Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2843, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701343

ABSTRACT

In the context of social events reopening and economic relaunch, sanitary surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still required. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performances of a rapid, extraction-free and connected reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay on saliva. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and saliva from 443 outpatients were collected simultaneously and tested by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) as reference standard test. Seventy-one individuals (16.0%) were positive by NP and/or salivary RT-qPCR. Sensitivity and specificity of salivary RT-LAMP were 85.9% (95%CI 77.8-94.0%) and 99.5% (98.7-100%), respectively. Performances were similar for symptomatic and asymptomatic participants. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants were analyzed and no dominant mutation in RT-LAMP primer region was observed during the period of the study. We demonstrated that this RT-LAMP test on self-collected saliva is reliable for SARS-CoV-2 detection. This simple connected test with optional automatic results transfer to health authorities is unique and opens the way to secure professional and social events in actual context of economics restart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Viral Load , Young Adult
2.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 45(3): 503-514, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627214

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had severe consequences for health and the global economy. To control the transmission, there is an urgent demand for early diagnosis and treatment in the general population. In the present study, an automatic system for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is designed and built to deliver high specification, high sensitivity, and high throughput with minimal workforce involvement. The system, set up with cross-priming amplification (CPA) rather than conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was evaluated using more than 1000 real-world samples for direct comparison. This fully automated robotic system performed SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-based diagnosis with 192 samples in under 180 min at 100 copies per reaction in a "specimen in data out" manner. This throughput translates to a daily screening capacity of 800-1000 in an assembly-line manner with limited workforce involvement. The sensitivity of this device could be further improved using a CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-based assay, which opens the door to mixed samples, potentially include SARS-CoV-2 variants screening in extensively scaled testing for fighting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Biomedical Engineering/instrumentation , Biomedical Engineering/methods , Biomedical Engineering/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Equipment Design , High-Throughput Screening Assays/instrumentation , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Robotics/instrumentation , Robotics/methods , Robotics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systems Analysis
3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(2): e24211, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, the global spread of COVID-19 is still going on, with more than 0.6 million new cases confirmed per day (as of November 20, 2021). However, since China entered a post-epidemic phase in mid-March 2020, the daily number of new domestic infections in the Chinese mainland has been maintained at almost zero or single digits, which was attributed to a series of effective measures for COVID-19 prevention and control adopted by the Chinese government. Among these measures, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing holds key role for the timely confirmation and isolation of the infections to prevent further transmission. METHODS: Referring to the national policy requirements, since April 30, 2020, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University has conducted SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing in its PCR laboratory for patients and social workers, as well as for environmental monitoring and employee screening. As of mid-November 2020, the daily amount of single-tube samples for nucleic acid testing rose above 4,000. RESULTS: In this article, a rapid and highly effective approach for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid daily testing is presented, allowing five technicians to complete nucleic acid testing in 6,500 single-tube samples in one day with a high level of quality. Using this approach, since the samples entered the PCR laboratory, all testing results were reported in 2.5-3 h with satisfactory quality control and precise reporting criterion as prerequisites. CONCLUSION: This testing approach provides a referable workflow for other testing institutions and is expected to play an important role in COVID-19 prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113049, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056383

ABSTRACT

Prompt diagnosis, patient isolation, and contact tracing are key measures to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Molecular tests are the current gold standard for COVID-19 detection, but are carried out at central laboratories, delaying treatment and control decisions. Here we describe a portable assay system for rapid, onsite COVID-19 diagnosis. Termed CODA (CRISPR Optical Detection of Anisotropy), the method combined isothermal nucleic acid amplification, activation of CRISPR/Cas12a, and signal generation in a single assay, eliminating extra manual steps. Importantly, signal detection was based on the ratiometric measurement of fluorescent anisotropy, which allowed CODA to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. For point-of-care operation, we built a compact, standalone CODA device integrating optoelectronics, an embedded heater, and a microcontroller for data processing. The developed system completed SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection within 20 min of sample loading; the limit of detection reached 3 copy/µL. When applied to clinical samples (10 confirmed COVID-19 patients; 10 controls), the rapid CODA test accurately classified COVID-19 status, in concordance with gold-standard clinical diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fluorescence Polarization/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Equipment Design , Fluorescence Polarization/instrumentation , Fluorescence Polarization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113041, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051492

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been challenging human health worldwide. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been promptly applied to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 owing to its high amplification efficacy and less requirement of the thermal cycler. However, the vast majority of these LAMP-based assays depend on the non-specific detection of LAMP products, which can not discern the undesirable amplificons, likely to yield unreliable results. Herein, a sequence-specific LAMP assay was reported to detect SARS-CoV-2 using proofreading enzyme-mediated probe cleavage (named Proofman), which could realize real-time and visual detection without uncapping. This assay, introducing a proofreading enzyme and the fluorogenic probe to reverse-transcription LAMP (RT-Proofman-LAMP), can specifically detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA with a detection limit of 100 copies. In addition to the real-time analysis, the assay is capable of endpoint visualization under a transilluminator within 50 min, providing a convenient reporting manner under the setting of point-of-care testing (POCT). In combination with different fluorophores, the one-pot multiplex assay was successfully achieved to detect multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2 and inner control simultaneously. In summary, the development of RT-Proofman-LAMP offers a versatile and highly-specific method for fast field screening and laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2, making it a promising platform in COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Limit of Detection , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112766, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893625

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected all aspects of human life. Rapid, accurate, sensitive and user friendly detection method is urgently needed to facilitate early intervention and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we propose a one-pot visual SARS-CoV-2 detection system named "opvCRISPR" by integrating reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and Cas12a cleavage in a single reaction system. We demonstrate that the collateral activity against single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) reporters of activated Cas12a triggered by RT-LAMP amplicon increases detection sensitivity and makes detection results observable with naked eye. The opvCRISPR enables detection at nearly single molecule level in 45 min. We validate this method with 50 SARS-CoV-2 potentially infected clinical samples. The opvCRISPR diagnostic results provide 100% agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-approved quantitative RT-PCR assay. The opvCRISPR holds great potential for SARS-CoV-2 detection in next-generation point-of-care molecular diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636249

ABSTRACT

The clinical performances of six molecular diagnostic tests and a rapid antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were clinically evaluated for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in self-collected saliva. Saliva samples from 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (15 asymptomatic and 88 symptomatic) were collected on the day of hospital admission. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva was detected using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) laboratory-developed test (LDT), a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, three direct RT-qPCR kits, and reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The viral antigen was detected by a rapid antigen immunochromatographic assay. Of the 103 samples, viral RNA was detected in 50.5 to 81.6% of the specimens by molecular diagnostic tests, and an antigen was detected in 11.7% of the specimens by the rapid antigen test. Viral RNA was detected at significantly higher percentages (65.6 to 93.4%) in specimens collected within 9 days of symptom onset than in specimens collected after at least 10 days of symptoms (22.2 to 66.7%) and in specimens collected from asymptomatic patients (40.0 to 66.7%). Self-collected saliva is an alternative specimen option for diagnosing COVID-19. The RT-qPCR LDT, a cobas SARS-CoV-2 high-throughput system, direct RT-qPCR kits (except for one commercial kit), and RT-LAMP showed sufficient sensitivities in clinical use to be selectively used in clinical settings and facilities. The rapid antigen test alone is not recommended for an initial COVID-19 diagnosis because of its low sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/standards , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Young Adult
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(556)2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688785

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) coronavirus is a major public health challenge. Rapid tests for detecting existing SARS-CoV-2 infections and assessing virus spread are critical. Approaches to detect viral RNA based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) have potential as simple, scalable, and broadly applicable testing methods. Compared to RT quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based methods, RT-LAMP assays require incubation at a constant temperature, thus eliminating the need for sophisticated instrumentation. Here, we tested a two-color RT-LAMP assay protocol for detecting SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA using a primer set specific for the N gene. We tested our RT-LAMP assay on surplus RNA samples isolated from 768 pharyngeal swab specimens collected from individuals being tested for COVID-19. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. Compared to an RT-qPCR assay using a sensitive primer set, we found that the RT-LAMP assay reliably detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA with an RT-qPCR cycle threshold (CT) number of up to 30, with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 99.7%. We also developed a swab-to-RT-LAMP assay that did not require a prior RNA isolation step, which retained excellent specificity (99.5%) but showed lower sensitivity (86% for CT < 30) than the RT-LAMP assay. In addition, we developed a multiplexed sequencing protocol (LAMP-sequencing) as a diagnostic validation procedure to detect and record the outcome of RT-LAMP reactions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Colorimetry/methods , Colorimetry/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Virology ; 549: 1-4, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684730

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in China firstly. A rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and simple operational method was needed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we established a real-time reverse-transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay (RT-RAA) to detect SARS-CoV-2 rapidly. The primers and probe were designed based on the nucleocapsid protein gene (N gene) sequence of SARS-CoV-2. The detection limit was 10 copies per reaction in this assay, which could be conducted within 15 min at a constant temperature (39 °C), without any cross-reactions with other respiratory tract pathogens, such as other coronaviruses. Furthermore, compared with commercial real-time RT-PCR assay, it showed a kappa value of 0.959 (p < 0.001) from 150 clinical specimens. These results indicated that this real-time RT-RAA assay may be a valuable tool for detecting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genes, Viral , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Recombinases , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 164: 112316, 2020 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628702

ABSTRACT

Recent research suggests that SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals can be highly infectious while asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic, and that an infected person may infect 5.6 other individuals on average. This situation highlights the need for rapid, sensitive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assays capable of high-throughput operation that can preferably utilize existing equipment to facilitate broad, large-scale screening efforts. We have developed a CRISPR-based assay that can meet all these criteria. This assay utilizes a custom CRISPR Cas12a/gRNA complex and a fluorescent probe to detect target amplicons produced by standard RT-PCR or isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), to allow sensitive detection at sites not equipped with real-time PCR systems required for qPCR diagnostics. We found this approach allowed sensitive and robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, with a sample-to-answer time of ~50 min, and a limit of detection of 2 copies per sample. CRISPR assay diagnostic results obtained nasal swab samples of individuals with suspected COVID-19 cases were comparable to paired results from a CDC-approved quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay performed in a state testing lab, and superior to those produced by same assay in a clinical lab, where the RT-qPCR assay exhibited multiple invalid or inconclusive results. Our assay also demonstrated greater analytical sensitivity and more robust diagnostic performance than other recently reported CRISPR-based assays. Based on these findings, we believe that a CRISPR-based fluorescent application has potential to improve current COVID-19 screening efforts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fluorescent Dyes , Genes, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Small ; 16(32): e2002169, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612774

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nanopores , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral , Humans , Limit of Detection , Mutation , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL