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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230945

ABSTRACT

Base pairing based on hydrogen bonding has, since its inception, been crucial in the antiviral activity of arabinosyladenine, 2'-deoxyuridines (i.e., IDU, TFT, BVDU), acyclic nucleoside analogues (i.e., acyclovir) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Base pairing based on hydrogen bonding also plays a key role in the mechanism of action of various acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) such as adefovir, tenofovir, cidofovir and O-DAPYs, thus explaining their activity against a wide array of DNA viruses (human hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency (HIV) and human herpes viruses (i.e., human cytomegalovirus)). Hydrogen bonding (base pairing) also seems to be involved in the inhibitory activity of Cf1743 (and its prodrug FV-100) against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and in the activity of sofosbuvir against hepatitis C virus and that of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Hydrogen bonding (base pairing) may also explain the broad-spectrum antiviral effects of ribavirin and favipiravir. This may lead to lethal mutagenesis (error catastrophe), as has been demonstrated with molnutegravir in its activity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Base Pairing , Hydrogen Bonding , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nat Microbiol ; 8(5): 771-786, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319945

ABSTRACT

Vaccines and monoclonal antibody treatments to prevent severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness were available within a year of the pandemic being declared but there remained an urgent need for therapeutics to treat patients who were not vaccinated, were immunocompromised or whose vaccine immunity had waned. Initial results for investigational therapies were mixed. AT-527, a repurposed nucleoside inhibitor for hepatitis C virus, enabled viral load reduction in a hospitalized cohort but did not reduce viral load in outpatients. The nucleoside inhibitor molnupiravir prevented death but failed to prevent hospitalization. Nirmatrelvir, an inhibitor of the main protease (Mpro), co-dosed with the pharmacokinetic booster ritonavir, reduced hospitalization and death. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir received an Emergency Use Authorization in the United States at the end of 2021. Immunomodulatory drugs such as baricitinib, tocilizumab and corticosteroid, which target host-driven COVID-19 symptoms, are also in use. We highlight the development of COVID-19 therapies and the challenges that remain for anticoronavirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Nucleosides , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316205

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global health concern. Three years since its origin, despite the approval of vaccines and specific treatments against this new coronavirus, there are still high rates of infection, hospitalization, and mortality in some countries. COVID-19 is characterised by a high inflammatory state and coagulation disturbances that may be linked to purinergic signalling molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine (ADO), and purinergic receptors (P1 and P2). These nucleotides/nucleosides play important roles in cellular processes, such as immunomodulation, blood clot formation, and vasodilation, which are affected during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, drugs targeting this purinergic pathway, currently used for other pathologies, are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials for COVID-19. In this review, we focus on the potential of these drugs to control the release, degradation, and reuptake of these extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides to treat COVID-19. Drugs targeting the P1 receptors could have therapeutic efficacy due to their capacity to modulate the cytokine storm and the immune response. Those acting in P2X7, which is linked to NLRP3 inflammasome activation, are also valuable candidates as they can reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, according to the available preclinical and clinical data, the most promising medications to be used for COVID-19 treatment are those that modulate platelets behaviour and blood coagulation factors, mainly through the P2Y12 receptor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleosides , Humans , Nucleosides/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Diphosphate/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic/metabolism
4.
Comput Biol Chem ; 104: 107768, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307075

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside analogs/derivatives (NAs/NDs) with potent antiviral activities are now deemed very convenient choices for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) arisen by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. At the same time, the appearance of a new strain of SARS-CoV-2, the Omicron variant, necessitates multiplied efforts in fighting COVID-19. Counteracting the crucial SARS-CoV-2 enzymes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease (ExoN) jointly altogether using the same inhibitor is a quite successful new plan to demultiplicate SARS-CoV-2 particles and eliminate COVID-19 whatever the SARS-CoV-2 subtype is (due to the significant conservation nature of RdRps and ExoNs in the different SARS-CoV-2 strains). Successive in silico screening of known NAs finally disclosed six different promising NAs, which are riboprine/forodesine/tecadenoson/nelarabine/vidarabine/maribavir, respectively, that predictably can act through the planned dual-action mode. Further in vitro evaluations affirmed the anti-SARS-CoV-2/anti-COVID-19 potentials of these NAs, with riboprine and forodesine being at the top. The two NAs are able to effectively antagonize the replication of the new virulent SARS-CoV-2 strains with considerably minute in vitro anti-RdRp and anti-SARS-CoV-2 EC50 values of 189 and 408 nM for riboprine and 207 and 657 nM for forodesine, respectively, surpassing both remdesivir and the new anti-COVID-19 drug molnupiravir. Furthermore, the favorable structural characteristics of the two molecules qualify them for varied types of isosteric and analogistic chemical derivatization. In one word, the present important outcomes of this comprehensive dual study revealed the anticipating repurposing potentials of some known nucleosides, led by the two NAs riboprine and forodesine, to successfully discontinue the coronaviral-2 polymerase/exoribonuclease interactions with RNA nucleotides in the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (BA.5 sublineage) and accordingly alleviate COVID-19 infections, motivating us to initiate the two drugs' diverse anti-COVID-19 pharmacological evaluations to add both of them betimes in the COVID-19 therapeutic protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/chemistry , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304744

