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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200315

ABSTRACT

Z-conformation nucleic acid binding protein 1 (ZBP1), a powerful innate immune sensor, has been identified as the important signaling initiation factor in innate immune response and the multiple inflammatory cell death known as PANoptosis. The initiation of ZBP1 signaling requires recognition of left-handed double-helix Z-nucleic acid (includes Z-DNA and Z-RNA) and subsequent signaling transduction depends on the interaction between ZBP1 and its adapter proteins, such as TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), and RIPK3. ZBP1 activated innate immunity, including type-I interferon (IFN-I) response and NF-κB signaling, constitutes an important line of defense against pathogenic infection. In addition, ZBP1-mediated PANoptosis is a double-edged sword in anti-infection, auto-inflammatory diseases, and tumor immunity. ZBP1-mediated PANoptosis is beneficial for eliminating infected cells and tumor cells, but abnormal or excessive PANoptosis can lead to a strong inflammatory response that is harmful to the host. Thus, pathogens and host have each developed multiplex tactics targeting ZBP1 signaling to maintain strong virulence or immune homeostasis. In this paper, we reviewed the mechanisms of ZBP1 signaling, the effects of ZBP1 signaling on host immunity and pathogen infection, and various antagonistic strategies of host and pathogen against ZBP1. We also discuss existent gaps regarding ZBP1 signaling and forecast potential directions for future research.


Subject(s)
DNA, Z-Form , Interferon Type I , Nucleic Acids , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Serine/genetics , Threonine/genetics
2.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 386-398, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187330

ABSTRACT

The potential of nucleic acid therapeutics to treat diseases by targeting specific cells has resulted in its increasing number of uses in clinical settings. However, the major challenge is to deliver bio-macromolecules into target cells and/or subcellular locations of interest ahead in the development of delivery systems. Although, supercharged residues replaced protein 36 + GFP can facilitate itself and cargoes delivery, its efficiency is still limited. Therefore, we combined our recent progress to further improve 36 + GFP based delivery efficiency. We found that the penetration efficacy of 36 + GFP protein was significantly improved by fusion with CPP-Dot1l or treatment with penetration enhancer dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in vitro. After safely packaged with plasmid DNA, we found that the efficacy of in vitro and in vivo transfection mediated by 36 + GFP-Dot1l fusion protein is also significantly improved than 36 + GFP itself. Our findings illustrated that fusion with CPP-Dot1l or incubation with DMSO is an alternative way to synergically promote 36 + GFP mediated plasmid DNA delivery in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Cell-Penetrating Peptides/pharmacokinetics , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Green Fluorescent Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/pharmacokinetics , Nucleic Acids/administration & dosage , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/chemistry , Green Fluorescent Proteins/chemistry , Hemolysis/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Particle Size , Surface Properties , Transfection/methods
3.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(6): e1809, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170335

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid therapeutics can be used to control virtually every aspect of cell behavior and therefore have significant potential to treat genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. However, while clinically approved to treat a small number of diseases, the full potential of nucleic acid therapeutics is hampered by inefficient delivery. Nucleic acids are large, highly charged biomolecules that are sensitive to degradation and so the approaches to deliver these molecules differ significantly from traditional small molecule drugs. Current studies suggest less than 1% of the injected nucleic acid dose is delivered to the target cell in an active form. This inefficient delivery increases costs and limits their use to applications where a small amount of nucleic acid is sufficient. In this review, we focus on two of the major barriers to efficient nucleic acid delivery: (1) delivery to the target cell and (2) transport to the subcellular compartment where the nucleic acids are therapeutically active. We explore how nanoparticles can be modified with targeting ligands to increase accumulation in specific cells, and how the composition of the nanoparticle can be engineered to manipulate or disrupt cellular membranes and facilitate delivery to the optimal subcellular compartments. Finally, we highlight how with intelligent material design, nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed to deliver nucleic acids that silence aberrant genes, correct genetic mutations, and act as both therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines. This article is categorized under: Nanotechnology Approaches to Biology > Cells at the Nanoscale Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Lipid-Based Structures.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Vaccines , Humans , Nucleic Acids/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1085-1091, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155735

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical features and prognosis of children and their family members with family clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant infection under the admission mode of parent-child ward. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 190 children and 190 family members with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection who were admitted to Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital, the designated hospital for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), April 8 to May 10, 2022. RESULTS: Both the child and adult groups were mainly mild COVID-19, and the proportion of mild cases in the child group was higher than that in the adult group (P<0.05). Respiratory symptoms were the main clinical manifestations in both groups. Compared with the adult group, the child group had higher incidence rates of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and wheezing (P<0.05) and lower incidence rates of nasal obstruction, runny nose, cough, dry throat, throat itching, and throat pain (P<0.05). Compared with the child group, the adult group had higher rates of use of Chinese patent drugs, traditional Chinese medicine decoction, recombinant interferon spray, cough-relieving and phlegm-eliminating drugs, and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir tablets (P<0.05). Compared with the adult group, the child group had a lower vaccination rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (30.5% vs 71.1%, P<0.001) and a shorter duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (P<0.05). The patients with mild COVID-19 had a shorter duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid than those with common COVID-19 in both groups (P<0.05). The patients with underlying diseases had a longer duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid than those without such diseases in both groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both children and adults with family clusters of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection manifest mainly mild COVID-19. Despite lower vaccination rate of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children, they have rapid disease recovery, with a shorter duration of positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid than adults, under the admission mode of parent-child ward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Family
5.
N Z Med J ; 135(1559): 53-58, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147482

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare detection of SARS-CoV-2 from paired nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva using molecular methods in common use for testing swabs in New Zealand. METHOD: Samples from individuals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin were tested at the local laboratories using methods previously established for these sample types. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-six paired samples from unique individuals were tested, with 46 (23%) positive from either sample type, of which 43/46 (93%) tested positive from NPS, and 42/46 (91%) from saliva, indicating no significant difference in performance between sample types (p=0.69). The average Δ Ct between saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs overall across the sample set was 0.22 cycles, indicating excellent concordance; however, the difference between NPS and saliva collected from the same individual was quite variable with up to 19 cycles difference between the sample types. CONCLUSION: We found that saliva is an equivalent sample type to nasopharyngeal swab for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in our laboratories using multiple assay combinations and is suitable for use as a diagnostic and surveillance test for selected groups of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx , New Zealand , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling/methods
6.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(12): 1307-1311, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143847

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the characteristics and associated factors of viral nucleic acid conversion in children infected with Omicron variant strain of SARS-CoV-2 in Shanghai. Methods: The clinical symptoms, laboratory results and other data of 177 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were hospitalized in Shanghai Children's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (designated hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai) from April 25 to June 8, 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the chest imaging findings, the children were divided into mild and common type groups. According to their age, the unvaccinated children were divided into<3 years old group and 3-<18 years old group. According to the vaccination status, the children aged 3-<18 year were divided into non-vaccination group, 1-dose vaccination group and 2-dose vaccination group. Comparison between groups was performed by independent sample t-test and analysis of variance, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 177 children infected with Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, 96 were males and 81 were females, aged 3 (1, 6) years. The time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion was (10.3±3.1) days. The 177 children were 138 cases of mild type and 39 cases of common type. Among the children aged 3-<18 years old, 55 cases were not vaccinated, 5 cases received 1-dose and 36 cases received 2-dose vaccination. Among the 36 children who received 2 doses of vaccination, the time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion was shorter in those vaccinated within 6 months than those over 6 months ((7.1±1.9) vs. (10.8±3.0) d, t=-3.23, P=0.004). Univariate analysis showed that the time of nucleic acid negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with age, underlying diseases, gastrointestinal symptoms, white blood cell count, proportion of neutrophils, proportion of lymphocytes, and the number of doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (t=3.87, 2.55, 2.04, 4.24, 3.51, 2.92, F=16.27, all P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that older age (ß=-0.33, 95% CI -0.485--0.182, P<0.001) and more doses of vaccination (ß=-0.79, 95% CI -1.463--0.120, P=0.021) were associated with shortened nucleic acid negative conversion time in children, while lower lymphocyte proportion (ß=-0.02, 95% CI -0.044--0.002, P=0.031) and underlying diseases (ß=1.52, 95% CI 0.363-2.672, P=0.010) were associated with prolonged nucleic acid negative conversion time in children. Conclusion: The children infected with Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 with reduced lymphocyte proportion and underlying diseases may have longer time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion,while children with older age and more doses of vaccination may have shorter time of viral nucleic acid negative conversion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Child , Female , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Translocation, Genetic , Hospitals, Pediatric
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1009152, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142343

ABSTRACT

The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 leads to devastating COVID-19 infections around the world, which has affected both human health and the development of industries dependent on social gatherings. Sports events are one of the subgroups facing great challenges. The uncertainty of COVID-19 transmission in large-scale sports events is a great barrier to decision-making with regard to reopening auditoriums. Policymakers and health experts are trying to figure out better policies to balance audience experiences and COVID-19 infection control. In this study, we employed the generalized SEIR model in conjunction with the Wells-Riley model to estimate the effects of vaccination, nucleic acid testing, and face mask wearing on audience infection control during the 2021 Chinese Football Association Super League from 20 April to 5 August. The generalized SEIR modeling showed that if the general population were vaccinated by inactive vaccines at an efficiency of 0.78, the total number of infectious people during this time period would decrease from 43,455 to 6,417. We assumed that the general population had the same odds ratio of entering the sports stadiums and becoming the audience. Their infection probabilities in the stadium were further estimated by the Wells-Riley model. The results showed that if all of the 30,000 seats in the stadium were filled by the audience, 371 audience members would have become infected during the 116 football games in the 2021 season. The independent use of vaccination and nucleic acid testing would have decreased this number to 79 and 118, respectively. The combined use of nucleic acid testing and vaccination or face mask wearing would have decreased this number to 14 and 34, respectively. The combined use of all three strategies could have further decreased this number to 0. According to the modeling results, policymakers can consider the combined use of vaccination, nucleic acid testing, and face mask wearing to protect audiences from infection when holding sports events, which could create a balance between audience experiences and COVID-19 infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 7-9, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135116

Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , Humans
9.
Virol J ; 19(1): 191, 2022 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the development of multiple detection kits by national manufacturers for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral nucleic acid testing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of different kits (i.e., Maccura kit and Sansure kit) in real clinical work using clinical samples, which will help with the optimization of the test kits. METHOD: During the past three months (March-May 2022), 1399 pharyngeal swabs from suspected COVID-19 patients have been initially screened using the Maccura kit in Jilin, China, and the test results were verified using the Sansure kit. The cycle threshold (Ct) values generated by the two kits were compared at different viral load levels. Correlation and consistency of the Ct values were investigated using Spearman correlation, Deming regression, and Bland-Altman plots. The cut-off Ct values of the Maccura kit were recalculated by referencing the result of the Sansure kit as a standard. Furthermore, another 163 pharyngeal swabs from suspected COVID-19 patients were collected to verify the new cut-off values. RESULTS: As a result of the Maccura kit testing, 1192 positive cases and 207 suspected COVID-19 cases were verified. After re-examination by the Sansure kit, 1118 positive cases were confirmed. The difference between the Ct values provided by the two kits was statistically significant, except for the N gene at high viral load. The Ct values obtained from the two kits presented a linear positive correlation. The Maccura kit used new cut-off Ct values of 35.00 (ORF1ab gene) and 35.07 (N gene). Based on that, the validation pass rate for the new cut-off Ct values was 91.41%. CONCLUSION: Since the Maccura kit is found to have false positives in actual clinical work, recalculation of the cut-off values can reduce this occurrence. In order to improve the accuracy of the testing, laboratories should use two kits for COVID-19 testing, and the adjusting and optimizing of the kits for their situation are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6480, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115515

ABSTRACT

Fast, inexpensive, and multiplexed detection of multiple nucleic acids is of great importance to human health, yet it still represents a significant challenge. Herein, we propose a nucleic acid testing platform, named MiCaR, which couples a microfluidic device with CRISPR-Cas12a and multiplex recombinase polymerase amplification. With only one fluorescence probe, MiCaR can simultaneously test up to 30 nucleic acid targets through microfluidic space coding. The detection limit achieves 0.26 attomole, and the multiplexed assay takes only 40 min. We demonstrate the utility of MiCaR by efficiently detecting the nine HPV subtypes targeted by the 9-valent HPV vaccine, showing a sensitivity of 97.8% and specificity of 98.1% in the testing of 100 patient samples at risk for HPV infection. Additionally, we also show the generalizability of our approach by successfully testing eight of the most clinically relevant respiratory viruses. We anticipate this effective, undecorated and versatile platform to be widely used in multiplexed nucleic acid detection.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , Recombinases , Humans , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Microfluidics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Nucleotidyltransferases
11.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110268

ABSTRACT

RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) represent a distinctive yet versatile class of nucleic acid polymerases encoded by RNA viruses for the replication and transcription of their genome. The structure of the RdRP is comparable to that of a cupped right hand consisting of fingers, palm, and thumb subdomains. Despite the presence of a common structural core, the RdRPs differ significantly in the mechanistic details of RNA binding and polymerization. The present review aims at exploring these incongruities in light of recent structural studies of RdRP complexes with diverse cofactors, RNA moieties, analogs, and inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acids , RNA Viruses , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA Viruses/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 980400, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119502

ABSTRACT

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that affects the salivary and lacrimal glands, as well as other organ systems like the lungs, kidneys and nervous system. SS can occur alone or in combination with another autoimmune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis. The etiology of SS is unknown but recent studies have revealed the implication of the activation of innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), mainly through the detection of endogenous nucleic acids, in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. Studies on SS mouse models suggest that TLRs and especially TLR7 that detects single-stranded RNA of microbial or endogenous origin can drive the development of SS and findings in SS patients corroborate those in mouse models. In this review, we will give an overview of the function and signaling of nucleic acid-sensing TLRs, the interplay of TLR7 with TLR8 and TLR9 in the context of autoimmunity, summarize the evidence for the critical role of TLR7 in the pathogenesis of SS and present a possible connection between SARS-CoV-2 and SS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Sjogren's Syndrome , Mice , Animals , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptors
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116048

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, over 610 million cases have been diagnosed and it has caused over 6.5 million deaths worldwide. The crisis has forced the scientific community to develop tools for disease control and management at a pace never seen before. The control of the pandemic heavily relies in the use of fast and accurate diagnostics, that allow testing at a large scale. The gold standard diagnosis of viral infections is the RT-qPCR. Although it provides consistent and reliable results, it is hampered by its limited throughput and technical requirements. Here, we discuss the main approaches to rapid and point-of-care diagnostics based on RT-qPCR and isothermal amplification diagnostics. We describe the main COVID-19 molecular diagnostic tests approved for self-testing at home or for point-of-care testing and compare the available options. We define the influence of specimen selection and processing, the clinical validation, result readout improvement strategies, the combination with CRISPR-based detection and the diagnostic challenge posed by SARS-CoV-2 variants for different isothermal amplification techniques, with a particular focus on LAMP and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). Finally, we try to shed light on the effect the improvement in molecular diagnostics during the COVID-19 pandemic could have in the future of other infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 845, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From 20 July to 26 August 2021, local outbreaks of COVID-19 occurred in Nanjing City and Yangzhou City (Jiangsu Province, China). We analyzed the characteristics of these outbreaks in an effort to develop specific and effective intervention strategies. METHODS: Publicly available data on the characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreaks in Jiangsu Province were collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of age and sex with clinical severity. Analysis of onset dates, generation time distributions, and locations were used to estimate the mean transmission distance. A branching process model was used to evaluate different management strategies. RESULTS: From 20 July to 26 August 2021, 820 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province, with 235 patients (28.7%) from Nanjing, 570 (69.5%) from Yangzhou, and 15 (1.8%) from other cities. Overall, 57.9% of the patients were female, 13.7% were under 20 years-old, and 58.3% had moderate disease status. The mean transmission distance was 4.12 km, and closed-loop management of the area within 2.23 km of cases seemed sufficient to control an outbreak. The model predicted that the cumulative cases in Yangzhou would increase from 311 to 642 if the interval between rounds of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) increased from 1 to 6 days. It also predicted there would be 44.7% more patients if the NAAT started 10 days (rather than 0 days) after diagnosis of the first case. The proportion of cases detected by NAAT would increase from 11.16 to 44.12% when the rounds of NAAT increased from 1 to 7 within 17 days. When the effective vaccine coverage was 50%, the outbreak would be controlled even when using the most relaxed non-pharmaceutical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The model predicted that a timely closed-loop management of a 2.23 km area around positive COVID-19 cases was sufficient to control the outbreak. Prompt serial NAAT is likely to contain an outbreak quickly, and our model results indicated that three rounds of NAAT sufficiently controlled local transmission. Trial registration We did not involve clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 905-908, 2022 Sep.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics in patients with persistent positive pharyngeal swab of 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant and results of nucleic acid testing of anal swabs to provide basis for prevention and control measures. METHODS: This study included 93 patients whose pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test were persistent positive and admitted to the ward of Daping Hospital in the National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai) Makeshift Hospital from May 1 to May 24, 2022. The gender, age, underlying diseases, vaccination status, clinical symptoms, interval between infection onset and anal sampling, length of hospital stay, the nucleic acid test result of pharyngeal swabs and anal swabs and the time turning negative were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The age of 93 patients ranged from 8 to 72 years old with a median of (46.0±16.0) years old. Among them, 30 cases (32.3%) were male and 63 cases (67.7%) were female. Sixty-five patients (69.9%) received 2-3 shots of vaccine, 2 patients (2.1%) received 1 shot, and 26 patients (28.0%) did not receive any vaccination. Twenty patients (21.5%) had underlying diseases, of which hypertension (13 cases, 14.0%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (6 cases, 6.5%) were the most common. Twenty-four patients (25.8%) had asymptomatic infection and the rest (69 cases, 74.2%) had mild symptoms. Cough (50 cases, 53.8%) and sore throat (28 cases, 30.1%) were the most common clinical manifestations of the upper respiratory tract in these patients. Only 6 patients (6.5%) had gastrointestinal symptoms (including diarrhea in 5 patients and diarrhea with vomiting in 1 patient). Pharyngeal and anal swabs were collected simultaneously from all 93 patients at 8-16th days [(11.55±2.27) days] after 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant infection. The pharyngeal swabs were positive in 79 patients (85.0%) and the anal swabs were positive in 5 patients (5.4%). The time of pharyngeal swabs turning negative was (14.7±2.9) days, and that of anal swab turning positive was (14.2±1.9) days. The median length of hospital stay was (16.7±2.9) days. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with persistent positive nucleic acid of the 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant, there were more mild infection than asymptomatic. The upper respiratory tract symptoms such as cough and sore throat were the most. The likelihood of transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant through the digestive tract may be low. The correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and 2019 novel coronavirus Omicron variant RNA in the digestive tract is uncertain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Nucleic Acids , Pharyngitis , Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough , China , Diarrhea
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109935

ABSTRACT

Worldwide infection due to SARS-CoV-2 revealed that short-time and extremely high-sensitivity detection of nucleic acids is a crucial technique for human beings. Polymerase chain reactions have been mainly used for the SARS-CoV-2 detection over the years. However, an advancement in quantification of the detection and shortening runtime is important for present and future use. Here, we report a rapid detection scheme that is a combination of nucleic acid amplification and a highly efficient fluorescence biosensor, that is, a metasurface biosensor composed of a pair of an all-dielectric metasurface and a microfluidic transparent chip. In the present scheme, we show a series of proof-of-concept experimental results that the metasurface biosensors detected amplicons originating from attomolar SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and that the amplification was implemented within 1 h. Furthermore, this detection capability substantially satisfies an official requirement of 100 RNA copies/140 µL, which is a criterion for the reliable infection tests.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 976137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109734

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric coronavirus that causes acute watery diarrhea and vomiting in unweaned piglets. Infections result in high mortality and serious economic losses to the swine industry. PEDV attenuated vaccine does not completely protect against all mutant wild-type strains, and PEDV infection can periodically occur. A sensitive, accurate, and simple detection method for PEDV is needed to reduce the occurrence of the disease. In this study, the CRISPR/Cas13a system was combined with recombinase aided amplification to develop a rapid diagnostic method to distinguish PEDV wild-type strains from attenuated vaccine strains. The method is based on isothermal detection at 37°C. The results are used for visual readout. The assay had high sensitivity and specificity, with a detection limit of 101 copies/µL for the gene of interest, and no cross-reactivity with other pathogens. The Cas13a detection worked well with clinical samples. This visual, sensitive, and specific nucleic acid detection method based on CRISPR/Cas13a should be a powerful tool for detecting PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Recombinases , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
18.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(11): 1038-1043, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107630

