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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0127121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752773

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global outbreak and prompted an enormous research effort. Still, the subcellular localization of the coronavirus in lungs of COVID-19 patients is not well understood. Here, the localization of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins is studied in postmortem lung material of COVID-19 patients and in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells, processed identically. Correlative light and electron microscopy on semithick cryo-sections demonstrated induction of electron-lucent, lipid-filled compartments after SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung and cell cultures. In lung tissue, the nonstructural protein 4 and the stable nucleocapsid N-protein were detected on these novel lipid-filled compartments. The induction of such lipid-filled compartments and the localization of the viral proteins in lung of patients with fatal COVID-19 may explain the extensive inflammatory response and provide a new hallmark for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the final, fatal stage of infection. IMPORTANCE Visualization of the subcellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in lung patient material of COVID-19 patients is important for the understanding of this new virus. We detected viral proteins in the context of the ultrastructure of infected cells and tissues and discovered that some viral proteins accumulate in novel, lipid-filled compartments. These structures are induced in Vero cells but, more importantly, also in lung of patients with COVID-19. We have characterized these lipid-filled compartments and determined that this is a novel, virus-induced structure. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that cellular markers, such as CD63 and lipid droplet marker PLIN-2, are absent. Colocalization of lipid-filled compartments with the stable N-protein and nonstructural protein 4 in lung of the last stages of COVID-19 indicates that these compartments play a key role in the devastating immune response that SARS-CoV-2 infections provoke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipids/analysis , Lung/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/ultrastructure , Male , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells/virology
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20323, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467136

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a highly sensitive SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay using the single molecule array (Simoa) technology and compare it with real time RT-PCR as used in routine clinical practice with the ambition to achieve a comparative technical and clinical sensitivity. Samples were available from 148 SARS-CoV-2 real time RT-PCR positive and 73 SARS-CoV-2 real time RT-PCR negative oropharyngeal swabs. For determination of technical sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 virus culture material was used. The samples were treated with lysis buffer and analyzed using both an in-house and a pre-commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay on Simoa. Both nucleocapsid antigen assays have a technical sensitivity corresponding to around 100 SARS-CoV-2 RNA molecules/mL. Using a cut-off at 0.1 pg/mL the pre-commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI 91.4-98.5%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI 95.1-100%). In comparison the in-house nucleocapsid antigen assay had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 89.3-98.1%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 95.1-100%) using a cut-off at 0.01 pg/mL. The two SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assays correlated with r = 0.91 (P < 0.0001). The in-house and the pre-commercial SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen assay demonstrated technical and clinical sensitivity comparable to real-time RT-PCR methods for identifying SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and thus can be used clinically as well as serve as a reference method for antigen Point of Care Testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , Denmark , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid/analysis , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Single Molecule Imaging/methods , Virion/chemistry
3.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 44(9): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388871

ABSTRACT

Antigen tests for infectious diseases are inexpensive and easy-to-use, but the limit of detection (LOD) is generally higher than that of PCR tests, which are considered the gold standard. In the present study, we combined a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) cycling to improve the LOD of antigen tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the LOD of our ELISA with thio-NAD cycling was 2.95 × 10-17 moles/assay. When UV-irradiated inactive SARS-CoV-2 was used, the minimum detectable virions corresponding to 2.6 × 104 RNA copies/assay were obtained using our ELISA with thio-NAD cycling. The assay volume for each test was 100 µL. The minimum detectable value was smaller than that of the latest antigen test using a fluorescent immunoassay for SARS-CoV-2, indicating the validity of our detection system for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , NAD/analogs & derivatives , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(12): 2003-2009, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The detection of SARS-CoV-2 in infected people is a key tool to help in controlling COVID-19 pandemic. Like rapid antigenic tests, automated antigen tests, that present the advantage of a higher throughput flow, may be of interest. The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag test was evaluated for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen in nasopharyngeal swabs by comparison to RT-PCR. METHODS: The study involved 378 nasopharyngeal samples (UTM® and FLOQSwab™, Copan Diagnostics), including 46 swabs positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. These samples came from asymptomatic (n=99, 26.2%) or symptomatic people (n=279, 73.8%), at different times from symptom onset. The samples were analyzed on LIAISON® XL. RESULTS: The overall specificity was 99.4% (CI95% [98.6-100]). The negative predictive value reached 100% in asymptomatic people. Among the 46 positive samples, the overall sensitivity was 84.8% (CI95% [74.4-95.2]), reached 91.9% (CI95% [83.1-100]) in the first fourth days after symptoms onset and was 100% for Cq values ≤25. Antigen was not detected in samples with Cq values >25. Similar results were observed on nasopharyngeal swabs coming from patients infected with the 20I/501Y.V1 variant or the 20H/501Y.V2 variant. CONCLUSIONS: According to technical performances, the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag test may be a useful tool for COVID-19 diagnosis, especially during the first four days of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleocapsid/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , Automation , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , ROC Curve , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4739-4753, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological tests detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are widely used in seroprevalence studies and evaluating the efficacy of the vaccination program. Some of the widely used serological testing techniques are enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). However, these tests are plagued with low sensitivity or specificity, time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive. We developed a serological test implementing flow-through dot-blot assay (FT-DBA) for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG detection, which provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity while being quick to perform and easy to use. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 antigens were immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane to capture human IgG, which was then detected with anti-human IgG conjugated gold nanoparticle (hIgG-AuNP). A total of 181 samples were analyzed in-house. Within which 35 were further evaluated in US FDA-approved CLIA Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 assay. The positive panel consisted of RT-qPCR positive samples from patients with both <14 days and >14 days from the onset of clinical symptoms. The negative panel contained samples collected from the pre-pandemic era dengue patients and healthy donors during the pandemic. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FT-DBA were evaluated against RT-qPCR positive sera. However, the overall efficacies were assessed with sera that seroconverted against either nucleocapsid (NCP) or receptor-binding domain (RBD). RESULTS: In-house ELISA selected a total of 81 true seropositive and 100 seronegative samples. The sensitivity of samples with <14 days using FT-DBA was 94.7%, increasing to 100% for samples >14 days. The overall detection sensitivity and specificity were 98.8% and 98%, respectively, whereas the overall PPV and NPV were 99.6% and 99%. Moreover, comparative analysis between in-house ELISA assays and FT-DBA revealed clinical agreement of Cohen's Kappa value of 0.944. The FT-DBA showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% when compared with commercial CLIA kits. CONCLUSION: The assay can confirm past SARS-CoV-2 infection with high accuracy within 2 minutes compared to commercial CLIA or in-house ELISA. It can help track SARS-CoV-2 disease progression, population screening, and vaccination response. The ease of use of the assay without requiring any instruments while being semi-quantitative provides the avenue of its implementation in remote areas around the globe, where conventional serodiagnosis is not feasible.


Subject(s)
Gold/chemistry , Immunoblotting/methods , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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