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside analogues are important compounds for the treatment of viral infections or cancers. While (chemo-)enzymatic synthesis is a valuable alternative to traditional chemical methods, the feasibility of such processes is lowered by the high production cost of the biocatalyst. As continuous enzyme membrane reactors (EMR) allow the use of biocatalysts until their full inactivation, they offer a valuable alternative to batch enzymatic reactions with freely dissolved enzymes. In EMRs, the enzymes are retained in the reactor by a suitable membrane. Immobilization on carrier materials, and the associated losses in enzyme activity, can thus be avoided. Therefore, we validated the applicability of EMRs for the synthesis of natural and dihalogenated nucleosides, using one-pot transglycosylation reactions. Over a period of 55 days, 2'-deoxyadenosine was produced continuously, with a product yield >90%. The dihalogenated nucleoside analogues 2,6-dichloropurine-2'-deoxyribonucleoside and 6-chloro-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyribonucleoside were also produced, with high conversion, but for shorter operation times, of 14 and 5.5 days, respectively. The EMR performed with specific productivities comparable to batch reactions. However, in the EMR, 220, 40, and 9 times more product per enzymatic unit was produced, for 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2,6-dichloropurine-2'-deoxyribonucleoside, and 6-chloro-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyribonucleoside, respectively. The application of the EMR using freely dissolved enzymes, facilitates a continuous process with integrated biocatalyst separation, which reduces the overall cost of the biocatalyst and enhances the downstream processing of nucleoside production.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , Pentosyltransferases , Nucleosides/chemistry , Pentosyltransferases/metabolism , Enzymes, Immobilized/chemistry , Biocatalysis , Deoxyribonucleosides , Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase/metabolism
6.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273506

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection alters cellular RNA content. Cellular RNAs are chemically modified and eventually degraded, depositing modified nucleosides into extracellular fluids such as serum and urine. Here we searched for COVID-19-specific changes in modified nucleoside levels contained in serum and urine of 308 COVID-19 patients using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We found that two modified nucleosides, N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) and 2-methylthio-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms2t6A), were elevated in serum and urine of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these levels were associated with symptom severity and decreased upon recovery from COVID-19. In addition, the elevation of similarly modified nucleosides was observed regardless of COVID-19 variants. These findings illuminate specific modified RNA nucleosides in the extracellular fluids as biomarkers for COVID-19 infection and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleosides , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleosides/chemistry , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Threonine/analogs & derivatives
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251271

ABSTRACT

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) is essential for the replication and expression of RNA viral genomes. This class of viruses comprise a large number of highly pathogenic agents that infect essentially all species of plants and animals including humans. Infections often lead to epidemics and pandemics that have remained largely out of control due to the lack of specific and reliable preventive and therapeutic regimens. This unmet medical need has led to the exploration of new antiviral targets, of which RdRP is a major one, due to the fact of its obligatory need in virus growth. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of several synthetic nucleoside analogs to serve as mimics of the corresponding natural nucleosides. These mimics cause stalling/termination of RdRP, or misincorporation, preventing virus replication or promoting large-scale lethal mutations. Several such analogs have received clinical approval and are being routinely used in therapy. In parallel, the molecular structural basis of their inhibitory interactions with RdRP is being elucidated, revealing both traditional and novel mechanisms including a delayed chain termination effect. This review offers a molecular commentary on these mechanisms along with their clinical implications based on analyses of recent results, which should facilitate the rational design of structure-based antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Humans , Animals , Nucleosides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , RNA , RNA, Viral/chemistry
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 228: 115340, 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288912

ABSTRACT

VV116 is an oral nucleoside anti-COVID-19 drug undergoing clinical trials in China. We aimed to characterize its metabolites in plasma, urine, and feces of healthy Chinese male subjects after a single oral administration of 400 mg VV116, by using UHPLC-UV-Orbitrap-MS. After oral administration, VV116 was almost completely converted into the metabolite 116-N1. Seventeen other metabolites produced by the subsequent metabolism of 116-N1 were also detected, including 6 phase I metabolites and 11 phase II metabolites resulting from hydrolysis, oxidative deamination, oxidation, and CN-group removal and conjugations. The results were exploratory. The major metabolite of VV116 in human plasma and urine was 116-N1, the main metabolites in feces were M2 and 116-N1. We then synthesized a reference M2 standard and confirmed its structure by MS and NMR.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Male , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Administration, Oral
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 226: 946-955, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286096

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 has been ravaging throughout the world for three years and has severely impaired both human health and the economy. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 employs the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex for genome replication and transcription, making RdRp an appealing target for antiviral drug development. Systematic characterization of RdRp will undoubtedly aid in the development of antiviral drugs targeting RdRp. Here, our research reveals that RdRp can recognize and utilize nucleoside diphosphates as a substrate to synthesize RNA with an efficiency of about two thirds of using nucleoside triphosphates as a substrate. Nucleoside diphosphates incorporation is also template-specific and has high fidelity. Moreover, RdRp can incorporate ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine into RNA while using diphosphate form molnupiravir as a substrate. This incorporation results in genome mutation and virus death. It is also observed that diphosphate form molnupiravir is a better substrate for RdRp than the triphosphate form molnupiravir, presenting a new strategy for drug design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , RNA , Diphosphates , Nucleosides , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Nucleotides , RNA, Viral/genetics , Eye Proteins , Nerve Tissue Proteins
10.
ACS Infect Dis ; 9(4): 1033-1045, 2023 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254146

ABSTRACT

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue of deoxycytidine and has been reported to be a broad-spectrum antiviral agent against both DNA and RNA viruses. Screening of a nucleos(t)ide analogue-focused library identified gemcitabine and its derivatives (compounds 1, 2a, and 3a) blocking influenza virus infection. To improve their antiviral selectivity by reducing cytotoxicity, 14 additional derivatives were synthesized in which the pyridine rings of 2a and 3a were chemically modified. Structure-and-activity and structure-and-toxicity relationship studies demonstrated that compounds 2e and 2h were most potent against influenza A and B viruses but minimally cytotoxic. It is noteworthy that in contrast to cytotoxic gemcitabine, they inhibited viral infection with 90% effective concentrations of 14.5-34.3 and 11.4-15.9 µM, respectively, maintaining viability of mock-infected cells over 90% at 300 µM. Resulting antiviral selectivity was comparable to that of a clinically approved nucleoside analogue, favipiravir. The cell-based viral polymerase assay proved the mode-of-action of 2e and 2h targeting viral RNA replication and/or transcription. In a murine influenza A virus-infection model, intraperitoneal administration of 2h not only reduced viral RNA level in the lungs but also alleviated infection-mediated pulmonary infiltrates. In addition, it inhibited replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 infection in human lung cells at subtoxic concentrations. The present study could provide a medicinal chemistry framework for the synthesis of a new class of viral polymerase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Animals , Mice , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Gemcitabine , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Nucleosides
11.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239216

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, both 4'-modified nucleoside and carbocyclic nucleoside analogs have been under the spotlight as several compounds from either family showed anti-HIV, HCV, RSV or SARS-CoV-2 activity. Herein, we designed compounds combining these two features and report the synthesis of a series of novel 4'-substituted carbocyclic uracil derivatives along with their corresponding monophosphate prodrugs. These compounds were successfully prepared in 19 to 22 steps from the commercially available (-)-Vince lactam and were evaluated against a panel of RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B viruses and norovirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Prodrugs , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hepatitis C Antibodies , Influenza B virus , Nucleosides , Prodrugs/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Uracil
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233101

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus pandemic has claimed more than 6.5 million lives and, despite the development and use of COVID-19 vaccines, remains a major global public health problem. The development of specific drugs for the treatment of this disease remains a very urgent task. In the context of a repurposing strategy, we previously screened a library of nucleoside analogs showing different types of biological activity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The screening revealed compounds capable of inhibiting the reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values in the range of 20-50 µM. Here we present the design and synthesis of various analogs of the leader compounds, the evaluation of their cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures, as well as experimental data on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibition. Several compounds have been shown to prevent the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA substrate, likely inhibiting virus replication. Three of the synthesized compounds have also been shown to inhibit influenza virus. The structures of these compounds can be used for further optimization in order to develop an antiviral drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nucleosides/chemistry , RNA, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Replication , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
13.
Nature ; 614(7949): 781-787, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221840