ABSTRACT

In mid-2022, the COVID-19 cases have reached close to 562 million, but its overall infection rate is hard to confirm. Even with effective vaccines, break-through infections with new variants occur, and safe and reliable testing still plays a critical role in isolation of infected individuals and in control of an outbreak of a COVID-19 pandemic. In response to this urgent need, the diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are rapidly evolving and improving these days. The health authorities of many countries issued requirements for detecting SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis tests during the pandemic and have timely access to these tests to ensure safety and effectiveness. In this study, we compared the requirements of EUA in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States. For the performance evaluations of nucleic acid extraction, inclusivity, limit of detection (LoD), cross-reactivity, interference, cutoff, and stability, the requirements are similar in the three countries. The use of natural clinical specimens is needed for clinical evaluation in Taiwan and the United States. However, carry-over and cross-contamination studies can be exempted in Taiwan and the United States but are required in Singapore. This review outlines requirements and insight to guide the test developers on the development of IVDs. Considering the rapidly evolving viruses and severe pandemic of COVID-19, timely and accurate diagnostic testing is imperative to the management of diseases. As noted above, the performance requirements for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests are similar between Taiwan, Singapore and the United States. The differences are mainly in two points: the recommended microorganisms for cross-reactivity study, and the specimen requirement for clinical evaluation. This study provides an overview of current requirements of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , United States , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Public Health , Taiwan/epidemiology , Singapore/epidemiology
19.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(11): 887-894, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107304

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic patients are unneglected sources in propagating transmission chain due to their high viral loads. However, treatments available based on symptoms seem not applicable to asymptomatic patients. In this study, the authors want to estimate the effectiveness of Lianhua Qingwen (LH) capsule on asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed to explore the effectiveness and safety of LH capsule in treating asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Patients were randomized to control group (isolated observation) and treatment group (LH, 4 capsules, thrice daily) for 14 days. The primary endpoints were the rate and time of nucleic acid turning negative during the isolation observation. Results: A total of 120 participants were included in the full analysis set (60 each in the control and treatment groups). Data showed that the rate of nucleic acid turning negative during the isolation observation in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group (rate difference: 21.66%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.34 to 37.27, p = 0.0142). Patients in the treatment group have a shorter time of nucleic acid turning negative (7.5 vs. 14.5 days, p = 0.018). Moreover, the rate of clinical symptoms appearance in the treatment group was lower compared with that in the control group (rate difference: -31.67, 95% CI: -46.83 to -13.82, p = 0.0005). The proportion of confirmed mild and common cases in the treatment group was also lower (35.00% vs. 66.67%, p = 0.0005). No serious adverse events were documented. Conclusions: In this study, the authors illustrated that LH capsule is beneficial to asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Considering the lack of interventions for treating asymptomatic COVID-19 patients at this stage, LH capsule could be considered as a choice. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2100042066.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1168-1171, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the application experience and the therapeutic effect of Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir (trade name: Paxlovid) for COVID-19 in children. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data, including collecting the clinical manifestations and clinical outcomes, dynamically monitoring the blood routine, hepatic and renal function and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid results, and observing the related side effects during the treatment, etc, of 3 cases with COVID-19 treated with Paxlovid admitted to Shanghai Children's Hospital (designated referral hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai) from May 1st to June 1st, 2022. Results: The 3 cases were 12, 14, 17 years of age, among which 2 cases were males, 1 case was female. All 3 cases were mild cases with underlying diseases and risk of developing into severe COVID-19, with symptoms of high fever, sore throat and dry cough. The treatment of Paxlovid at 3rd day of symptom onset contributed to the symptom-free after 1-2 days and negative results of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after 2-4 days. All patients had no adverse manifestations of gastrointestinal tract and nervous system but a case had little skin rashes, which recovered after the withdrawal of Paxlovid. Three cases had normal hepatic and renal function during the Paxlovid treatment. At 3 months after discharge, no clinical manifestations of post-COVID syndrome were found in all 3 cases. Conclusion: Paxlovid was effective and relatively safe in the treatment of 3 children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Child , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , China
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