Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 71
Filter
1.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(4, jul-ago): 342-343, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204870
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 340, 2022 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We developed machine learning models to understand the predictors of shorter-, intermediate-, and longer-term mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients affected by COVID-19 in four countries in the Americas. METHODS: We used data from adult HD patients treated at regional institutions of a global provider in Latin America (LatAm) and North America who contracted COVID-19 in 2020 before SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were available. Using 93 commonly captured variables, we developed machine learning models that predicted the likelihood of death overall, as well as during 0-14, 15-30, > 30 days after COVID-19 presentation and identified the importance of predictors. XGBoost models were built in parallel using the same programming with a 60%:20%:20% random split for training, validation, & testing data for the datasets from LatAm (Argentina, Columbia, Ecuador) and North America (United States) countries. RESULTS: Among HD patients with COVID-19, 28.8% (1,001/3,473) died in LatAm and 20.5% (4,426/21,624) died in North America. Mortality occurred earlier in LatAm versus North America; 15.0% and 7.3% of patients died within 0-14 days, 7.9% and 4.6% of patients died within 15-30 days, and 5.9% and 8.6% of patients died > 30 days after COVID-19 presentation, respectively. Area under curve ranged from 0.73 to 0.83 across prediction models in both regions. Top predictors of death after COVID-19 consistently included older age, longer vintage, markers of poor nutrition and more inflammation in both regions at all timepoints. Unique patient attributes (higher BMI, male sex) were top predictors of mortality during 0-14 and 15-30 days after COVID-19, yet not mortality > 30 days after presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed distinct profiles of mortality in COVID-19 in LatAm and North America throughout 2020. Mortality rate was higher within 0-14 and 15-30 days after COVID-19 in LatAm, while mortality rate was higher in North America > 30 days after presentation. Nonetheless, a remarkable proportion of HD patients died > 30 days after COVID-19 presentation in both regions. We were able to develop a series of suitable prognostic prediction models and establish the top predictors of death in COVID-19 during shorter-, intermediate-, and longer-term follow up periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines , Machine Learning , North America/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Female
4.
Am J Surg ; 224(5): 1222-1228, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast Cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women in the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic affected healthcare delivery throughout North America. Breast cancer diagnosis and management was similarly affected. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review to determine the impact of COVID-19 on BC care and the impact on patients' well-being. RESULTS: Our review found that the pandemic led to changes in screenings, biopsies, medical therapy, and surgery. Constraints of the pandemic left patients without resources to navigate the emotional toll from social distancing. There was a disparity in patients' perceptions of the impact of the pandemic on BC care. CONCLUSION: Although the pandemic altered medical care in general, we found that the impact on breast cancer care was counterintuitively not as significant as predicted. However, the pandemic did impact breast cancer patients' mental well-being. This highlights the importance of properly communicating, in real-time, guidelines on breast cancer management to allay the fears of the general public.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Delivery of Health Care , North America/epidemiology
5.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 18(6): 803-811, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has transformed surgical care, yet little is known regarding implications for bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the effect of COVID-19 on bariatric surgery delivery and outcomes. SETTING: The Metabolic and Bariatric Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) collects data from 885 centers in North America. METHODS: The MBSAQIP database was evaluated with 2 cohorts described: the COVID-19 and the pre-COVID-19, with patients receiving surgery in 2020 and 2015-2019, respectively. Yearly operative trends were characterized, and bivariate analysis compared demographics and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable modeling evaluated 30-day readmission, reintervention, and reoperation rates and factors associated with undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. RESULTS: We evaluated 834,647 patients, with 155,830 undergoing bariatric surgery during the 2020 pandemic year. A 12.1% reduction in total cases (177,208 in 2019 versus 155,830 in 2020; P < .001) and 13.8% reduction in cases per center occurred (204.2 cases per center in 2019 versus 176.1 cases per center in 2020; P < .001). Patients receiving bariatric surgery during the pandemic were younger and had fewer co-morbidities. Use of sleeve gastrectomy increased (74.5% versus 72.5%; P < .001), and surgery during COVID-19 was associated with reduced Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure selection (odds ratio = .83; 95% CI: .82-.84; P < .001). Length of stay decreased significantly (1.4 ± 1.4 days versus 1.6 ± 1.4 days; P < .001), yet postoperative outcomes were similar. After adjusting for co-morbidities, patients during COVID-19 had decreased 30-day odds of readmission and reintervention and a small increase in odds of reoperation. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically changed bariatric surgery delivery. Further studies evaluating the long-term effects of these changes are warranted.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Gastric Bypass , Laparoscopy , Obesity, Morbid , Bariatric Surgery/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrectomy/methods , Gastric Bypass/methods , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , North America/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732056

ABSTRACT

Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at heightened risk for infection, morbidity, and mortality from COVID-19. However, health consequences of the pandemic extend far beyond those directly caused by the virus. This scoping review aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and well-being of PEH in North America and Europe. A systematic search of academic and grey literature was conducted in September 2021. To be included, studies had to include primary data related to the impact of the pandemic on health or well-being of PEH and be written in English. All potentially relevant references were independently screened by two reviewers, and minor conflicts were settled with input of a third reviewer. A total of 96 articles met criteria for inclusion. Data extraction was completed for all included studies, and findings synthesised and presented thematically. Numerous health impacts of the pandemic on PEH were identified, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, morbidity, mortality, and hospitalisation, fear of infection, access to housing, hygiene, PPE, food, as well as mental health, substance use, other health-related outcomes and treatment services. Gaps in the literature relating to persons using alcohol, access to mental health support, and violence were also identified. Implications for future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rofo ; 194(8): 862-872, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713251

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Classifications were created to facilitate radiological evaluation of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on computed tomography (CT) images. The categorical CT assessment scheme (CO-RADS) categorizes lung parenchymal changes according to their likelihood of being caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of diagnosing COVID-19 with CO-RADS compared to the Thoracic Imaging Section of the German Radiological Society (DRG) classification and Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) classification in an anonymized patient cohort. To mimic advanced disease stages, follow-up examinations were included as well. METHOD: This study includes all patients undergoing chest CT in the case of a suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection or an already confirmed infection between March 13 and November 30, 2020. During the study period, two regional lockdowns occurred due to high incidence values, increasing the pre-test probability of COVID-19. Anonymized CT images were reviewed retrospectively and in consensus by two radiologists applying CO-RADS, DRG, and RSNA classification. Afterwards, CT findings were compared to results of sequential real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test performed during hospitalization to determine statistical analysis for diagnosing COVID-19. RESULTS: 536 CT examinations were included. CO-RADS, DRG and RSNA achieved an NPV of 96 %/94 %/95 % (CO-RADS/DRG/RSNA), PPV of 83 %/80 %/88 %, sensitivity of 86 %/76 %/80 %, and specificity of 96 %/95 %/97 %. The disease prevalence was 20 %. CONCLUSION: All applied classifications can reliably exclude a SARS-CoV-2 infection even in an anonymous setting. Nevertheless, pre-test probability was high in our study setting and has a great influence on the classifications. Therefore, the applicability of the individual classifications will become apparent in the future with lower prevalence and incidence of COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · CO-RADS, DRG, and RSNA classifications help to reliably detect infected patients in an anonymized setting. · Pre-test probability has a great influence on the individual classifications. · Difficulties in an anonymized study setting are severe pulmonary changes and residuals.. CITATION FORMAT: · Valentin B, Steuwe A, Wienemann T et al. Applicability of CO-RADS in an Anonymized Cohort Including Early and Advanced Stages of COVID-19 in Comparison to the Recommendations of the German Radiological Society and Radiological Society of North America. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2022; 194: 862 - 872.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3443-3452, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526424

