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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(9): 103155, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003879

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling pathway, as vital component of innate immune system, acts a vital role in distinguishing invasive pathogens and cytosolic DNA. Cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS first binds to cytosolic DNA and catalyzes synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), which is known as the second messenger. Next, cGAMP activates the adaptor protein STING, triggering a molecular chain reaction to stimulate cytokines including interferons (IFNs). Recently, many researches have revealed that the regulatory role of cGAS-STING signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases (AIDs) such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, accumulated evidence have showed inhibition of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway could remarkably suppress the joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in RA mice. Therefore, in this review, we describe the molecular properties, biologic function and mechanisms of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in AIDs. In addition, potential clinical applications especially selective small molecule inhibitors targeting the cGAS-STING signaling pathway are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Products , Animals , DNA , Humans , Interferons , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
2.
Sci Signal ; 15(729): eabg8744, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784765

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Critical cases of COVID-19 are characterized by the production of excessive amounts of cytokines and extensive lung damage, which is partially caused by the fusion of SARS-CoV-2-infected pneumocytes. Here, we found that cell fusion caused by the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein induced a type I interferon (IFN) response. This function of the S protein required its cleavage by proteases at the S1/S2 and the S2' sites. We further showed that cell fusion damaged nuclei and resulted in the formation of micronuclei that were sensed by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS and led to the activation of its downstream effector STING. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator IRF3 and the expression of IFNB, which encodes a type I IFN, were abrogated in cGAS-deficient fused cells. Moreover, infection with VSV-SARS-CoV-2 also induced cell fusion, DNA damage, and cGAS-STING-dependent expression of IFNB. Together, these results uncover a pathway underlying the IFN response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggest a mechanism by which fused pneumocytes in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 may enhance the production of IFNs and other cytokines, thus exacerbating disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Fusion , Cytokines , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(3): 269, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764162

ABSTRACT

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) contributes to immune responses against tumors and may control viral infection including SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, activation of the STING pathway by airway silica or smoke exposure leads to cell death, self-dsDNA release, and STING/type I IFN dependent acute lung inflammation/ARDS. The inflammatory response induced by a synthetic non-nucleotide-based diABZI STING agonist, in comparison to the natural cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, is unknown. A low dose of diABZI (1 µg by endotracheal route for 3 consecutive days) triggered an acute neutrophilic inflammation, disruption of the respiratory barrier, DNA release with NET formation, PANoptosis cell death, and inflammatory cytokines with type I IFN dependent acute lung inflammation. Downstream upregulation of DNA sensors including cGAS, DDX41, IFI204, as well as NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, suggested a secondary inflammatory response to dsDNA as a danger signal. DNase I treatment, inhibition of NET formation together with an investigation in gene-deficient mice highlighted extracellular DNA and TLR9, but not cGAS, as central to diABZI-induced neutrophilic response. Therefore, activation of acute cell death with DNA release may lead to ARDS which may be modeled by diABZI. These results show that airway targeting by STING activator as a therapeutic strategy for infection may enhance lung inflammation with severe ARDS. STING agonist diABZI induces neutrophilic lung inflammation and PANoptosis A, Airway STING priming induce a neutrophilic lung inflammation with epithelial barrier damage, double-stranded DNA release in the bronchoalvelolar space, cell death, NETosis and type I interferon release. B, 1. The diamidobenzimidazole (diABZI), a STING agonist is internalized into the cytoplasm through unknown receptor and induce the activation and dimerization of STING followed by TBK1/IRF3 phosporylation leading to type I IFN response. STING activation also leads to NF-kB activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. 2. The activation of TNFR1 and IFNAR1 signaling pathway results in ZBP1 and RIPK3/ASC/CASP8 activation leading to MLKL phosphorylation and necroptosis induction. 3. This can also leads to Caspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis induction. 4. Self-dsDNA or mtDNA sensing by NLRP3 or AIM2 induces inflammsome formation leading to Gasdermin D cleavage enabling Gasdermin D pore formation and the release mature IL-1ß and pyroptosis. NLRP3 inflammasome formation can be enhanced by the ZBP1/RIPK3/CASP8 complex. 5. A second signal of STING activation with diABZI induces cell death and the release of self-DNA which is sensed by cGAS and form 2'3'-cGAMP leading to STING hyper activation, the amplification of TBK1/IRF3 and NF-kB pathway and the subsequent production of IFN-I and inflammatory TNFα and IL-6. This also leads to IFI204 and DDX41 upregulation thus, amplifying the inflammatory loop. The upregulation of apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis is indicative of STING-dependent PANoptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
Aging Cell ; 21(4): e13594, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752476

