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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238646

ABSTRACT

Rapid and sensitive detection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for early diagnosis and effective treatment. Nucleic acid testing has been considered the gold standard method for the diagnosis of COVID-19 for its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method in the central lab requires expensive equipment and well-trained personnel, which makes it difficult to be used in resource-limited settings. It highlights the need for a sensitive and simple assay that allows potential patients to detect SARS-CoV-2 by themselves. Here, we developed an electricity-free self-testing system based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) that allows for rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2. Our system employs a heating bag as the heat source, and a 3D-printed box filled with phase change material (PCM) that successfully regulates the temperature for the RT-LAMP. The colorimetric method could be completed in 40 min and the results could be read out by the naked eye. A ratiometric measurement for exact readout was also incorporated to improve the detection accuracy of the system. This self-testing system is a promising tool for point-of-care testing (POCT) that enables rapid and sensitive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the real world and will improve the current COVID-19 screening efforts for control and mitigation of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Testing , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
2.
Anal Chem ; 95(25): 9680-9686, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244047

ABSTRACT

Genetic tests are highly sensitive, and quantitative methods for diagnosing human viral infections, including COVID-19, are also being used to diagnose plant diseases in various agricultural settings. Conventional genetic tests for plant viruses are mostly based on methods that require purification and amplification of viral genomes from plant samples, which generally take several hours in total, making it difficult to use them in rapid detection at point-of-care testing (POCT). In this study, we developed Direct-SATORI, a rapid and robust genetic test that eliminates the purification and amplification processes of viral genomes by extending the recently developed amplification-free digital RNA detection platform called SATORI, allowing the detection of various plant viral genes in a total of less than 15 min with a limit of detection (LoD) of 98 ∼ copies/µL using tomato viruses as an example. In addition, the platform can simultaneously detect eight plant viruses directly from ∼1 mg of tomato leaves with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 99%. Direct-SATORI can be applied to various infections related to RNA viruses, and its practical use is highly anticipated as a versatile platform for plant disease diagnostics in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plant Viruses , Humans , RNA , Plant Viruses/genetics , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1271: 341469, 2023 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230823

ABSTRACT

Traditional nucleic acid extraction and detection is based on open operation, which may cause cross-contamination and aerosol formation. This study developed a droplet magnetic-controlled microfluidic chip integrated nucleic acid extraction, purification and amplification. The reagent is sealed in oil to form a droplet, and the nucleic acid is extracted and purified by controlling the movement of the magnetic beads (MBs) through a permanent magnet, ensuring a closed environment. This chip can automatically extract nucleic acid from multiple samples within 20 min, and can be directly placed in the in situ amplification instrument for amplification without further transfer of nucleic acid, characterized by simple, fast, time-saving and labor-saving. The results showed that the chip was able to detect <10 copies/test SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and EGFR exon 21 L858R mutations were detected in H1975 cells as low as 4 cells. In addition, on the basis of the droplet magnetic-controlled microfluidic chip, we further developed a multi-target detection chip, which used MBs to divide the nucleic acid of the sample into three parts. And the macrolides resistance mutations A2063G and A2064G, and the P1 gene of mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) were successfully detected in clinical samples by the multi-target detection chip, providing the possibility for future application in the detection of multiple pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Microfluidics , RNA, Viral , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Magnetic Phenomena
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1251: 340998, 2023 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230777

ABSTRACT

Non-specific amplification is a major problem in nucleic acid amplification resulting in false-positive results, especially for exponential amplification reactions (EXPAR). Although efforts were made to suppress the influence of non-specific amplification, such as chemical blocking of the template's 3'-ends and sequence-independent weakening of template-template interactions, it is still a common problem in many conventional EXPAR reactions. In this study, we propose a novel strategy to eliminate the non-specific signal from non-specific amplification by integrating the CRISPR-Cas12a system into two-templates EXPAR. An EXPAR-Cas12a strategy named EXPCas was developed, where the Cas12a system acted as a filter to filter out non-specific amplificons in EXPAR, suppressing and eliminating the influence of non-specific amplification. As a result, the signal-to-background ratio was improved from 1.3 to 15.4 using this method. With microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) as a target, the detection can be finished in 40 min with a LOD of 103 fM and no non-specific amplification was observed.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
5.
Talanta ; 262: 124711, 2023 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327278