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is phylogenetically related to bat coronaviruses (CoVs), specifically SARS-related CoVs from the Eurasian bat family Rhinolophidae. As this human pandemic virus has spread across the world, the potential impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on native North American bat populations are unknown, as is the ability of North American bats to serve as reservoirs or intermediate hosts able to transmit the virus to humans or to other animal species. To help determine the impacts of the pandemic virus on North American bat populations, we experimentally challenged big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with SARS-CoV-2 under BSL-3 conditions. We inoculated the bats both oropharyngeally and nasally, and over the ensuing three weeks, we measured infectivity, pathology, virus concentrations in tissues, oral and rectal virus excretion, virus transmission, and clinical signs of disease. We found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in any examined bat, including no viral excretion, no transmission, no detectable virus in tissues, and no signs of disease or pathology. Based on our findings, it appears that big brown bats are resistant to infection with the SARS-CoV-2. The potential susceptibility of other North American bat species to SARS-CoV-2 remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sleep Health ; 7(6): 666-674, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sleep may be especially important for maintaining health and well-being in daily life amid the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This preregistered study examined the associations of sleep quality, duration, and efficiency with next-day physical symptoms, affect, and stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in North America, in addition to evaluating individual differences in COVID-19 threat as a moderator. METHOD: From mid-March to early August 2020, 1025 adults from Canada and the United States aged 18-91 reported COVID-19 threat at baseline and subsequently completed twice-daily diaries for one week about their sleep, negative affect, stressors, and physical symptoms. RESULTS: Within-persons, nights with better-than-usual sleep quality predicted lower next-day negative affect, physical symptoms, and stressor occurrence. Better-than-usual sleep efficiency and longer-than-usual sleep duration also predicted lower next-day physical symptoms. COVID-19 threat ratings moderated several of these associations, such that individuals with higher COVID-19 threat showed weaker within-person associations of sleep duration and efficiency with next-day well-being, compared to individuals with lower-to-moderate levels of COVID-19 threat. For the reversed direction of association, stressor occurrence predicted shorter-than-usual sleep that night, but no other links between daily well-being and subsequent sleep were observed. DISCUSSION: Sleep quality, efficiency, and duration were important predictors of daily health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the protective associations between sleep and next-day well-being were attenuated among people with higher COVID-19 threat. These findings highlight the role of heightened stress contexts when considering the benefits of sleep on daily health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , United States/epidemiology
11.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol ; 133(1): 34-41, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess resident and faculty perception of the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the training experience, education, and psychological well-being of oral medicine (OM) residents. STUDY DESIGN: An anonymous 16-item online questionnaire was e-mailed to faculty and residents of all Commission on Dental Accreditation-accredited OM residency programs in North America. Survey questions asked about the pandemic's effect on resident educational, clinical, and research activities and the well-being of the residents. Survey data were collected using Qualtrics XM. RESULTS: Forty participants (52.5% residents and 47.5% faculty members) responded to the survey. Regarding the effect on clinical activities, 67.5% reported 50% or less reduction in patient volume seen by residents at its worst during the pandemic. With respect to educational activities, most reported a complete switch of didactic training (85.3%), academic examinations (60%), and off-site resident rotations (45%) to a virtual platform. Research activities were affected the most; 55% reported complete cessation for some time. Thirty-three percent perceived a negative effect, 18% perceived no effect, 11% perceived a positive effect, and 38% were unsure regarding the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 on resident morale. Despite the interruptions in the clinical, research, and educational activities, 62.5% expected on-time resident graduation. CONCLUSION: Despite constraints due to the pandemic, OM residency programs successfully continued clinical activities, didactic training, and research productivity through virtual means and a hybrid delivery care model while supporting their residents' morale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Humans , Mental Health , North America/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105087, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442480

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has rapidly spread around the globe. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 just three months after the introduction of the virus. Individual nations have implemented and enforced a variety of social distancing interventions to slow the virus spread, that had different degrees of success. Understanding the role of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on COVID-19 transmission in different settings is highly important. While most such studies have focused on China, neighboring Asian counties, Western Europe, and North America, there is a scarcity of studies for Eastern Europe. The aim of this epidemiological study is to fill this gap by analyzing the characteristics of the first months of the epidemic in Ukraine using agent-based modelling and phylodynamics. Specifically, first we studied the dynamics of COVID-19 incidence and mortality and explored the impact of epidemic NPIs. Our stochastic model suggests, that even a small delay of weeks could have increased the number of cases by up to 50%, with the potential to overwhelm hospital systems. Second, the genomic data analysis suggests that there have been multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Ukraine during the early stages of the epidemic. Our findings support the conclusion that the implemented travel restrictions may have had limited impact on the epidemic spread. Third, the basic reproduction number for the epidemic that has been estimated independently from case counts data and from genomic data suggest sustained intra-country transmissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Genome, Viral , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Ukraine/epidemiology
13.
Virus Res ; 305: 198551, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440397