ABSTRACT

Disproportionately high incidence and mortality of respiratory infection such as influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 have been evidenced in the elderly, but the role and the mechanism of age-associated immune deregulation in disease exacerbation are not well defined. Using a late generation of mice deficient in telomerase RNA (Terc-/- ), we herein demonstrated that aged mice were exquisitely susceptible to respiratory viral infection, with excessive inflammation and increased mortality. Furthermore, we identified the cGAS/STING pathway, which was essentially induced by the leaked mitochondrial DNA, as a biologically relevant mechanism contributing to exaggerated inflammation in Terc-/- mice following viral infection. Innate immune cells, mainly, macrophages with shortened telomeres, exhibited hallmarks of cellular senescence, mitochondrial distress, and aberrant activation of STING and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, which predisposed mice to severe viral pneumonia during commonly mild infections. Application of STING inhibitor and, more importantly, senolytic agent, reduced the burden of stressed macrophages, improved mitochondrial integrity, and suppressed STING activation, thereby conferring the protection for Terc-/- mice against respiratory infection. Together, the findings expand our understanding of innate immune senescence and reveal the potential of the senolytics as a promising treatment to alleviate the symptom of viral pneumonia, particularly for the older population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Animals , Inflammation , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Telomere/metabolism
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(6): 2926-2933, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721378

ABSTRACT

Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a useful pathogen identification method. Several label-free detection methods for RPA amplicons have been developed in recent years. However, these methods still lack sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, or simplicity. In this study, we propose a rapid, highly sensitive, and label-free pathogen assay system based on a solid-phase self-interference RPA chip (SiSA-chip) and hyperspectral interferometry. The SiSA-chips amplify and capture RPA amplicons on the chips, rather than irrelevant amplicons such as primer dimers, and the SiSA-chips are then analysed by hyperspectral interferometry. Optical length increases of SiSA-chips are used to demonstrate RPA detection results, with a limit of detection of 1.90 nm. This assay system can detect as few as six copies of the target 18S rRNA gene of Plasmodium falciparum within 20 min, with a good linear relationship between the detection results and the concentration of target genes (R2 = 0.9903). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the dhfr gene of Plasmodium falciparum is also possible using the SiSA-chip, with as little as 1% of mutant gene distinguished from wild-type loci (m/wt). This system offers a high-efficiency (20 min), high-sensitivity (6 copies/reaction), high-specificity (1% m/wt), and low-cost (∼1/50 of fluorescence assays for RPA) diagnosis method for pathogen DNA identification. Therefore, this system is promising for fast identification of pathogens to help diagnose infectious diseases, including SNP genotyping.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases , Interferometry , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleotidyltransferases , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Nature ; 603(7899): 145-151, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631700