ABSTRACT

We presented a polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhanced ligation-triggered self-priming isothermal amplification (PEG-LSPA) for the detection D614G mutation in S-glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. PEG was employed to improve the ligation efficiency of this assay by constructing a molecular crowding environment. Two hairpin probes (H1 and H2) were designed to contain 18 nt and 20 nt target binding site at their 3' end and 5' end, respectively. In presence of target sequence, it complemented with H1 and H2 to trigger ligation by ligase under molecular crowding condition to form ligated H1-H2 duplex. Then 3' terminus of the H2 would be extended by DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions to form a longer extended hairpin (EHP1). 5' terminus of EHP1 with phosphorothioate (PS) modification could form hairpin structure due to the lower Tm value. The resulting 3' end overhang would also fold back as a new primer to initiate the next round of polymerization, resulting in the formation of a longer extended hairpin (EHP2) containing two target sequence domains. In the circle of LSPA, long extended hairpin (EHPx) containing numerous target sequence domains was produced. The resulting DNA products can be monitored in real-time fluorescence signaling. Our proposed assay owns an excellent linear range from 10 fM to 10 nM with a detection limit down to 4 fM. Thus, this work provides a potential isothermal amplification method for monitoring mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , Biological Assay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(6): 239, 2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322409

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which primarily affects the respiratory system and can lead to severe illness. The virus is extremely contagious, early and accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to contain its spread, to provide prompt treatment, and to prevent complications. Currently, the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered to be the gold standard for detecting COVID-19 in its early stages. In addition, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMAP), clustering rule interval short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA), computed tomography (CT), and electrochemical sensors are also common tests. However, these different methods vary greatly in terms of their detection efficiency, specificity, accuracy, sensitivity, cost, and throughput. Besides, most of the current detection methods are conducted in central hospitals and laboratories, which is a great challenge for remote and underdeveloped areas. Therefore, it is essential to review the advantages and disadvantages of different COVID-19 detection methods, as well as the technology that can enhance detection efficiency and improve detection quality in greater details.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Quality Control
7.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285861, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315260

ABSTRACT

A novel multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method combined with DNA chromatography was developed for the simultaneous detection of three important respiratory disease-causing viruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus, and influenza B virus. Amplification was performed at a constant temperature, and a positive result was confirmed by a visible colored band. An in-house drying protocol with trehalose was used to prepare the dried format multiplex LAMP test. Using this dried multiplex LAMP test, the analytical sensitivity was determined to be 100 copies for each viral target and 100-1000 copies for the simultaneous detection of mixed targets. The multiplex LAMP system was validated using clinical COVID-19 specimens and compared with the real-time qRT-PCR method as a reference test. The determined sensitivity of the multiplex LAMP system for SARS-CoV-2 was 71% (95% CI: 0.62-0.79) for cycle threshold (Ct) ≤ 35 samples and 61% (95% CI: 0.53-0.69) for Ct ≤40 samples. The specificity was 99% (95%CI: 0.92-1.00) for Ct ≤35 samples and 100% (95%CI: 0.92-1.00) for the Ct ≤40 samples. The developed simple, rapid, low-cost, and laboratory-free multiplex LAMP system for the two major important respiratory viral diseases, COVID-19 and influenza, is a promising field-deployable diagnosis tool for the possible future 'twindemic, ' especially in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , DNA , RNA, Viral/analysis
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(12): 3983-3996, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314427

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019 has severely damaged the world's economy and public health and made people pay more attention to respiratory infectious diseases. However, traditional quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) nucleic acid detection kits require RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and amplification, as well as the support of large-scale equipment to enrich and purify nucleic acids and precise temperature control. Therefore, novel, fast, convenient, sensitive and specific detection methods are urgently being developed and moving to proof of concept test. In this study, we developed a new nucleic acid detection system, referred to as 4 Thermostatic steps (4TS), which innovatively allows all the detection processes to be completed in a constant temperature device, which performs extraction, amplification, cutting of targets, and detection within 40 min. The assay can specifically and sensitively detect five respiratory pathogens, namely SARS-CoV-2, Mycoplasma felis (MF), Chlamydia felis (CF), Feline calicivirus (FCV), and Feline herpes virus (FHV). In addition, a cost-effective and practical small-scale reaction device was designed and developed to maintain stable reaction conditions. The results of the detection of the five viruses show that the sensitivity of the system is greater than 94%, and specificity is 100%. The 4TS system does not require complex equipment, which makes it convenient and fast to operate, and allows immediate testing for suspected infectious agents at home or in small clinics. Therefore, the assay system has diagnostic value and significant potential for further reducing the cost of early screening of infectious diseases and expanding its application. KEY POINTS: • The 4TS system enables the accurate and specific detection of nucleic acid of pathogens at 37 °C in four simple steps, and the whole process only takes 40 min. •A simple alkali solution can be used to extract nucleic acid. • A small portable device simple to operate is developed for home diagnosis and detection of respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Cats , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 236: 115402, 2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313386