ABSTRACT

Samples from complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated during the first wave (December 2019-July 2020) of the global COVID-19 pandemic from 21 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East and America) around the world, were analyzed using the phylogenetic method with molecular clock dating. Results showed that the first cases of COVID-19 in the human population appeared in the period between July and November 2019 in China. The spread of the virus into other countries of the world began in the autumn of 2019. In mid-February 2020, the virus appeared in all the countries we analyzed. During this time, the global population of SARS-CoV-2 was characterized by low levels of the genetic polymorphism, making it difficult to accurately assess the pathways of infection. The rate of evolution of the coding region of the SARS-CoV-2 genome equal to 7.3 × 10-4 (5.95 × 10-4-8.68 × 10-4) nucleotide substitutions per site per year is comparable to those of other human RNA viruses (Measles morbillivirus, Rubella virus, Enterovirus C). SARS-CoV-2 was separated from its known close relative, the bat coronavirus RaTG13 of the genus Betacoronavirus, approximately 15-43 years ago (the end of the 20th century).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Genomics/methods , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South America/epidemiology
14.
Oral Dis ; 27 Suppl 3: 684-687, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434800

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health crisis for countries around the world. In response to this global outbreak, the World Health Organization declared a public health emergency of international concern. Dental professionals are especially at high risk of contracting the COVID-19 virus due to the unique nature of dentistry, more specifically, exposure to aerosols and droplets. When it comes to dental emergencies, it was crucial to maintain urgent dental care services operational to help reduce the burden on our healthcare system and hospitals already under pressure. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted how dentistry is practiced in North America in both the private practice and academic settings. This article shares the perspectives of dentists practicing in private practice and clinician-researchers in academic dental institutions. More specifically, we discuss about measures implemented to minimize risks of disease transmission, challenges in emergency dental care, impact on patients, as well as impact on the professional and personal lives of the dental team during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Dentistry , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Private Practice , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Acad Radiol ; 28(7): 950-952, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375876
16.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(5)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on people with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD). METHODS: The COVID-19 Infections in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Diseases (COViMS) Registry collected data on North American patients with MS and related diseases with laboratory-positive or highly suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. Deidentified data were entered into a web-based registry by health care providers. Data were analyzed using t-tests, Pearson χ2 tests, or Fisher exact tests for categorical variables. Univariate logistic regression models examined effects of risk factors and COVID-19 clinical severity. RESULTS: As of June 7, 2021, 77 patients with NMOSD and 20 patients with MOGAD were reported in the COViMS Registry. Most patients with NMOSD were laboratory positive for SARS-CoV-2 and taking rituximab at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis. Most patients with NMOSD were not hospitalized (64.9% [95% CI: 53.2%-75.5%]), whereas 15.6% (95% CI: 8.3%-25.6%) were hospitalized only, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.7%-17.8%) were admitted to the ICU and/or ventilated, and 10.4% (95% CI: 4.6%-19.5%) died. In patients with NMOSD, having a comorbidity was the sole factor identified for poorer COVID-19 outcome (OR = 6.0, 95% CI: 1.79-19.98). Most patients with MOGAD were laboratory positive for SARS-CoV-2, and almost half were taking rituximab. Among patients with MOGAD, 75.0% were not hospitalized, and no deaths were recorded; no factors were different between those not hospitalized and those hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, or ventilated. DISCUSSION: Among the reported patients with NMOSD, a high mortality rate was observed, and the presence of comorbid conditions was associated with worse COVID-19 outcome. There were no deaths reported in the patients with MOGAD, although these observations are limited due to small sample size.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Neuromyelitis Optica/mortality , Registries , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , North America/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Respiration, Artificial , Rituximab/administration & dosage
17.
Innovations (Phila) ; 16(4): 350-357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We report the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cardiac surgery trainee education in North America. METHODS: A survey was sent to participating academic adult cardiac surgery centers in North America. Data regarding the effect of COVID-19 on cardiac surgery training were analyzed. RESULTS: Responses were received from 53 academic institutions with diverse geographic distribution. Cardiac surgery trainee re-deployment to alternative clinical duties peaked at the height of the pandemic. We stratified institutions based on high (n = 20) and low burden (n = 33) of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The majority of institutions have converted didactics (high burden 90% vs low burden 73%) and interviews for jobs/fellowships (high burden 75% vs low burden 73%) from in-person to virtual. Institutions were mixed in preference for administration of the licensing examination, with the most common preference for examinations to be held remotely on normal timeline (high burden 45% vs low burden 30%) or in person with more than 3-month delay (high burden 20% vs low burden 33%). Despite the challenges experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic on trainee clinical experience, re-deployment, and decreased operative volume, institutions expected their trainees to graduate on schedule (high burden 95% vs low burden 91%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that actions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptions in cardiac surgery training with transition of didactics and interviews virtually and re-deployment to alternative duties. Despite this, institutions remain optimistic that their trainees will graduate on schedule.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/education , Education, Medical, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , North America/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(6): 629-640, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265531

