership challenges (p = .029), Self-Regulation & Resilience challenges (p = .013), and Intolerance of Uncertainty (p = .010). For the GC-NoCOV cohort, the statistically significant predictor of Psychological Well-Being was Self-Regulation & Resilience challenges (p = .029). Our findings demonstrate that GC students training during the COVID-19 pandemic have experienced various personal, academic, and psychological disruptions and highlight a need to develop resources and implement interventions supporting students' academic development and psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Genetic Counseling , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Uncertainty
15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102885, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is evidence of an increased prevalence and disease burden of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in parts of the world where the risk was once considered low, such as Latin America (LA), Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Middle East-North Africa (MENA). Despite the growing number of clinical reports, the phenotype and course of MS in these regions remains understudied compared with Europe and North America. We aimed to investigate MS phenotypes and long-term clinical outcomes across these regions. METHOD: A Boolean search of the medical literature was conducted between January 1980 and April 30, 2020. PubMed, SCOPUS, Global Health, and the Cochrane databases, were used to identify all relevant citations. Articles were collated and managed on Covidence® software. We independently appraised the articles for meeting study criteria and for quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) and the Specialist Unit for Review Evidence (SURE) system. RESULTS: A total of 1,639 studies were imported for screening. After removing 545 duplicates, two authors assessed 1,094 abstracts and selected 515 for full-text screening. 72 articles met study criteria, including 19 studies from LA, 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 24 from Asia and 25 from MENA. The overall sex ratio was 2.5:1 (female: male). Disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Longitudinal disability progression and time to standard endpoints was compared by region and with relevant Western reports. Patients with MS living in the MENA region appear to reach disability milestones faster than those in the Western world, although this finding is not uniform. South Asia shows distinct disability features compared with East Asia, more closely resembling those of the West. Disease morbidity in East Asia appears more benign than in the West after careful exclusion of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder cases. Populations in LA tend to have similar MS features to the Western world, but some exceptions exist, including African descendants that reach disability milestones earlier. Using all studies with appropriate survival analysis, the mean time to EDSS 6.0 was 16.97 years with a heterogeneity index of 24.59. CONCLUSION: The clinical phenotypes and disability progression of MS in LA, Africa, Asia and the MENA region have similarities to Western MS. In some regions and subpopulations there is evidence of a more aggressive course, possibly due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. More population-based longitudinal data are needed, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Africa/epidemiology , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle East/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , North America
16.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 200, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of opioid use disorder (OUD) has been increasing in North America. Administration of medication-assisted treatments (MATs) for OUD on an individual-dose basis has been shown to affect patient responses to treatment, proving to be, on occasion, dangerous. A genetic basis has been identified for some MAT responses in a candidate gene context, but consensus has not been reached for any genome-wide significant associations. This systematic review aims to identify and assess any genetic variants associated with MAT patient outcomes at genome-wide significance. METHODS: The databases searched by the authors will be: MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pre-CINAHL, GWAS Catalog, GWAS Central, and NIH Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes. A title and abstract screening, full-text screening, data extraction, and quality assessment will be completed in duplicate for each study via Covidence. Treatment outcomes of interest include continued opioid use or abstinence during treatment or at follow-up, time to relapse, treatment retention rates, opioid overdose, other substance use, comorbid psychiatric disorders, risk taking behaviors, MAT plasma concentrations, and mortality rates. Analysis methods applied, if appropriate, will include random effects meta-analysis with pooled odds ratios for all outcomes. Subgroup analyses will also be implemented, when possible. DISCUSSION: This systematic review can hopefully inform the direction of future research, aiding in the development of a safer and more patient-centered treatment. It will be able to highlight genome-wide significant variants that are replicable and associated with MAT patient outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (registration ID CRD42020169121).


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Genome-Wide Association Study , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , North America , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/genetics , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8758161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aging is a growing public health concern for people, organizations, and governments. The current study was undertaken to provide insights into the global research output on geriatric nursing. METHODS: A bibliometric study was implemented using the WoS database for the period from 1900 to 2020. Various tools and measures were used to analyze and visualized. RESULTS: The search strategy found 4923 papers. The oldest paper was written by Beverly C. Andre in 1953. As team size increases, so does the number of citations. The USA was the active country and the highest number of coauthors. New York University was an active institution. Stig Karlsson was the most active author in Geriatric Nursing with 28 articles from Sweden, followed by Koen Milisen and Sandman, with 26 articles each from Sweden and Belgium. The most frequent words in this field were depression, malnutrition, education, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia. The latest research themes in this field were COVID-19, interprofessional locomotive syndrome, emergency nursing, and public health. The most influential papers were specified. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society was the most active journal. CONCLUSIONS: Geriatric nursing is a rooted field and has received special attention in the last decade. Policymakers, especially in developing countries, should pay attention to geriatric nursing as a specialty of nursing to solve aging issues they would face considering the increasing elderly population.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Geriatric Nursing , Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Bibliometrics , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19 , Dementia , Depression , Europe , Geriatric Nursing/trends , Humans , International Cooperation , North America , Serial Publications/statistics & numerical data
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105087, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442480

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has rapidly spread around the globe. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 just three months after the introduction of the virus. Individual nations have implemented and enforced a variety of social distancing interventions to slow the virus spread, that had different degrees of success. Understanding the role of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on COVID-19 transmission in different settings is highly important. While most such studies have focused on China, neighboring Asian counties, Western Europe, and North America, there is a scarcity of studies for Eastern Europe. The aim of this epidemiological study is to fill this gap by analyzing the characteristics of the first months of the epidemic in Ukraine using agent-based modelling and phylodynamics. Specifically, first we studied the dynamics of COVID-19 incidence and mortality and explored the impact of epidemic NPIs. Our stochastic model suggests, that even a small delay of weeks could have increased the number of cases by up to 50%, with the potential to overwhelm hospital systems. Second, the genomic data analysis suggests that there have been multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Ukraine during the early stages of the epidemic. Our findings support the conclusion that the implemented travel restrictions may have had limited impact on the epidemic spread. Third, the basic reproduction number for the epidemic that has been estimated independently from case counts data and from genomic data suggest sustained intra-country transmissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Genome, Viral , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Ukraine/epidemiology
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