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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(45)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581443

ABSTRACT

BackgroundReliable testing for SARS-CoV-2 is key for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.AimWe estimate diagnostic accuracy for nucleic acid and antibody tests 5 months into the COVID-19 pandemic, and compare with manufacturer-reported accuracy.MethodsWe reviewed the clinical performance of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and antibody tests based on 93,757 test results from 151 published studies and 20,205 new test results from 12 countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA).ResultsPooling the results and considering only results with 95% confidence interval width ≤ 5%, we found four nucleic acid tests, including one point-of-care test and three antibody tests, with a clinical sensitivity ≥ 95% for at least one target population (hospitalised, mild or asymptomatic, or unknown). Nine nucleic acid tests and 25 antibody tests, 12 of them point-of-care tests, had a clinical specificity of ≥ 98%. Three antibody tests achieved both thresholds. Evidence for nucleic acid point-of-care tests remains scarce at present, and sensitivity varied substantially. Study heterogeneity was low for eight of 14 sensitivity and 68 of 84 specificity results with confidence interval width ≤ 5%, and lower for nucleic acid tests than antibody tests. Manufacturer-reported clinical performance was significantly higher than independently assessed in 11 of 32 and four of 34 cases, respectively, for sensitivity and specificity, indicating a need for improvement in this area.ConclusionContinuous monitoring of clinical performance within more clearly defined target populations is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(1): 329-375, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569286

ABSTRACT

This review article deals with the concepts, principles and applications of visible-light and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in in vitro point-of-care testing (POCT) and in vivo bio-imaging. It has discussed how to utilize the biological transparency windows to improve the penetration depth and signal-to-noise ratio, and how to use surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to amplify fluorescence and SERS signals. This article has highlighted some plasmonic fluorescence and SERS probes. It has also reviewed the design strategies of fluorescent and SERS sensors in the detection of metal ions, small molecules, proteins and nucleic acids. Particularly, it has provided perspectives on the integration of fluorescent and SERS sensors into microfluidic chips as lab-on-chips to realize point-of-care testing. It has also discussed the design of active microfluidic devices and non-paper- or paper-based lateral flow assays for in vitro diagnostics. In addition, this article has discussed the strategies to design in vivo NIR fluorescence and SERS bio-imaging platforms for monitoring physiological processes and disease progression in live cells and tissues. Moreover, it has highlighted the applications of POCT and bio-imaging in testing toxins, heavy metals, illicit drugs, cancers, traumatic brain injuries, and infectious diseases such as COVID-19, influenza, HIV and sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 199: 113880, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560989

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has shown the importance of early disease diagnosis in preventing further infection and mortality. Despite major advances in the development of highly precise and rapid detection approaches, the time-consuming process of designing a virus-specific diagnostic kit has been a limiting factor in the early management of the pandemic. Here, we propose an RNA polymerase activity-sensing strategy utilizing an RNA polymerization actuating nucleic acid membrane (RANAM) partially metallized with gold for colorimetric RNA virus detection. Following RANAM-templated amplification of newly synthesized RNA, the presence of the RNA polymerase was determined by visualization of the inhibition of an oxidation/reduction (redox) reaction between 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and blocked Au3+. As a proof of concept, a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), which is found in various RNA virus-infected cells, was chosen as a target molecule. With this novel RANAM biosensor, as little as 10 min of RdRP incubation could significantly reduce the colorimetric signal. Further development into an easy-to-use prototype kit in viral infection diagnosis detected RdRP present at levels even as low as 100 aM. Color formation based on the presence of RdRP could be simply and clearly confirmed through smartphone-assisted color imaging of the prototype kit. This study provides a non-PCR-based RNA virus detection including its variants using RdRP-mediated polymerization.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Polymerization , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(11): e23998, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is detected using real-time RT-PCR. However, there are limitations pertaining to quality control, particularly with respect to establishing quality control measures for extraction of viral nucleic acids. Here, we investigated the quality control measures for the various processes using an extrinsic quality control substance and quality control charts. METHODS: An extrinsic quality control substance was added to the sample, and then, real-time RT-PCR was performed. Samples with negative test results and the corresponding data were analyzed; a quality control chart was created and examined. RESULTS: Data analysis and the quality control charts indicated that SARS-CoV-2 could be reliably detected using real-time RT-PCR, even when different nucleic acid extraction methods were used or when different technicians were employed. CONCLUSION: With the use of quality control substances, it is possible to achieve quality control throughout the process-from nucleic acid extraction to nucleic acid detection-even upon using varying extraction methods. Further, generating quality control charts would guarantee the stable detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acids/isolation & purification , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Nanoscale ; 13(43): 18084-18088, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500761

