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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0127121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752773

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global outbreak and prompted an enormous research effort. Still, the subcellular localization of the coronavirus in lungs of COVID-19 patients is not well understood. Here, the localization of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins is studied in postmortem lung material of COVID-19 patients and in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells, processed identically. Correlative light and electron microscopy on semithick cryo-sections demonstrated induction of electron-lucent, lipid-filled compartments after SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung and cell cultures. In lung tissue, the nonstructural protein 4 and the stable nucleocapsid N-protein were detected on these novel lipid-filled compartments. The induction of such lipid-filled compartments and the localization of the viral proteins in lung of patients with fatal COVID-19 may explain the extensive inflammatory response and provide a new hallmark for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the final, fatal stage of infection. IMPORTANCE Visualization of the subcellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in lung patient material of COVID-19 patients is important for the understanding of this new virus. We detected viral proteins in the context of the ultrastructure of infected cells and tissues and discovered that some viral proteins accumulate in novel, lipid-filled compartments. These structures are induced in Vero cells but, more importantly, also in lung of patients with COVID-19. We have characterized these lipid-filled compartments and determined that this is a novel, virus-induced structure. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that cellular markers, such as CD63 and lipid droplet marker PLIN-2, are absent. Colocalization of lipid-filled compartments with the stable N-protein and nonstructural protein 4 in lung of the last stages of COVID-19 indicates that these compartments play a key role in the devastating immune response that SARS-CoV-2 infections provoke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipids/analysis , Lung/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/ultrastructure , Male , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells/virology
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 601, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671558

ABSTRACT

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 spread and evolution through genome sequencing is essential in handling the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we sequenced 892 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected from patients in Saudi Arabia from March to August 2020. We show that two consecutive mutations (R203K/G204R) in the nucleocapsid (N) protein are associated with higher viral loads in COVID-19 patients. Our comparative biochemical analysis reveals that the mutant N protein displays enhanced viral RNA binding and differential interaction with key host proteins. We found increased interaction of GSK3A kinase simultaneously with hyper-phosphorylation of the adjacent serine site (S206) in the mutant N protein. Furthermore, the host cell transcriptome analysis suggests that the mutant N protein produces dysregulated interferon response genes. Here, we provide crucial information in linking the R203K/G204R mutations in the N protein to modulations of host-virus interactions and underline the potential of the nucleocapsid protein as a drug target during infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genome, Viral , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/genetics , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saudi Arabia , Viral Load , Virus Replication
3.
Cell ; 185(5): 896-915.e19, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670278

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) threaten the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines administered intramuscularly and designed to only target the spike protein. There is a pressing need to develop next-generation vaccine strategies for broader and long-lasting protection. Using adenoviral vectors (Ad) of human and chimpanzee origin, we evaluated Ad-vectored trivalent COVID-19 vaccines expressing spike-1, nucleocapsid, and RdRp antigens in murine models. We show that single-dose intranasal immunization, particularly with chimpanzee Ad-vectored vaccine, is superior to intramuscular immunization in induction of the tripartite protective immunity consisting of local and systemic antibody responses, mucosal tissue-resident memory T cells and mucosal trained innate immunity. We further show that intranasal immunization provides protection against both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Our findings indicate that respiratory mucosal delivery of Ad-vectored multivalent vaccine represents an effective next-generation COVID-19 vaccine strategy to induce all-around mucosal immunity against current and future VOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Pan troglodytes , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
4.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2890-2901, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604873

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein N plays critical roles in multiple processes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection cycle: it protects and packages viral RNA in N assembly, interacts with the inner domain of spike protein, binds to structural membrane (M) protein during virion packaging and maturation, and to proteases causing replication of infective virus particle. Even with its importance, very limited biophysical studies are available on the N protein because of its high level of disorder, high propensity for aggregation, and high susceptibility for autoproteolysis. Here, we successfully prepare the N protein and a 1000-nucleotide fragment of viral RNA in large quantities and purity suitable for biophysical studies. A combination of biophysical and biochemical techniques demonstrates that the N protein is partially disordered and consists of an independently folded RNA-binding domain and a dimerization domain, flanked by disordered linkers. The protein assembles as a tight dimer with a dimerization constant of sub-micromolar but can also form transient interactions with other N proteins, facilitating larger oligomers. NMR studies on the ∼100-kDa dimeric protein identify a specific domain that binds 1-1000-nt RNA and show that the N-RNA complex remains highly disordered. Analytical ultracentrifugation, isothermal titration calorimetry, multiangle light scattering, and cross-linking experiments identify a heterogeneous mixture of complexes with a core corresponding to at least 70 dimers of N bound to 1-1000 RNA. In contrast, very weak binding is detected with a smaller construct corresponding to the RNA-binding domain using similar experiments. A model that explains the importance of the bivalent structure of N to its binding on multivalent sites of the viral RNA is presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphoproteins , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism
5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 316, 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604245