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by lung pathology and extrapulmonary complications1,2. Type I interferons (IFNs) have an essential role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 (refs 3-5). Although rapid induction of type I IFNs limits virus propagation, a sustained increase in the levels of type I IFNs in the late phase of the infection is associated with aberrant inflammation and poor clinical outcome5-17. Here we show that the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, which controls immunity to cytosolic DNA, is a critical driver of aberrant type I IFN responses in COVID-19 (ref. 18). Profiling COVID-19 skin manifestations, we uncover a STING-dependent type I IFN signature that is primarily mediated by macrophages adjacent to areas of endothelial cell damage. Moreover, cGAS-STING activity was detected in lung samples from patients with COVID-19 with prominent tissue destruction, and was associated with type I IFN responses. A lung-on-chip model revealed that, in addition to macrophages, infection with SARS-CoV-2 activates cGAS-STING signalling in endothelial cells through mitochondrial DNA release, which leads to cell death and type I IFN production. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of STING reduces severe lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 and improves disease outcome. Collectively, our study establishes a mechanistic basis of pathological type I IFN responses in COVID-19 and reveals a principle for the development of host-directed therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology
7.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 45, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625575

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that has rapidly spread, causing a global pandemic. In the majority of infected patients, SARS-CoV-2 leads to mild disease; however, in a significant proportion of infections, individuals develop severe symptoms that can lead to long-lasting lung damage or death. These severe cases are often associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low antiviral responses, which can cause systemic complications. Here, we have evaluated transcriptional and cytokine secretion profiles and detected a distinct upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in infected cell cultures and samples taken from infected patients. Building on these observations, we found a specific activation of NF-κB and a block of IRF3 nuclear translocation in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. This NF-κB response was mediated by cGAS-STING activation and could be attenuated through several STING-targeting drugs. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 directs a cGAS-STING mediated, NF-κB-driven inflammatory immune response in human epithelial cells that likely contributes to inflammatory responses seen in patients and could be therapeutically targeted to suppress severe disease symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(22): 13019-13030, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546008

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense RNA virus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic strain. SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe respiratory disease and death in humans, highlighting the need for effective antiviral therapies. The RNA synthesis machinery of SARS-CoV-2 is an ideal drug target and consists of non-structural protein 12 (nsp12), which is directly responsible for RNA synthesis, and numerous co-factors involved in RNA proofreading and 5' capping of viral RNAs. The formation of the 5' 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap structure is known to require a guanylyltransferase (GTase) as well as a 5' triphosphatase and methyltransferases; however, the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 RNA capping remains poorly understood. Here we find that SARS-CoV-2 nsp12 is involved in viral RNA capping as a GTase, carrying out the addition of a GTP nucleotide to the 5' end of viral RNA via a 5' to 5' triphosphate linkage. We further show that the nsp12 NiRAN (nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase) domain performs this reaction, and can be inhibited by remdesivir triphosphate, the active form of the antiviral drug remdesivir. These findings improve understanding of coronavirus RNA synthesis and highlight a new target for novel or repurposed antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Genome, Viral/genetics , Guanosine/analogs & derivatives , Guanosine/metabolism , Humans , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Caps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccinia virus/enzymology , Vaccinia virus/metabolism
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 382, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500449

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a positive-sense RNA virus. How the host immune system senses and responds to SARS-CoV-2 infection remain largely unresolved. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 infection activates the innate immune response through the cytosolic DNA sensing cGAS-STING pathway. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the cellular level of 2'3'-cGAMP associated with STING activation. cGAS recognizes chromatin DNA shuttled from the nucleus as a result of cell-to-cell fusion upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further demonstrate that the expression of spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 from host cells is sufficient to trigger cytoplasmic chromatin upon cell fusion. Furthermore, cytoplasmic chromatin-cGAS-STING pathway, but not MAVS-mediated viral RNA sensing pathway, contributes to interferon and pro-inflammatory gene expression upon cell fusion. Finally, we show that cGAS is required for host antiviral responses against SARS-CoV-2, and a STING-activating compound potently inhibits viral replication. Together, our study reported a previously unappreciated mechanism by which the host innate immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2 infection, mediated by cytoplasmic chromatin from the infected cells. Targeting the cytoplasmic chromatin-cGAS-STING pathway may offer novel therapeutic opportunities in treating COVID-19. In addition, these findings extend our knowledge in host defense against viral infection by showing that host cells' self-nucleic acids can be employed as a "danger signal" to alarm the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Chromatin/immunology , Cytoplasm/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Cytoplasm/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 114020, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486938