ABSTRACT

This communication describes a novel water-soluble membrane prepared from chitosan intended for SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid collection and detection. The CSH membrane formed from nanofibers shows promising potential in the quantitative determination of the SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acids at a concentration of 102 copies per L in air. The sponge-like structure which allows gas to pass through for collection of viral nucleic acids potentially provides simple, fast, and reliable sampling as well as detection of various types of airborne viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Water
6.
Anal Chem ; 93(46): 15288-15294, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500403

ABSTRACT

Herein, a pipette-tip-enabled digital nucleic acid analyzer for high-performance COVID-19 testing is demonstrated. This is achieved by digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (digital LAMP or dLAMP) using common laboratory equipment and materials. It is shown that simply fixing a glass capillary inside conventional pipette tips enables the generation of monodisperse, water-in-oil microdroplets with benchtop centrifugation. It is shown that using LAMP, the ORF1a/b gene, a standard test region for COVID-19 screening, can be amplified without a thermal cycler. The amplification allows counting of fluorescent microdroplets so that Poisson analysis can be performed to allow quantification with a limit of detection that is 1 order of magnitude better than those of nondigital techniques and comparable to those of commercial dLAMP platforms. It is envisioned that this work will inspire studies on ultrasensitive digital nucleic acid analyzers demanding both sensitivity and accessibility, which is pivotal to their large-scale applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 755508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497026

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to circulate globally in 2021, while under the precise policy implementation of China's public health system, the epidemic was quickly controlled, and society and the economy have recovered. During the pandemic response, nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 has played an indispensable role in the first line of defence. In the cases of emergency operations or patients presenting at fever clinics, nucleic acid detection is required to be performed and reported quickly. Therefore, nucleic acid point-of-care testing (POCT) technology for SARS-CoV-2 identification has emerged, and has been widely carried out at all levels of medical institutions. SARS-CoV-2 POCT has served as a complementary test to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) batch tests, thus forming an experimental diagnosis platform that not only guarantees medical safety but also improves quality services. However, in view of the complexity of molecular diagnosis and the biosafety requirements involved, pathogen nucleic acid POCT is different from traditional blood-based physical and chemical index detection. No guidelines currently exist for POCT quality management, and there have been inconsistencies documented in practical operation. Therefore, Shanghai Society of Molecular Diagnostics, Shanghai Society of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology Division of Shanghai Society of Microbiology and Shanghai Center for Clinical Laboratory have cooperated with experts in laboratory medicine to generate the present expert consensus. Based on the current spectrum of major infectious diseases in China, the whole-process operation management of pathogen POCT, including its application scenarios, biosafety management, personnel qualification, performance verification, quality control, and result reporting, are described here. This expert consensus will aid in promoting the rational application and robust development of this technology in public health defence and hospital infection management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , China , Consensus , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114339, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472084

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for generic reagents and flexible systems in diagnostic testing. Magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction protocols using 96-well plates on open liquid handlers are readily amenable to meet this need. Here, one such approach is rigorously optimized to minimize cross-well contamination while maintaining sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Indicators and Reagents , Magnetic Phenomena , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1353-1359, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468522

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an index system of population based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening, and provide reference to determine the screening coverage appropriately. Methods: The literature review and brain storming sessions were used to develop the basic frame and index system of population based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening. Based on Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process, 21 domestic experts were selected for two rounds of consultation to determine the index system of population based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening and its weight. Results: The positive indexes of experts in two rounds of consultations were both 100%. The experts' authority coefficients (Cr) were 0.88±0.08 and 0.89±0.07, respectively. And the range of coefficient of variation (CV) were (0.08, 0.24), (0.09, 0.25). The Kendall's W coordination coefficients were 0.34 and 0.22 respectively, which were statistically significant. The index system of population based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening was established, which had 4 first-level indexes, 11 second-level indexes and 58 third-level indexes. Besides, the weight of each index was determined. Conclusion: The index system of population based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening has been established, which can provide scientific reference for the health administration to determine the coverage of population based SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening when local COVID-19 epidemic occurs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1347-1352, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468521