ABSTRACT

Rapid point-of-care diagnostics, essential in settings such as airport on-site testing and home-based screening, displayed important implications for infectious disease control during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. However, the deployment of simple and sensitive assays in real-life scenarios still faces the concern of aerosol contamination. Here, we report an amplicon-depleting CRISPR-based one-pot loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CoLAMP) assay for point-of-care diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In this work, AapCas12b sgRNA is designed to recognize the activator sequence sited in the loop region of the LAMP product, which is crucial for exponential amplification. By destroying the aerosol-prone amplifiable products at the end of each amplification reaction, our design can significantly reduce the amplicons contamination that causes false positive results in point-of-care diagnostics. For at-home self-testing, we designed a low-cost sample-to-result device for fluorescence-based visual interpretation. As well, a commercial portable electrochemical platform was deployed as a proof-of-concept of ready-to-use point-of-care diagnostic systems. The field deployable CoLAMP assay can detect as low as 0.5 copies/µL of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples within 40 min without the need for specialists for its operation.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19 Testing
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 235: 115358, 2023 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311698

ABSTRACT

Accurate and rapid screening techniques on a population scale are crucial for preventing and managing epidemics like COVID-19. The standard gold test for nucleic acids in pathogenic infections is primarily the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, this method is not suitable for widespread screening due to its reliance on large-scale equipment and time-consuming extraction and amplification processes. Here, we developed a collaborative system that combines high-load hybridization probes targeting N and OFR1a with Au NPs@Ta2C-M modified gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors to enable direct nucleic acid detection. Multiple activation sites of SARS-CoV-2 were saturable modified on the surface of a homogeneous arrayed AuNPs@Ta2C-M/Au structure based on a segmental modification approach. The combination of hybrid probe synergy and composite polarisation response in the excitation structure results in highly specific hybridization analysis and excellent signal transduction of trace target sequences. The system demonstrates excellent trace specificity, with a limit of detection of 0.2 pg/mL, and achieves a rapid response time of 1.5 min for clinical samples without amplification. The results showed high agreement with the RT-PCR test (Kappa index = 1). And the gradient-based detection of 10-in-1 mixed samples exhibits high-intensity interference immunity and excellent trace identification. Therefore, the proposed synergistic detection platform has a good tendency to curb the global spread of epidemics such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
11.
Talanta ; 260: 124645, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309092

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid amplification techniques have always been one of the hot spots of research, especially in the outbreak of COVID-19. From the initial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the current popular isothermal amplification, each new amplification techniques provides new ideas and methods for nucleic acid detection. However, limited by thermostable DNA polymerase and expensive thermal cycler, PCR is difficult to achieve point of care testing (POCT). Although isothermal amplification techniques overcome the defects of temperature control, single isothermal amplification is also limited by false positives, nucleic acid sequence compatibility, and signal amplification capability to some extent. Fortunately, efforts to integrating different enzymes or amplification techniques that enable to achieve intercatalyst communication and cascaded biotransformations may overcome the corner of single isothermal amplification. In this review, we systematically summarized the design fundamentals, signal generation, evolution, and application of cascade amplification. More importantly, the challenges and trends of cascade amplification were discussed in depth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Nucleic Acids/analysis
12.
Talanta ; 258: 124476, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308939

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a serious disease requiring a simple and accurate detection method. Accordingly, this study developed a novel, ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique (LAMP-PEC). An amino (-NH2)-modified LAMP product is obtained by amplification of the PED virus gene with specially designed primers. The generated NH2-modified LAMP product is assembled on the surface of an electrode by forming imine linkages between aldehyde and amino groups based on the Schiff base reaction. A stable photocurrent is provided by a CdIn2S4 photoactive material, which possesses high photoelectric conversion efficiency. Amplified DNA assembled on the electrode surface increases steric hindrance and hinders electrons from moving from the electrode to electron acceptors, which decreases the photocurrent. This strategy can detect PEDV with a low detection limit of 0.3 fg µL-1 and a wide linear range of 1 × 10-3-1 × 102 pg/µL. The sensing platform has excellent specificity and sensitivity and can be used for the quantitative detection of many other pathogens with the assistance of LAMP.