ABSTRACT

A novel label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) aptasensor has been constructed for the detection of N-gene of SARS-CoV-2 by using thiol-modified niobium carbide MXene quantum dots (Nb2C-SH QDs) as the bioplatform for anchoring N-gene-targeted aptamer. In the presence of SARS-CoV-2 N-gene, the immobilized aptamer strands changed their conformation to specifically bind with N-gene. It thus increased the contact area or enlarged the distance between aptamer and the SPR chip, resulting in a change of the SPR signal irradiated by the laser (He-Ne) with the wavelength (λ) of 633 nm. Nb2C QDs were derived from Nb2C MXene nanosheets via a solvothermal method, followed by functionalization with octadecanethiol through a self-assembling method. Subsequently, the gold chip for SPR measurements was modified with Nb2C-SH QDs via covalent binding of the Au-S bond also by self-assembling interaction. Nb2C-SH QDs not only resulted in high bioaffinity toward aptamer but also enhanced the SPR response. Thus, the Nb2C-SH QD-based SPR aptasensor had low limit of detection (LOD) of 4.9 pg mL-1 toward N-gene within the concentration range 0.05 to 100 ng mL-1. The sensor also showed excellent selectivity in the presence of various respiratory viruses and proteins in human serum and high stability. Moreover, the Nb2C-SH QD-based SPR aptasensor displayed a vast practical application for the qualitative analysis of N-gene from different samples, including seawater, seafood, and human serum. Thus, this work can provide a deep insight into the construction of the aptasensor for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in complex environments. A novel label-free surface plasmon resonance aptasensor has been constructed to detect sensitively and selectively the N-gene of SARS-CoV-2 by using thiol-modified niobium carbide MXene quantum dots as the scaffold to anchor the N-gene-targeted aptamer.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19/diagnosis , Niobium/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Quantum Dots/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572289

ABSTRACT

Durability of SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody responses after infection provides information relevant to understanding protection against COVID-19 in humans. We report the results of a sequential evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in convalescent patients with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 12.4-15.4) post first symptom onset. We report persistence of antibodies for all four specificities tested [Spike, Spike Receptor Binding Domain (Spike-RBD), Nucleocapsid, Nucleocapsid RNA Binding Domain (N-RBD)]. Anti-Spike antibodies persist better than anti-Nucleocapsid antibodies. The durability analysis supports a bi-phasic antibody decay with longer half-lives of antibodies after 6 months and antibody persistence for up to 14 months. Patients infected with the Wuhan (WA1) strain maintained strong cross-reactive recognition of Alpha and Delta Spike-RBD but significantly reduced binding to Beta and Mu Spike-RBD. Sixty percent of convalescent patients with detectable WA1-specific NAb also showed strong neutralization of the Delta variant, the prevalent strain of the present pandemic. These data show that convalescent patients maintain functional antibody responses for more than one year after infection, suggesting a strong long-lasting response after symptomatic disease that may offer a prolonged protection against re-infection. One patient from this cohort showed strong increase of both Spike and Nucleocapsid antibodies at 14 months post-infection indicating SARS-CoV-2 re-exposure. These antibodies showed stronger cross-reactivity to a panel of Spike-RBD including Beta, Delta and Mu and neutralization of a panel of Spike variants including Beta and Gamma. This patient provides an example of strong anti-Spike recall immunity able to control infection at an asymptomatic level. Together, the antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients persist over 14 months and continue to maintain cross-reactivity to the current variants of concern and show strong functional properties.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Protein Binding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
7.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100906, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458864

ABSTRACT

Nucleocapsid proteins are essential for SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Here, we describe protocols to gather domain-specific insights about essential properties of nucleocapsids. These assays include dynamic light scattering to characterize oligomerization, fluorescence polarization to quantify RNA binding, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to map RNA binding regions, negative-stain electron microscopy to visualize oligomeric species, interferon reporter assay to evaluate interferon signaling modulation, and a serology assay to reveal insights for improved sensitivity and specificity. These assays are broadly applicable to RNA-encapsidated nucleocapsids. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Wu et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Interferons/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Phosphoproteins/blood , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Binding , RNA, Viral/genetics
8.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1078-1091.e6, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386333

ABSTRACT

We report that the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) with viral RNA. N-protein condenses with specific RNA genomic elements under physiological buffer conditions and condensation is enhanced at human body temperatures (33°C and 37°C) and reduced at room temperature (22°C). RNA sequence and structure in specific genomic regions regulate N-protein condensation while other genomic regions promote condensate dissolution, potentially preventing aggregation of the large genome. At low concentrations, N-protein preferentially crosslinks to specific regions characterized by single-stranded RNA flanked by structured elements and these features specify the location, number, and strength of N-protein binding sites (valency). Liquid-like N-protein condensates form in mammalian cells in a concentration-dependent manner and can be altered by small molecules. Condensation of N-protein is RNA sequence and structure specific, sensitive to human body temperature, and manipulatable with small molecules, and therefore presents a screenable process for identifying antiviral compounds effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Genome, Viral , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
9.
EMBO J ; 40(18): e108249, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323479

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that causes dysfunctions in multiple human cells and tissues. Studies have looked at the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells mediated by the viral spike protein and human receptor ACE2. However, less is known about the cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Here, we show that the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host pyroptosis by blocking Gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes show enhanced cellular interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression, but reduced IL-1ß secretion. While SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, GSDMD cleavage and pyroptosis are inhibited in infected human monocytes. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein associates with GSDMD in cells and inhibits GSDMD cleavage in vitro and in vivo. The nucleocapsid binds the GSDMD linker region and hinders GSDMD processing by caspase-1. These insights into how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes cellular inflammatory responses may open new avenues for treating COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , THP-1 Cells
10.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305818

ABSTRACT

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is a rapidly growing research focus due to numerous demonstrations that many cellular proteins phase-separate to form biomolecular condensates (BMCs) that nucleate membraneless organelles (MLOs). A growing repertoire of mechanisms supporting BMC formation, composition, dynamics, and functions are becoming elucidated. BMCs are now appreciated as required for several steps of gene regulation, while their deregulation promotes pathological aggregates, such as stress granules (SGs) and insoluble irreversible plaques that are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment of BMC-related diseases will greatly benefit from identification of therapeutics preventing pathological aggregates while sparing BMCs required for cellular functions. Numerous viruses that block SG assembly also utilize or engineer BMCs for their replication. While BMC formation first depends on prion-like disordered protein domains (PrLDs), metal ion-controlled RNA-binding domains (RBDs) also orchestrate their formation. Virus replication and viral genomic RNA (vRNA) packaging dynamics involving nucleocapsid (NC) proteins and their orthologs rely on Zinc (Zn) availability, while virus morphology and infectivity are negatively influenced by excess Copper (Cu). While virus infections modify physiological metal homeostasis towards an increased copper to zinc ratio (Cu/Zn), how and why they do this remains elusive. Following our recent finding that pan-retroviruses employ Zn for NC-mediated LLPS for virus assembly, we present a pan-virus bioinformatics and literature meta-analysis study identifying metal-based mechanisms linking virus-induced BMCs to neurodegenerative disease processes. We discover that conserved degree and placement of PrLDs juxtaposing metal-regulated RBDs are associated with disease-causing prion-like proteins and are common features of viral proteins responsible for virus capsid assembly and structure. Virus infections both modulate gene expression of metalloproteins and interfere with metal homeostasis, representing an additional virus strategy impeding physiological and cellular antiviral responses. Our analyses reveal that metal-coordinated virus NC protein PrLDs initiate LLPS that nucleate pan-virus assembly and contribute to their persistence as cell-free infectious aerosol droplets. Virus aerosol droplets and insoluble neurological disease aggregates should be eliminated by physiological or environmental metals that outcompete PrLD-bound metals. While environmental metals can control virus spreading via aerosol droplets, therapeutic interference with metals or metalloproteins represent additional attractive avenues against pan-virus infection and virus-exacerbated neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Copper/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Prions/metabolism , Zinc/metabolism , Computational Biology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Prions/genetics , Protein Domains , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 228, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085408

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been mutating since it was first sequenced in early January 2020. Here, we analyze 45,494 complete SARS-CoV-2 geneome sequences in the world to understand their mutations. Among them, 12,754 sequences are from the United States. Our analysis suggests the presence of four substrains and eleven top mutations in the United States. These eleven top mutations belong to 3 disconnected groups. The first and second groups consisting of 5 and 8 concurrent mutations are prevailing, while the other group with three concurrent mutations gradually fades out. Moreover, we reveal that female immune systems are more active than those of males in responding to SARS-CoV-2 infections. One of the top mutations, 27964C > T-(S24L) on ORF8, has an unusually strong gender dependence. Based on the analysis of all mutations on the spike protein, we uncover that two of four SASR-CoV-2 substrains in the United States become potentially more infectious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Folding , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thermodynamics , United States
12.
J Proteome Res ; 20(2): 1434-1443, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065788