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing in 20 348 close contacts of COVID-19 cases in different prevention and control stages in Guangzhou and to provide scientific evidence for optimizing epidemic response strategies. Methods: A total of 20 348 close contacts of COVID-19 cases in Guangzhou were traced between February 21 and September 22,2020. All the close contacts were tested for the nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2. The sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid testing and diagnosis in the different prevention and control stages were compared. Results: In 20 348 close contacts, 12 462 were males (61.24%), the median (P25,P75) of age of them was 31.0 years (23.0,43.0), the median number (P25,P75) of nucleic acid testing for them was 2.0 (1.0,3.0), and the median (P25,P75) of their quarantine days was 12.0 (8.0,13.0) days, respectively. A total of 256 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in the close contacts after seven nucleic acid tests. In the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 7th nucleic acid testing, the sensitivity and specificity were 69.14% and 99.99% (177 cases confirmed), 89.84% and 99.99% (230 cases confirmed), 97.27% and 99.99% (249 cases confirmed), and 100.00% and 99.98%, respectively. In the three stages of COVID-19 prevention and control in China: domestic case stage, imported case stage, and imported case associated local epidemic stage, the sensitivity of the 1st nucleic acid testing was 70.68%, 68.00% and 67.35%, and the specificity was 99.98%, 100.00% and 100.00%, respectively. Conclusions: The sensitivity of nucleic acid testing in the close contacts at the different stages were consistent with slight decrease, which might be related to the increased proportion of asymptomatic infections in the late stage of epidemic prevention and control with COVID-19 in Guangzhou. It is suggested to give three nucleic acid tests to improve the sensitivity and reduce false negative risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(2): 219-225, 2021 Feb 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468518

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the performance and application of a fast nucleic acid detection system for testing severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Methods: Clinical samples were collected from February to July 2020 from Beijing Center for Diseases Prevention and Control and the Laboratory Department of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, anti-interference ability, precision and clinical sample coincidence rate of fast nucleic acid detection system for SARS-CoV-2. The analytical sensitivity was determined by a dilution series of 20 replications for each concentration. Analytical specificity study was performed by testing organisms whose infection produces symptoms similar to those observed at the onset of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and of the normal or pathogenic microflora that may be present in specimens collected. Potential interference substances were evaluated with different concentration in the interference study. Precision study was conducted by estimating intra-and inter-batch variability. Clinical evaluation was performed by testing 230 oropharyngeal swab specimens and 95 sputum specimens in fast nucleic acid detection system, comparing with conventional real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and clinical diagnostic results. Results: The analytical sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 using fast nucleic acid detection system was 400 copies/ml. The result is negative for testing with the organisms that may likely in the circulating area or causing similar symptoms with SARS-CoV-2 and human nucleic acid, indicating that no cross reactivity with organisms. The results of precision test showed that the Coefficient of variation of Ct value of high, medium and low concentration samples was 1.90%-3.92%, and all of them were less than 5% in intra-and inter-batch testing. The results of the samples were still positive after adding the potential interfering substances, indicating that the possible interfering substances in the samples had no effect on the results. 98.46% and 97.85% diagnosis results of fast nucleic acid detection system were consistent with RT-qPCR and clinical diagnostic results, respectively. Conclusion: The fast nucleic acid detection system based on molecular parallel reaction can be used as a selection method for SARS-CoV-2 testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27410, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462560

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid as one of the criteria has been widely applied to assess whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients could discharge, however, the risk factors that affect the duration of the SARS-CoV-2 clearance remained to be an enigma. Our research was to identify risk factors correlated with prolonged duration of the SARS-CoV-2 clearance in moderate COVID-19 patients.We retrospectively analyzed 279 consecutive ordinary COVID-19 patients in 3 hospitals in Hubei province including Huangshi Hospital of Infectious Disease, Wuhan Thunder God Mountain Hospital, and Tongji Hospital. Eight clinical characters were contained as risk factors. We used a logistic regression model and nomogram to assess the possibility that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid may turn negative in 14 days.Time from symptoms onset to diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-6.46; P = .001), time from onset use of antiviral drugs to onset of symptoms (OR = 0.41; 95% CI 0.23-0.72; P = .02), and bacterial coinfection (OR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.86; P = .038) were independent risks factors for the duration of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid clearance. The regression model showed good accuracy and sensitivity (area under the curve  = 0.96). Nomogram was also provided to predict the negative conversion rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids within 14 days.Time from symptoms onset to diagnosi, time from onset use of antiviral drugs to onset of symptoms, and bacterial coinfection were independent risk factors for the time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid turning negative in ordinary COVID-19 patients. However, the age, gender, underlying disease, fungal coinfection, and duration use of antiviral drugs were irrelevant factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Coinfection , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
14.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(21): 11844-11869, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454829