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant is an essential component in subunit vaccines. Many agonists of pathogen recognition receptors have been developed as potent adjuvants to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Recently discovered cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway has attracted much attention as it is a key mediator for modulating immune responses. Vaccines adjuvanted with STING agonists are found to mediate a robust immune defense against infections and cancer. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms of STING agonists in the context of vaccination. Next, we present recent progress in novel STING agonist discovery and the delivery strategies. We next highlight recent work in optimizing the efficacy while minimizing toxicity of STING agonist-assisted subunit vaccines for protection against infectious diseases or treatment of cancer. Finally, we share our perspectives of current issues and future directions in further developing STING agonists for adjuvanting subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
11.
Biol Direct ; 16(1): 20, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477450

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, largely attributed to dysregulated immune activation and extensive lung tissue damage. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we reported that viral infection could induce syncytia formation within cells expressing ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, leading to the production of micronuclei with an average rate of about 4 per syncytium (> 93%). Remarkably, these micronuclei were manifested with a high level of activation of both DNA damage response and cGAS-STING signaling, as indicated by micronucleus translocation of γH2Ax and cGAS, and upregulation of their respective downstream target genes. Since activation of these signaling pathways were known to be associated with cellular catastrophe and aberrant immune activation, these findings help explain the pathological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cellular and molecular levels, and provide novel potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Damage , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Giant Cells/metabolism , Giant Cells/virology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Micronucleus Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5376-5389, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363676

ABSTRACT

The suppression of types I and III interferon (IFN) responses by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade antiviral immunity needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited types I and III IFN production by targeting multiple molecules of innate antiviral signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b impaired the induction of types I and III IFNs by Sendai virus and poly (I:C). SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited the activation of types I and III IFNs induced by the components of cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathways of RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signaling, including RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1, and IKKε, rather than IRF3-5D, which is the active form of IRF3. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b also suppressed the induction of types I and III IFNs by TRIF and STING, which are the adaptor protein of the endosome RNA-sensing pathway of TLR3-TRIF signaling and the adaptor protein of the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING signaling, respectively. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b protein interacted with RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TRIF, STING, and TBK1 and impeded the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b facilitated the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, the results showed that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b negatively regulates antiviral immunity and thus facilitates viral replication. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 impairs antiviral immunity and provides an essential clue to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
13.
Antiviral Res ; 193: 105142, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321985

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, encodes its own mRNA capping machinery. Insights into this capping system may provide new ideas for therapeutic interventions and drug discovery. In this work, we employ a previously developed Py-FLINT screening approach to study the inhibitory effects of compounds against the cap guanine N7-methyltransferase enzyme, which is involved in SARS-CoV-2 mRNA capping. We screened five commercially available libraries (7039 compounds in total) to identify 83 inhibitors with IC50 < 50 µM, which were further validated using RP HPLC and dot blot assays. Novel fluorescence anisotropy binding assays were developed to examine the targeted binding site. The inhibitor structures were analyzed for structure-activity relationships in order to define common structural patterns. Finally, the most potent inhibitors were tested for antiviral activity on SARS-CoV-2 in a cell based assay.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleotidyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Caps , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299427

ABSTRACT

The covalent transfer of the AMP portion of ATP onto a target protein-termed adenylylation or AMPylation-by the human Fic protein HYPE/FICD has recently garnered attention as a key regulatory mechanism in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, neurodegeneration, and neurogenesis. As a central player in such critical cellular events, high-throughput screening (HTS) efforts targeting HYPE-mediated AMPylation warrant investigation. Herein, we present a dual HTS assay for the simultaneous identification of small-molecule activators and inhibitors of HYPE AMPylation. Employing the fluorescence polarization of an ATP analog fluorophore-Fl-ATP-we developed and optimized an efficient, robust assay that monitors HYPE autoAMPylation and is amenable to automated, high-throughput processing of diverse chemical libraries. Challenging our pilot screen with compounds from the LOPAC, Spectrum, MEGx, and NATx libraries yielded 0.3% and 1% hit rates for HYPE activators and inhibitors, respectively. Further, these hits were assessed for dose-dependency and validated via orthogonal biochemical AMPylation assays. We thus present a high-quality HTS assay suitable for tracking HYPE's enzymatic activity, and the resultant first small-molecule manipulators of HYPE-promoted autoAMPylation.


Subject(s)
Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Membrane Proteins , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nucleotidyltransferases , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fluorescence Polarization , Humans , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Nucleotidyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleotidyltransferases/chemistry
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5376-5389, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206842

ABSTRACT

The suppression of types I and III interferon (IFN) responses by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade antiviral immunity needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited types I and III IFN production by targeting multiple molecules of innate antiviral signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b impaired the induction of types I and III IFNs by Sendai virus and poly (I:C). SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited the activation of types I and III IFNs induced by the components of cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathways of RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signaling, including RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1, and IKKε, rather than IRF3-5D, which is the active form of IRF3. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b also suppressed the induction of types I and III IFNs by TRIF and STING, which are the adaptor protein of the endosome RNA-sensing pathway of TLR3-TRIF signaling and the adaptor protein of the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING signaling, respectively. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b protein interacted with RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TRIF, STING, and TBK1 and impeded the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b facilitated the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, the results showed that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b negatively regulates antiviral immunity and thus facilitates viral replication. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 impairs antiviral immunity and provides an essential clue to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 123, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135650

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of human deaths. The efficient replication and population spread of SARS-CoV-2 indicates an effective evasion of human innate immune responses, although the viral proteins responsible for this immune evasion are not clear. In this study, we identified SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, accessory proteins, and the main viral protease as potent inhibitors of host innate immune responses of distinct pathways. In particular, the main viral protease was a potent inhibitor of both the RLR and cGAS-STING pathways. Viral accessory protein ORF3a had the unique ability to inhibit STING, but not the RLR response. On the other hand, structural protein N was a unique RLR inhibitor. ORF3a bound STING in a unique fashion and blocked the nuclear accumulation of p65 to inhibit nuclear factor-κB signaling. 3CL of SARS-CoV-2 inhibited K63-ubiquitin modification of STING to disrupt the assembly of the STING functional complex and downstream signaling. Diverse vertebrate STINGs, including those from humans, mice, and chickens, could be inhibited by ORF3a and 3CL of SARS-CoV-2. The existence of more effective innate immune suppressors in pathogenic coronaviruses may allow them to replicate more efficiently in vivo. Since evasion of host innate immune responses is essential for the survival of all viruses, our study provides insights into the design of therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , Chickens , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Ligases/immunology , Mice
17.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(2): 83-96, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916894

ABSTRACT

Recognition of foreign or misplaced nucleic acids is one of the principal modes by which the immune system detects pathogenic entities. When cytosolic DNA is sensed, a signal is relayed via the cGAS-STING pathway: this involves the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGMP-AMP) synthase (cGAS) and generation of the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, followed by the induction of stimulator of interferon genes (STING). The cGAS-STING pathway responds to viral, bacterial, and self-DNA. Whereas it generally mediates immune surveillance and is often neuroprotective, excessive engagement of the system can be deleterious. This is relevant in aging and age-related neurological diseases, where neuroinflammation contributes to disease progression. This review focuses on cGAS-STING signaling in aging, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation, and on therapeutic implications.