ABSTRACT

Alternative methods to RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection are investigated to provide complementary data on viral proteins, increase the number of tests performed, or identify false positive/negative results. Here, we have developed a simple mass spectrometry assay for SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swab samples using common laboratory reagents. The method employs high sensitivity and selectivity targeted mass spectrometry detection, monitoring nine constitutive peptides representative of the three main viral proteins and a straightforward pellet digestion protocol for convenient routine applications. Absolute quantification of N, M, and S proteins was achieved by addition of isotope-labeled versions of best peptides. Limit of detection, recovery, precision, and linearity were thoroughly evaluated in four representative viral transport media (VTM) containing distinct total protein content. The protocol was sensitive in all swab media with limit of detection determined at 2 × 103 pfu/mL, corresponding to as low as 30 pfu injected into the LC-MS/MS system. When tested on VTM-stored nasopharyngeal swab samples from positive and control patients, sensitivity was similar to or better than rapid immunoassay dipsticks, revealing a corresponding RT-PCR detection threshold at Ct ∼ 24. The study represents the first thorough evaluation of sensitivity and robustness of targeted mass spectrometry in nasal swabs, constituting a promising SARS-CoV-2 antigen assay for the first-line diagnosis of COVID-19 and compatible with the constraints of clinical settings. The raw files generated in this study can be found on PASSEL (Peptide Atlas) under data set identifier PASS01646.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , COVID-19/virology , Culture Media , Humans , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(1): 59-66, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064447

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the single-stranded positive-sense RNA family. The virus contains a large genome that encodes four structural proteins, small envelope (E), matrix (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), spike (S), and 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp1-16) that together, ensure replication of the virus in the host cell. Among these proteins, the interactions of N and Nsp3 are essential that links the viral genome for processing. The N proteins reside at CoV RNA synthesis sites known as the replication-transcription complexes (RTCs). The N-terminal of N has RNA-binding domain (N-NTD), capturing the RNA genome while the C-terminal domain (N-CTD) anchors the viral Nsp3, a component of RTCs. Although the structural information has been recently released, the residues involved in contacts between N-CTD with Nsp3 are still unknown. To find the residues involved in interactions between two proteins, three-dimensional structures of both proteins were retrieved and docked using HADDOCK. Residues at N-CTD were detected in interaction with L499, R500, K501, V502, P503, T504, D505, N506, Y507, I508, T509, K529, K530K532, S533 of Nsp3 and N-NTD to synthesize SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The interaction between Nsp3 and CTD of N protein may be a potential drug target. The current study provides information for better understanding the interaction between N protein and Nsp3 that could be a possible target for future inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Design , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Protein Binding/physiology , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
14.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827743

ABSTRACT

TER94 is a multifunctional AAA+ ATPase crucial for diverse cellular processes, especially protein quality control and chromatin dynamics in eukaryotic organisms. Many viruses, including coronavirus, herpesvirus, and retrovirus, coopt host cellular TER94 for optimal viral invasion and replication. Previous proteomics analysis identified the association of TER94 with the budded virions (BVs) of baculovirus, an enveloped insect large DNA virus. Here, the role of TER94 in the prototypic baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) life cycle was investigated. In virus-infected cells, TER94 accumulated in virogenic stroma (VS) at the early stage of infection and subsequently partially rearranged in the ring zone region. In the virions, TER94 was associated with the nucleocapsids of both BV and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). Inhibition of TER94 ATPase activity significantly reduced viral DNA replication and BV production. Electron/immunoelectron microscopy revealed that inhibition of TER94 resulted in the trapping of nucleocapsids within cytoplasmic vacuoles at the nuclear periphery for BV formation and blockage of ODV envelopment at a premature stage within infected nuclei, which appeared highly consistent with its pivotal function in membrane biogenesis. Further analyses showed that TER94 was recruited to the VS or subnuclear structures through interaction with viral early proteins LEF3 and helicase, whereas inhibition of TER94 activity blocked the proper localization of replication-related viral proteins and morphogenesis of VS, providing an explanation for its role in viral DNA replication. Taken together, these data indicated the crucial functions of TER94 at multiple steps of the baculovirus life cycle, including genome replication, BV formation, and ODV morphogenesis.IMPORTANCE TER94 constitutes an important AAA+ ATPase that associates with diverse cellular processes, including protein quality control, membrane fusion of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum network, nuclear envelope reformation, and DNA replication. To date, little is known regarding the role(s) of TER94 in the baculovirus life cycle. In this study, TER94 was found to play a crucial role in multiple steps of baculovirus infection, including viral DNA replication and BV and ODV formation. Further evidence showed that the membrane fission/fusion function of TER94 is likely to be exploited by baculovirus for virion morphogenesis. Moreover, TER94 could interact with the viral early proteins LEF3 and helicase to transport and further recruit viral replication-related proteins to establish viral replication factories. This study highlights the critical roles of TER94 as an energy-supplying chaperon in the baculovirus life cycle and enriches our knowledge regarding the biological function of this important host factor.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleopolyhedroviruses/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Nucleus/virology , Cytoplasm/virology , DNA Helicases/metabolism , DNA, Viral/biosynthesis , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Sf9 Cells/virology , Vacuoles/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virion
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