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase coordinates viral RNA synthesis as part of an assembly known as the replication-transcription complex (RTC)1. Accordingly, the RTC is a target for clinically approved antiviral nucleoside analogues, including remdesivir2. Faithful synthesis of viral RNAs by the RTC requires recognition of the correct nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) for incorporation into the nascent RNA. To be effective inhibitors, antiviral nucleoside analogues must compete with the natural NTPs for incorporation. How the SARS-CoV-2 RTC discriminates between the natural NTPs, and how antiviral nucleoside analogues compete, has not been discerned in detail. Here, we use cryogenic-electron microscopy to visualize the RTC bound to each of the natural NTPs in states poised for incorporation. Furthermore, we investigate the RTC with the active metabolite of remdesivir, remdesivir triphosphate (RDV-TP), highlighting the structural basis for the selective incorporation of RDV-TP over its natural counterpart adenosine triphosphate3,4. Our results explain the suite of interactions required for NTP recognition, informing the rational design of antivirals. Our analysis also yields insights into nucleotide recognition by the nsp12 NiRAN (nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase), an enigmatic catalytic domain essential for viral propagation5. The NiRAN selectively binds guanosine triphosphate, strengthening proposals for the role of this domain in the formation of the 5' RNA cap6.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Cryoelectron Microscopy , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/ultrastructure , COVID-19/virology , Nucleosides/metabolism , Nucleosides/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism , RNA Caps
14.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 138, 2023 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185830

ABSTRACT

ß-Nucleosides and their analogs are dominant clinically-used antiviral and antitumor drugs. α-Nucleosides, the anomers of ß-nucleosides, exist in nature and have significant potential as drugs or drug carriers. Currently, the most widely used methods for synthesizing ß- and α-nucleosides are via N-glycosylation and pentose aminooxazoline, respectively. However, the stereoselectivities of both methods highly depend on the assisting group at the C2' position. Herein, we report an additive-controlled stereodivergent iodocyclization method for the selective synthesis of α- or ß-nucleosides. The stereoselectivity at the anomeric carbon is controlled by the additive (NaI for ß-nucleosides; PPh3S for α-nucleosides). A series of ß- and α-nucleosides are prepared in high yields (up to 95%) and stereoselectivities (ß:α up to 66:1, α:ß up to 70:1). Notably, the introduced iodine at the C2' position of the nucleoside is readily functionalized, leading to multiple structurally diverse nucleoside analogs, including stavudine, an FDA-approved anti-HIV agent, and molnupiravir, an FDA-approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Nucleosides , Stereoisomerism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
16.
Ter Arkh ; 94(10): 1171-1176, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156095

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate clinical efficacy of nucleoside analogues in therapy of moderate COVID-19 in in-patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective processing of 108 completed clinical cases with moderate novel coronavirus disease was carried out for the period 2020-2021. The duration of the disease at the time of admission did not exceed three days. Experimental group consisted of 53 patients who, in addition to standard therapy, were prescribed "off-label" riamilovir at a daily dosage of 1250 mg for 5 days by the decision of the medical commission. Comparison group included 55 patients who received a combination of umifenovir and ribavirin as antiviral therapy for 5 days. The duration of the main clinical manifestations of the disease, the indicators of clinical and biochemical blood tests, results of the SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA study using the nucleic acid amplification method (NAAT diagnostics). RESULTS: Significantly faster achievement of clinical improvement in the group of patients treated with riamilovir was shown, as well as faster sanitation from SARS-CoV-2 virus based on the results of etiological testing. CONCLUSION: The use of riamilovir for the treatment of patients with moderate novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) resulted in a significant reduction of general infectious syndromes and respiratory symptoms. Patients from the experimental group significantly faster achieved clinical recovery and sanitation from the pathogen according to the results of NAAT diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleosides , Retrospective Studies , Antiviral Agents , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143246

ABSTRACT

The life cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 includes several steps that are supposedly mediated by liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) and genomic RNA. To facilitate the rational design of LLPS-targeting therapeutics, we modeled N-RNA biomolecular condensates in vitro and analyzed their sensitivity to several small-molecule antivirals. The model condensates were obtained and visualized under physiological conditions using an optimized RNA sequence enriched with N-binding motifs. The antivirals were selected based on their presumed ability to compete with RNA for specific N sites or interfere with non-specific pi-pi/cation-pi interactions. The set of antivirals included fleximers, 5'-norcarbocyclic nucleoside analogs, and perylene-harboring nucleoside analogs as well as non-nucleoside amphiphilic and hydrophobic perylene derivatives. Most of these antivirals enhanced the formation of N-RNA condensates. Hydrophobic perylene derivatives and 5'-norcarbocyclic derivatives caused up to 50-fold and 15-fold enhancement, respectively. Molecular modeling data argue that hydrophobic compounds do not hamper specific N-RNA interactions and may promote non-specific ones. These findings shed light on the determinants of potent small-molecule modulators of viral LLPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perylene , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Nucleosides/pharmacology , RNA , Perylene/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18506, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096786

ABSTRACT

SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an ongoing global pandemic with significant mortality and morbidity. At this time, the only FDA-approved therapeutic for COVID-19 is remdesivir, a broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside analog. Efficacy is only moderate, and improved treatment strategies are urgently needed. To accomplish this goal, we devised a strategy to identify compounds that act synergistically with remdesivir in preventing SARS-CoV-2 replication. We conducted combinatorial high-throughput screening in the presence of submaximal remdesivir concentrations, using a human lung epithelial cell line infected with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. This identified 20 approved drugs that act synergistically with remdesivir, many with favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Strongest effects were observed with established antivirals, Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A (HCV NS5A) inhibitors velpatasvir and elbasvir. Combination with their partner drugs sofosbuvir and grazoprevir further increased efficacy, increasing remdesivir's apparent potency > 25-fold. We report that HCV NS5A inhibitors act on the SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease proofreader, providing a possible explanation for the synergy observed with nucleoside analog remdesivir. FDA-approved Hepatitis C therapeutics Epclusa® (velpatasvir/sofosbuvir) and Zepatier® (elbasvir/grazoprevir) could be further optimized to achieve potency and pharmacokinetic properties that support clinical evaluation in combination with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hepatitis C , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/pharmacology , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate , Alanine , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Lung
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0271850, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089379

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a leading therapy in patients with moderate to severe coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; the majority of whom are older individuals. Remdesivir is a nucleoside analog that incorporates into nascent viral RNA, inhibiting RNA-directed RNA polymerases, including that of SARS-CoV-2. Less is known about remdesivir's effects on mitochondria, particularly in older adults where mitochondria are known to be dysfunctional. Furthermore, its effect on age-induced mitochondrial mutations and copy number has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that remdesivir adversely affects mtDNA copy number and deletion mutation frequency in aged rodents. To test this hypothesis, 30-month-old male F333BNF1 rats were treated with remdesivir for three months. To determine if remdesivir adversely affects mtDNA, we measured copy number and mtDNA deletion frequency in rat hearts, kidneys, and skeletal muscles using digital PCR. We found no effects from three months of remdesivir treatment on mtDNA copy number or deletion mutation frequency in 33-month-old rats. These data support the notion that remdesivir does not compromise mtDNA quality or quantity at old age in mammals. Future work should focus on examining additional tissues such as brain and liver, and extend testing to human clinical samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA, Mitochondrial , Animals , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Rats , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine , DNA Copy Number Variations , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Mammals/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Nucleosides , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Deletion
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081861

ABSTRACT

d-Arabinofuranosyl-pyrimidine and -purine nucleoside analogues containing alkylthio-, acetylthio- or 1-thiosugar substituents at the C2' position were prepared from the corresponding 3',5'-O-silylene acetal-protected nucleoside 2'-exomethylenes by photoinitiated, radical-mediated hydrothiolation reactions. Although the stereochemical outcome of the hydrothiolation depended on the structure of both the thiol and the furanoside aglycone, in general, high d-arabino selectivity was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the arabinonucleosides was studied on tumorous SCC (mouse squamous cell) and immortalized control HaCaT (human keratinocyte) cell lines by MTT assay. Three pyrimidine nucleosides containing C2'-butylsulfanylmethyl or -acetylthiomethyl groups showed promising cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations with good selectivity towards tumor cells. SAR analysis using a methyl ß-d-arabinofuranoside reference compound showed that the silyl-protecting group, the nucleobase and the corresponding C2' substituent are crucial for the cell growth inhibitory activity. The effects of the three most active nucleoside analogues on parameters indicative of cytotoxicity, such as cell size, division time and cell generation time, were investigated by near-infrared live cell imaging, which showed that the 2'-acetylthiomethyluridine derivative induced the most significant functional and morphological changes. Some nucleoside analogues also exerted anti-SARS-CoV-2 and/or anti-HCoV-229E activity with low micromolar EC50 values; however, the antiviral activity was always accompanied by significant cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pyrimidine Nucleosides , Thiosugars , Humans , Mice , Animals , Arabinonucleosides/chemistry , Arabinonucleosides/pharmacology , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Nucleosides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Acetals , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry , Purines , Structure-Activity Relationship
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