ABSTRACT

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have revolutionized biological and biomedical sciences in many ways. The last few years have also seen tremendous interest in deploying the CRISPR-Cas toolbox for analytical and diagnostic assay development because CRISPR-Cas is one of the most powerful classes of molecular machineries for the recognition and manipulation of nucleic acids. In the short period of development, many CRISPR-enabled assays have already established critical roles in clinical diagnostics, biosensing, and bioimaging. We describe in this review the recent advances and design principles of CRISPR mediated analytical tools with an emphasis on the functional roles of CRISPR-Cas machineries as highly efficient binders and molecular scissors. We highlight the diverse engineering approaches for molecularly modifying CRISPR-Cas machineries and for devising better readout platforms. We discuss the potential roles of these new approaches and platforms in enhancing assay sensitivity, specificity, multiplexity, and clinical outcomes. By illustrating the biochemical and analytical processes, we hope this review will help guide the best use of the CRISPR-Cas toolbox in detecting, quantifying and imaging biologically and clinically important molecules and inspire new ideas, technological advances and engineering strategies for addressing real-world challenges such as the on-going COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1186: 339134, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446328

ABSTRACT

In recent years, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) has become a powerful tool for biological quantitative analysis. Homogeneous analysis method requires no separation and washing steps, which is suited for the analysis of highly infectious pathogens, so as to reduce the risk of infection during the operation. SARS-CoV-2 spreads all over the world, and its early infection symptoms are similar to influenza, which brings inconvenience to triage. Therefore, developing novel analytical method for simultaneous detection of multiple viral nucleic acids is essential. Taking the advantages of SP-ICP-MS and homogeneous analysis strategy, a SP-ICP-MS homogeneous nucleic acid assay by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) probes was established for simultaneous sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A (H3N2). In the present of target SARS-CoV-2 or H3N2 nucleic acids, corresponding Au NPs or Ag NPs probes form larger aggregates, resulting in increased pulse signal intensity and reduced pulse signal frequency of the corresponding NPs in SP-ICP-MS measurement. In this assay, the reaction system of Au NPs and Ag NPs probes does not interfere with each other, and there was no separation and washing procedure, which facilitates operation, saves the analysis time, and improves the analysis efficiency. The linear range of this method is 5-1000 pmol L-1, with low-level limits of quantification of target nucleic acid. The developed SP-ICP-MS simultaneous homogeneous detection method has a good potential for detecting nucleic acid, protein, cell and other biological samples by changing different modification sequences on the NPs probes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Gold , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Mass Spectrometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver
17.
J Neurol Sci ; 430: 120023, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446884

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about CSF profiles in patients with acute COVID-19 infection and neurological symptoms. Here, CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and compared to controls and patients with known neurotropic pathogens. METHODS: CSF from twenty-seven consecutive patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms was assayed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and unbiased metagenomic sequencing. Assays for blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown (CSF:serum albumin ratio (Q-Alb)), and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-16, monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1) and monocyte inhibitory protein - 1ß (MIP-1ß)) were performed in 23 patients and compared to CSF from patients with HIV-1 (16 virally suppressed, 5 unsuppressed), West Nile virus (WNV) (n = 4) and 16 healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Median CSF cell count for COVID-19 patients was 1 white blood cell/µL; two patients were infected with a second pathogen (Neisseria, Cryptococcus neoformans). No CSF samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by either detection method. In patients with COVID-19 only, CSF IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, and MIP-1ß levels were higher than HC and suppressed HIV (corrected-p < 0.05). MCP-1 and MIP-1ß levels were higher, while IL-6, IL-8, IL-15 were similar in COVID-19 compared to WNV patients. Q-Alb correlated with all proinflammatory markers, with IL-6, IL-8, and MIP-1ß (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.01) demonstrating the strongest associations. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in CSF is consistent with pre-existing literature. Evidence of intrathecal proinflammatory markers in a subset of COVID-19 patients with BBB breakdown despite minimal CSF pleocytosis is atypical for neurotropic pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Cytokines , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Methods Enzymol ; 661: 407-431, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439812

ABSTRACT

We present a Chemistry and Structure Screen Integrated Efficiently (CASSIE) approach (named for Greek prophet Cassandra) to design inhibitors for cancer biology and pathogenesis. CASSIE provides an effective path to target master keys to control the repair-replication interface for cancer cells and SARS CoV-2 pathogenesis as exemplified here by specific targeting of Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribose glycohydrolase ARH3 macrodomains plus SARS CoV-2 nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3) Macrodomain 1 (Mac1) and Nsp15 nuclease. As opposed to the classical massive effort employing libraries with large numbers of compounds against single proteins, we make inhibitor design for multiple targets efficient. Our compact, chemically diverse, 5000 compound Goldilocks (GL) library has an intermediate number of compounds sized between fragments and drugs with predicted favorable ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and toxicological profiles. Amalgamating our core GL library with an approved drug (AD) library, we employ a combined GLAD library virtual screen, enabling an effective and efficient design cycle of ranked computer docking, top hit biophysical and cell validations, and defined bound structures using human proteins or their avatars. As new drug design is increasingly pathway directed as well as molecular and mechanism based, our CASSIE approach facilitates testing multiple related targets by efficiently turning a set of interacting drug discovery problems into a tractable medicinal chemistry engineering problem of optimizing affinity and ADME properties based upon early co-crystal structures. Optimization efforts are made efficient by a computationally-focused iterative chemistry and structure screen. Thus, we herein describe and apply CASSIE to define prototypic, specific inhibitors for PARG vs distinct inhibitors for the related macrodomains of ARH3 and SARS CoV-2 Nsp3 plus the SARS CoV-2 Nsp15 RNA nuclease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , DNA Repair , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nanoscale ; 13(37): 15659-15667, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415965

ABSTRACT

Objective: The events of the last year have highlighted the complexity of implementing large-scale molecular diagnostic testing for novel pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical influences of sample collection media and storage on the stability and detection of viral nucleic acids by qRT-PCR. We studied the mechanism(s) through which viral transport media (VTM) and number of freeze-thaw cycles influenced the analytical sensitivity of qRT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2. Our goal is to reinforce testing capabilities and identify weaknesses that could arise in resource-limited environments that do not have well-controlled cold chains. Method: The sensitivity of qRT-PCR analysis was studied in four VTM for synthetic single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) simulants of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Results: The sensitivity and reproducibility of qRT-PCR for the synthetic ssRNA and dsDNA were found to be highly sensitive to VTM with the best results observed for ssRNA in HBSS and PBS-G. Surprisingly, the presence of epithelial cellular material with the ssRNA increased the sensitivity of the qRT-PCR assay. Repeated freeze-thaw cycling decreased the sensitivity of the qRT-PCR with two noted exceptions. Conclusions: The choice of VTM is critically important to defining the sensitivity of COVID-19 molecular diagnostics assays and this study suggests they can impact upon the stability of the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome. This becomes increasingly important if the virus structure is destabilised before analysis, which can occur due to poor storage conditions. This study suggests that COVID-19 testing performed with glycerol-containing PBS will produce a high level of stability and sensitivity. These results are in agreement with clinical studies reported for patient-derived samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 708476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394844

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has challenged public health systems worldwide. Therefore, large-scale testing capacity is extremely important diagnosis and exclusion diagnosis. However, fixed laboratories are limited or far away from remote areas. Fortunately, MBS-Lab is characterized by high mobility and rapid on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. MBS-Lab was first used in northern Australia during a melioidosis outbreak in 1997. The MBS-Lab and a well-trained diagnostic team were dispatched to Dongchang District, Tonghua City, Jilin Province, China to assist the SARS-CoV-2 virus screening and diagnosis on January 17, 2021. Altogether, 93,952 oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected and tested among the high-risk groups and the general population in Dongchang District. Two single samples were identified as positive in the second turn screening. In the second turn screening, 3 mixed samples (10 in 1) were identified as positive; 10 mixed samples were identified as positive in the third turn screening. By resampling again, one and four cases were identified as positive, respectively. The positive cases were properly isolated and treated in hospital and avoided to visit family members, friends, colleagues and any other persons. Through this way of large-scale screening, human-human spread of SARS-CoV-2 can be effectively avoided. In addition, all staff members strictly executed multiple safety precautions and reduce exposure risks. In the end, none of the staffs was infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus or other pathogens. As an emergency facility for infectious disease control, the MBS-Lab satisfies the requirements of ports and other remote areas far from fixed laboratories and supplements the capabilities of fixed laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2
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