Subject(s)
Membrane Proteins , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases , Aging , DNA , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607069, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993358

ABSTRACT

Upon recognition of microbial DNA or self-DNA, the cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) of the host catalyzes the production of the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP. cGAMP is the main activator of STING, stimulator of interferon genes, leading to interferon synthesis through the STING-TBK1-IRF3 pathway. STING is also a hub for activation of NF-κB and autophagy. The present review details the striking similarities between T and B cell responses in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and both animal or human models of STING gain of function (SAVI syndromes: STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy). Those similarities may be further clues for a delayed activation of STING in severe COVID-19 patients, due to DNA damages following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) infection and unusual role of STING in SARS-CoV-2 control. In early stages, Th2 differentiation are noticed in both severe COVID-19 and SAVI syndromes; then, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells functional exhaustion/senescent patterns due to TCR hyper-responsiveness are observed. T cell delayed over-responses can contribute to pneumonitis and delayed cytokine secretion with over-production of IL-6. Last, STING over-activation induces progressive CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphopenia in SAVI syndromes, which parallels what is observed in severe COVID-19. ACE2, the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, is rarely expressed in immune cells, and it has not been yet proven that some human lymphocytes could be infected by SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 or CD26. However, STING, expressed in humans T cells, might be triggered following excessive transfer of cGAMP from infected antigen presenting cells into activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells lymphocytes. Indeed, those lymphocytes highly express the cGAMP importer SLC19A1. Whereas STING is not expressed in human B cells, B cells counts are much less affected, either in COVID-19 or SAVI syndromes. The recognition of delayed STING over-activation in severe COVID-19 patients could prompt to target STING with specific small molecules inhibitors already designed and/or aspirin, which inhibits cGAS.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Basigin/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/immunology , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Th2 Cells/pathology
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 500, 2020 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as an emerging public health threat by the World Health Organization. As various measures have been taken successfully to combat the epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a growing number of fully recovered patients have been discharged from hospitals. However, some of them have relapsed. Little is known about the causes that triggered the relapse. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 40 years old man who suffered from recurrent pulmonary infection with progression of lesions on chest computed tomography (CT), elevated levels of ferritin and IL2R, reduced lymphocyte count and positive oropharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 again after 5 days discharge from hospital. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody level of this patient was very low at the time of relapse, suggesting a weak humoral immune response to the virus. Total exon sequencing revealed mutations in TRNT1 gene, which may be responsible for B cell immunodeficiency. Therefore, uncleared SARS-CoV-2 at his first discharge was likely to lead to his recurrence. However, viral superinfection and non-infectious organizing pneumonia could not be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 relapse may occur in a part of discharged patients with low titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. These patients should be maintained in isolation for longer time even after discharge. A more sensitive method to detect SARS-CoV-2 needs to be established and serological testing for specific antibodies may be used as a reference to determine the duration of isolation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Antibody Formation , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hospitals , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Indoles/therapeutic use , Male , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(11): 4430-4435, 2020 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-233085

ABSTRACT

The pandemic outbreak of a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, has captured the world's attention, demonstrating that CoVs represent a continuous global threat. As this is a highly contagious virus, it is imperative to understand RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp), the key component in virus replication. Although the SARS-CoV-2 genome shares 80% sequence identity with severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV, their RdRps and nucleotidyl-transferases (NiRAN) share 98.1% and 93.2% identity, respectively. Sequence alignment of six coronaviruses demonstrated higher identity among their RdRps (60.9%-98.1%) and lower identity among their Spike proteins (27%-77%). Thus, a 3D structural model of RdRp, NiRAN, non-structural protein 7 (nsp7), and nsp8 of SARS-CoV-2 was generated by modeling starting from the SARS counterpart structures. Furthermore, we demonstrate the binding poses of three viral RdRp inhibitors (Galidesivir, Favipiravir, and Penciclovir), which were recently reported to have clinical significance for SARS-CoV-2. The network of interactions established by these drug molecules affirms their efficacy to inhibit viral RNA replication and provides an insight into their structure-based rational optimization for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Nucleotidyltransferases/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/chemistry , Amides/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Pyrazines/chemistry , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
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