Subject(s)
DNA , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Animals , Swine , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 222: 114989, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306553

ABSTRACT

For point-of-care testing (POCT), coupling isothermal nucleic acid amplification schemes (e.g., recombinase polymerase amplification, RPA) with lateral flow assay (LFA) readout is an ideal platform, since such integration offers both high sensitivity and deployability. However, isothermal schemes typically suffers from non-specific amplification, which is difficult to be differentiated by LFA and thus results in false-positives. Here, we proposed an accurate POCT platform by specific recognition of target amplicons with peptide nucleic acid (PNA, assisted by T7 Exonuclease), which could be directly plugged into the existing RPA kits and commercial LFA test strips. With SARS-CoV-2 as the model, the proposed method (RPA-TeaPNA-LFA) efficiently eliminated the false-positives, exhibiting a lowest detection concentration of 6.7 copies/µL of RNA and 90 copies/µL of virus. Using dual-gene (orf1ab and N genes of SARS-CoV-2) as the targets, RPA-TeaPNA-LFA offered a high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (RT-PCR Ct < 31, 100%; Ct < 40, 71.4%), and is valuable for on-site screening or self-testing during isolation. In addition, the dual test lines in the test strips were successfully explored for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 and H1N1, showing great potential in response to future pathogen-based pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity , Recombinases/genetics
14.
Lab Chip ; 23(10): 2389-2398, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293429

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), detection technologies have been attracting a great deal of attention in molecular diagnosis applications. In particular, the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has become a promising tool as it offers absolute quantification of target nucleic acids with high specificity and sensitivity. In recent years, the combination of the isothermal amplification strategies has made ddPCR a popular method for on-site testing by enabling amplification at a constant temperature. However, the current isothermal ddPCR assays are still challenging due to inherent non-specific amplification. In this paper, we present a multiplexed droplet digital recombinase polymerase amplification (MddRPA) with precise initiation of the reaction. First, the reaction temperature and dynamic range of reverse transcription (RT) and RPA were characterized by real-time monitoring of fluorescence intensities. Using a droplet-based microfluidic chip, the master mix and the initiator were fractionated and rapidly mixed within well-confined droplets. Due to the high heat transfer and mass transfer of the droplets, the precise initiation of the amplification was enabled and the entire assay could be conducted within 30 min. The concentrations of target RNA in the range from 5 copies per µL to 2500 copies per µL could be detected with high linearity (R2 > 0.999). Furthermore, the multiplexed detection of three types of human coronaviruses was successfully demonstrated with high specificity (>96%). Finally, we compared the performance of the assay with a commercial RT-qPCR system using COVID-19 clinical samples. The MddRPA assay showed a 100% concordance with the RT-qPCR results, indicating its reliability and accuracy in detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids in clinical samples. Therefore, our MddRPA assay with rapid detection, precise quantification, and multiplexing capability would be an interesting method for molecular diagnosis of viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Recombinases , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , RNA , Sensitivity and Specificity , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 222: 115002, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290660

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection is crucial for monitoring diseases for which rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-deploy diagnostic tools are needed. CRISPR-based technologies can potentially fulfill this need for nucleic acid detection. However, their widespread use has been restricted by the requirement of a protospacer adjacent motif in the target and extensive guide RNA optimization. In this study, we developed FELICX, a technique that can overcome these limitations and provide a useful alternative to existing technologies. FELICX comprises flap endonuclease, Taq ligase and CRISPR-Cas for diagnostics (X) and can be used for detecting nucleic acids and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This method can be deployed as a point-of-care test, as only two temperatures are needed without thermocycling for its functionality, with the result generated on lateral flow strips. As a proof-of-concept, we showed that up to 0.6 copies/µL of DNA and RNA could be detected by FELICX in 60 min and 90 min, respectively, using simulated samples. Additionally, FELICX could be used to probe any base pair, unlike other CRISPR-based technologies. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of FELICX by employing it for virus detection in infected human cells, the identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and cancer diagnostics using simulated samples. Based on its unique advantages, we envision the use of FELICX as a next-generation CRISPR-based technology in nucleic acid diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nucleic Acids , Humans , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Flap Endonucleases/genetics , RNA , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 230: 115268, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299647

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for innovative approaches to its diagnosis. Here we present CoVradar, a novel and simple colorimetric method that combines nucleic acid analysis with dynamic chemical labeling (DCL) technology and the Spin-Tube device to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva samples. The assay includes a fragmentation step to increase the number of RNA templates for analysis, using abasic peptide nucleic acid probes (DGL probes) immobilized to nylon membranes in a specific dot pattern to capture RNA fragments. Duplexes are formed by labeling complementary RNA fragments with biotinylated SMART bases, which act as templates for DCL. Signals are generated by recognizing biotin with streptavidin alkaline phosphatase and incubating with a chromogenic substrate to produce a blue precipitate. CoVradar results are analysed by CoVreader, a smartphone-based image processing system that can display and interpret the blotch pattern. CoVradar and CoVreader provide a unique molecular assay capable of detecting SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA without the need for extraction, preamplification, or pre-labeling steps, offering advantages in terms of time (∼3 h/test), cost (∼€1/test manufacturing cost) and simplicity (does not require large equipment). This solution is also promising for developing assays for other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Pandemics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Smartphone , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
17.
Microb Biotechnol ; 16(5): 977-989, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296253

ABSTRACT

Environmental water is considered one of the main vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), posing an increasing threat to humans and animals health. Continuous efforts are being made to eliminate AMR; however, the detection of AMR pathogens from water samples often requires at least one culture step, which is time-consuming and can limit sensitivity. In this study, we employed comparative genomics to identify the prevalence of AMR genes within among: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella enterica and Acinetobacter, using publicly available genomes. The mcr-1, blaKPC (KPC-1 to KPC-4 alleles), blaOXA-48, blaOXA-23 and blaVIM (VIM-1 and VIM-2 alleles) genes are of great medical and veterinary significance, thus were selected as targets for the development of isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) detection assays. We also developed a rapid and sensitive sample preparation method for an integrated culture-independent LAMP-based detection from water samples. The developed assays successfully detected the five AMR gene markers from pond water within 1 h and were 100% sensitive and specific with a detection limit of 0.0625 µg/mL and 10 cfu/mL for genomic DNA and spiked bacterial cells, respectively. The integrated detection can be easily implemented in resource-limited areas to enhance One Health AMR surveillances and improve diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli Proteins , Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Escherichia coli , Water , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1257: 341167, 2023 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302415

ABSTRACT

The world is in a long pandemic period caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and massive diagnostic tests to assist efforts to control the spread of the disease and also to avoid new coronavirus variants are still needed. Herein, we propose a simple and accurate saliva-based colorimetric test for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Magnetic beads (MBs) modified with a sequence of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) complementary to the N gene of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA were developed and used for magnetic capture and separation from a complex saliva sample. A second biotinylated ssDNA sequence was applied, and the colorimetric detection was carried out by adding streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate, H2O2, and tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as chromogenic substrate. The test does not require viral RNA isolation, transcription, or amplification steps and can be performed at room temperature. The molecular assay test can be run using 96-well microplates, allowing the diagnosis of a large number of samples in 90 min. A simple support for magnets was designed and constructed using a 3D printer that allows the magnetic separations directly in the 96-well microplate. The colorimetric test showed an excellent ability to discriminate between healthy individuals and patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, with 92% and 100% of clinical sensitivity and specificity, respectively. This performance was similar to that achieved using the gold standard RT-PCR technique. The proposed genomagnetic assay offers an opportunity to greatly increase population testing, contribute to controlling the spread of the virus, and improve health equity in testing for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , RNA, Viral/genetics , Colorimetry/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
19.
J Mol Diagn ; 25(7): 428-437, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301659

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has highlighted the need for simple, low-cost, and scalable diagnostics that can be widely deployed for rapid testing. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based diagnostics have emerged as a promising technology, but its implementation in clinical laboratories has been limited by the requirement of a separate amplification step prior to CRISPR-associated (Cas) enzyme-based detection. This article reports the discovery of two novel Cas12 enzymes (SLK9 and SLK5-2) that exhibit enzymatic activity at 60°C, which, when combined with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), enable a real-time, single-step nucleic acid detection method [real-time SHERLOCK (real-time SLK)]. Real-time SLK was demonstrated to provide accurate results comparable to those from real-time quantitative RT-PCR in clinical samples, with 100% positive and 100% negative percent agreement. The method is further demonstrated to be compatible with direct testing (real-time SLK Direct) of samples from anterior nasal swabs, without the need for standard nucleic acid extraction. Lastly, SLK9 was combined with either Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris AacCas12b or with SLK5-2 to generate a real-time, multiplexed CRISPR-based diagnostic assay for the simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 and a human-based control in a single reaction, with sensitivity down to 5 copies/µL and a time to result of under 30 minutes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Services , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(10): e0244621, 2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280186

ABSTRACT

Nearly 40 years have elapsed since the invention of the PCR, with its extremely sensitive and specific ability to detect nucleic acids via in vitro enzyme-mediated amplification. In turn, more than 2 years have passed since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, during which time molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases have assumed a larger global role than ever before. In this context, we review broadly the progression of molecular techniques in clinical microbiology, to their current prominence. Notably, these methods now entail both the detection and quantification of microbial nucleic acids, along with their sequence-based characterization. Overall, we seek to provide a combined perspective on the techniques themselves, as well as how they have come to shape health care at the intersection of technologic innovation, pathophysiologic knowledge, clinical/laboratory logistics, and even financial/regulatory factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Pathology, Molecular , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
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