ABSTRACT

We estimated the impact of a comprehensive set of non-pharmeceutical interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic growth rate across the 37 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and between October and December 2020. For this task, we conducted a data-driven, longitudinal analysis using a multilevel modelling approach with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation. We found that during the early phase of the epidemic: implementing restrictions on gatherings of more than 100 people, between 11 and 100 people, and 10 people or less was associated with a respective average reduction of 2.58%, 2.78% and 2.81% in the daily growth rate in weekly confirmed cases; requiring closing for some sectors or for all but essential workplaces with an average reduction of 1.51% and 1.78%; requiring closing of some school levels or all school levels with an average reduction of 1.12% or 1.65%; recommending mask wearing with an average reduction of 0.45%, requiring mask wearing country-wide in specific public spaces or in specific geographical areas within the country with an average reduction of 0.44%, requiring mask-wearing country-wide in all public places or all public places where social distancing is not possible with an average reduction of 0.96%; and number of tests per thousand population with an average reduction of 0.02% per unit increase. Between October and December 2020 work closing requirements and testing policy were significant predictors of the epidemic growth rate. These findings provide evidence to support policy decision-making regarding which NPIs to implement to control the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Asia/epidemiology , Australasia/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Br J Nurs ; 30(10): S8-S14, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244357

ABSTRACT

The challenges presented by the global COVID-19 pandemic have intensified the stressors placed on nurses, leading to burnout. Oncology nurse burnout is likely to be an increasingly significant issue for cancer services as the true cost of the pandemic is revealed. Delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancers are reported widely, inevitably leading to poor prognosis and more aggressive treatments for patients. Gaining a better understanding of oncology nurse burnout, its prevalence and causes as well as strategies to reduce or prevent it will help to improve patient care and support staff wellbeing during and after the pandemic. Methodology: A search of the literature related to oncology nurse burnout, covering North America and Europe over 5 years (August 2014-January 2020), resulted in 31 articles for review. None of the studies were carried out in the UK, suggesting a need for robust investigations into oncology nurse burnout in the British health service. Summary: The prevalence of burnout among oncology nurses before the COVID-19 outbreak appeared to be high and is likely to have increased as a result of the pandemic. However, the studies investigating oncology nurse burnout are small and cross-sectional, with low-quality methods. The literature suggests the major causes of burnout arise in the workplace, particularly aspects of the environment that prevent nurses from working according to their values. Although burnout is frequently attributed to workplace factors, interventions remain focused on individuals' coping mechanisms and rarely on the workplace factors that are known to cause it.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Oncology Nursing , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , North America/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL