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1.
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res ; 790: 108440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308772

ABSTRACT

In higher eukaryotes, sophisticate regulation of genome function requires all chromosomes to be packed into a single nucleus. Micronucleus (MN), the dissociative nucleus-like structure frequently observed in aging and multiple disease settings, has critical, yet under-recognized, pathophysiological functions. Micronuclei (MNi) have recently emerged as major sources of cytosolic DNA that can activate the cGAS-STING axis in a cell-intrinsic manner. However, MNi induced from different genotoxic stressors display great heterogeneity in binding or activating cGAS and the signaling responses downstream of the MN-induced cGAS-STING axis have divergent outcomes including autoimmunity, autoinflammation, metastasis, or cell death. Thus, full characterization of molecular network underpinning the interplay of cGAS and MN is important to elucidate the pathophysiological roles of immunogenic MN and design improved drugs that selectively target cancer via boosting the MN-derived cGAS-STING axis. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms for self-DNA discrimination by cGAS. We focus on discussing how MN immunogencity is dictated by multiple mechanisms including integrity of micronuclear envelope, state of nucleosome and DNA, competitive factors, damaged mitochondrial DNA and micronucleophagy. We also describe emerging links between immunogenic MN and human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and COVID-19. Particularly, we explore the exciting concept of inducing immunogenic MN as a therapeutic approach in treating cancer. We propose a new theoretical framework to describe immunogenic MN as a biological sensor to modulate cellular processes in response to genotoxic stress and provide perspectives on developing novel experimental approaches to unravel the complexity of MN immunogenicity regulation and immunogenic MN pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Neoplasms/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 170, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292813

ABSTRACT

Currently, the incidence and fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 remain continually high worldwide. COVID-19 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibited decreased type I interferon (IFN-I) signal, along with limited activation of antiviral immune responses as well as enhanced viral infectivity. Dramatic progresses have been made in revealing the multiple strategies employed by SARS-CoV-2 in impairing canonical RNA sensing pathways. However, it remains to be determined about the SARS-CoV-2 antagonism of cGAS-mediated activation of IFN responses during infection. In the current study, we figure out that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to the accumulation of released mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), which in turn triggers cGAS to activate IFN-I signaling. As countermeasures, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein restricts the DNA recognition capacity of cGAS to impair cGAS-induced IFN-I signaling. Mechanically, N protein disrupts the assembly of cGAS with its co-factor G3BP1 by undergoing DNA-induced liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), subsequently impairs the double-strand DNA (dsDNA) detection ability of cGAS. Taken together, our findings unravel a novel antagonistic strategy by which SARS-CoV-2 reduces DNA-triggered IFN-I pathway through interfering with cGAS-DNA phase separation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , DNA Helicases/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , RNA Helicases/genetics , Poly-ADP-Ribose Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/genetics , DNA , Interferon Type I/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(22): 13019-13030, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285864

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense RNA virus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic strain. SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe respiratory disease and death in humans, highlighting the need for effective antiviral therapies. The RNA synthesis machinery of SARS-CoV-2 is an ideal drug target and consists of non-structural protein 12 (nsp12), which is directly responsible for RNA synthesis, and numerous co-factors involved in RNA proofreading and 5' capping of viral RNAs. The formation of the 5' 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap structure is known to require a guanylyltransferase (GTase) as well as a 5' triphosphatase and methyltransferases; however, the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 RNA capping remains poorly understood. Here we find that SARS-CoV-2 nsp12 is involved in viral RNA capping as a GTase, carrying out the addition of a GTP nucleotide to the 5' end of viral RNA via a 5' to 5' triphosphate linkage. We further show that the nsp12 NiRAN (nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase) domain performs this reaction, and can be inhibited by remdesivir triphosphate, the active form of the antiviral drug remdesivir. These findings improve understanding of coronavirus RNA synthesis and highlight a new target for novel or repurposed antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Genome, Viral/genetics , Guanosine/analogs & derivatives , Guanosine/metabolism , Humans , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Caps/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccinia virus/enzymology , Vaccinia virus/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288759

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) threatens the survival of critically ill patients, the mechanisms of which are still unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by activated neutrophils play a critical role in inflammatory injury. We investigated the role of NETs and the underlying mechanism involved in acute lung injury (ALI). We found a higher expression of NETs and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) in the airways, which was reduced by Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in ALI. The administration of the STING inhibitor H-151 also significantly relieved inflammatory lung injury, but failed to affect the high expression of NETs in ALI. We isolated murine neutrophils from bone marrow and acquired human neutrophils by inducing HL-60 to differentiate. After the PMA interventions, exogenous NETs were obtained from such extracted neutrophils. Exogenous NETs intervention in vitro and in vivo resulted in airway injury, and such inflammatory lung injury was reversed upon degrading NETs with or inhibiting cGAS-STING with H-151 as well as siRNA STING. In conclusion, cGAS-STING participates in regulating NETs-mediated inflammatory pulmonary injury, which is expected to be a new therapeutic target for ARDS/ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Mice , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1130423, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257663

ABSTRACT

The efficacious detection of pathogens and prompt induction of innate immune signaling serve as a crucial component of immune defense against infectious pathogens. Over the past decade, DNA-sensing receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and its downstream signaling adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) have emerged as key mediators of type I interferon (IFN) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) responses in health and infection diseases. Moreover, both cGAS-STING pathway and pathogens have developed delicate strategies to resist each other for their survival. The mechanistic and functional comprehension of the interplay between cGAS-STING pathway and pathogens is opening the way for the development and application of pharmacological agonists and antagonists in the treatment of infectious diseases. Here, we briefly review the current knowledge of DNA sensing through the cGAS-STING pathway, and emphatically highlight the potent undertaking of cGAS-STING signaling pathway in the host against infectious pathogenic organisms.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Interferon Type I , Humans , Signal Transduction , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , DNA , Interferon Type I/metabolism
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 244: 114791, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284106

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway serves as a pivotal mediator of innate immunity by triggering the secretion of type I interferons and other proinflammatory cytokines. In view of the immune-related diseases caused by abnormal activity of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway, considerable progress in this field has encouraged the discovery of cGAS-STING inhibitors in the past five years. In this review, we will focus on the link between the cGAS-STING signaling pathway and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, summarize the development and optimization of cGAS-STING signaling pathway inhibitors, discuss the therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases and propose suggestions and insights for future exploitation.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Membrane Proteins , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Immunity, Innate
7.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28561, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229432

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a poor inducer of innate antiviral immunity, and the underlying mechanism still needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 inhibited the production of type I and III interferons (IFNs) by targeting the RIG-I/MDA5, Toll-like receptor (TLR3)-TRIF, and cGAS-STING signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 suppressed the expression of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes induced by poly (I:C) transfection and infection with Sendai virus or SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles. NSP7 impaired type I and III IFN production activated by components of the cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathway, including RIG-I, MDA5, and MAVS, but not TBK1, IKKε, and IRF3-5D, an active form of IRF3. In addition, NSP7 also suppressed TRIF- and STING-induced IFN responses. Mechanistically, NSP7 associated with RIG-I and MDA5 prevented the formation of the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signalosome and interacted with TRIF and STING to inhibit TRIF-TBK1 and STING-TBK1 complex formation, thus reducing the subsequent IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation that are essential for IFN induction. In addition, ectopic expression of NSP7 impeded innate immune activation and facilitated virus replication. Taken together, SARS-CoV-2 NSP7 dampens type I and III IFN responses via disruption of the signal transduction of the RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS, TLR3-TRIF, and cGAS-STING signaling pathways, thus providing novel insights into the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and innate antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Interferons , Immunity, Innate , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1010911, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198869

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that can cause infections in millions of individuals, who can develop lung injury, organ failure, and subsequent death. As the first line of host defense, the innate immune system is involved in initiating the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the hyperinflammatory phenotype of COVID-19. However, the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity is not yet well understood. It had become known that the cGAS-STING pathway is involved in the detection of cytosolic DNA, which elicits an innate immune response involving a robust type I interferon response against viral and bacterial infections. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence indicate that SARS-CoV-2, a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, triggered the cGAS-STING signaling pathway. Therefore, understanding the molecular and cellular details of cGAS-STING signaling upon SARS-CoV-2 infection is of considerable biomedical importance. In this review, we discuss the role of cGAS-STING signaling in SARS-CoV-2 infection and summarize the potential therapeutics of STING agonists as virus vaccine adjuvants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Viruses/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123699

ABSTRACT

The outbreaks caused by RNA and DNA viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and monkeypox, pose serious threats to human health. The RLR and cGAS-STING pathways contain major cytoplasmic sensors and signaling transduction axes for host innate antiviral immunity. In physiological and virus-induced pathological states, the activation and inactivation of these signal axes are tightly controlled, especially post-translational modifications (PTMs). E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are the direct manipulator of ubiquitin codons and determine the type and modification type of substrate proteins. Therefore, members of the E3s family are involved in balancing the host's innate antiviral immune responses, and their functions have been extensively studied over recent decades. In this study, we overviewed the mechanisms of different members of three E3s families that mediate the RLR and cGAS-STING axes and analyzed them as potential molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of virus-related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Humans , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Immunity, Innate
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099576

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated type 1 interferon (IFN-1) production, the pathophysiology of which involves sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization and the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway. As a result, type I interferonopathies are exacerbated. Aspirin inhibits cGAS-mediated signaling through cGAS acetylation. Acetylation contributes to cGAS activity control and activates IFN-1 production and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling via STING. Aspirin and dapsone inhibit the activation of both IFN-1 and NF-κB by targeting cGAS. We define these as anticatalytic mechanisms. It is necessary to alleviate the pathologic course and take the lag time of the odds of achieving viral clearance by day 7 to coordinate innate or adaptive immune cell reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Interferon Type I , Humans , Acetylation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Aspirin , Immunity, Innate/genetics
11.
Cells ; 11(18)2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065725

ABSTRACT

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a predominant and ubiquitously expressed cytosolic onfirmedDNA sensor that activates innate immune responses by producing a second messenger, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), and the stimulator of interferon genes (STING). cGAS contains a highly disordered N-terminus, which can sense genomic/chromatin DNA, while the C terminal of cGAS binds dsDNA liberated from various sources, including mitochondria, pathogens, and dead cells. Furthermore, cGAS cellular localization dictates its response to foreign versus self-DNA. Recent evidence has also highlighted the importance of dsDNA-induced post-translational modifications of cGAS in modulating inflammatory responses. This review summarizes and analyzes cGAS activity regulation based on structure, sub-cellular localization, post-translational mechanisms, and Ca2+ signaling. We also discussed the role of cGAS activation in different diseases and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Membrane Proteins , Nucleotidyltransferases , Chromatin , DNA/metabolism , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
12.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(9): 103155, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003879

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling pathway, as vital component of innate immune system, acts a vital role in distinguishing invasive pathogens and cytosolic DNA. Cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS first binds to cytosolic DNA and catalyzes synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), which is known as the second messenger. Next, cGAMP activates the adaptor protein STING, triggering a molecular chain reaction to stimulate cytokines including interferons (IFNs). Recently, many researches have revealed that the regulatory role of cGAS-STING signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases (AIDs) such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, accumulated evidence have showed inhibition of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway could remarkably suppress the joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in RA mice. Therefore, in this review, we describe the molecular properties, biologic function and mechanisms of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in AIDs. In addition, potential clinical applications especially selective small molecule inhibitors targeting the cGAS-STING signaling pathway are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Products , Animals , DNA , Humans , Interferons , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
13.
Nature ; 609(7928): 793-800, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984402

ABSTRACT

The RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 contains a 5' cap that facilitates the translation of viral proteins, protection from exonucleases and evasion of the host immune response1-4. How this cap is made in SARS-CoV-2 is not completely understood. Here we reconstitute the N7- and 2'-O-methylated SARS-CoV-2 RNA cap (7MeGpppA2'-O-Me) using virally encoded non-structural proteins (nsps). We show that the kinase-like nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN) domain5 of nsp12 transfers the RNA to the amino terminus of nsp9, forming a covalent RNA-protein intermediate (a process termed RNAylation). Subsequently, the NiRAN domain transfers the RNA to GDP, forming the core cap structure GpppA-RNA. The nsp146 and nsp167 methyltransferases then add methyl groups to form functional cap structures. Structural analyses of the replication-transcription complex bound to nsp9 identified key interactions that mediate the capping reaction. Furthermore, we demonstrate in a reverse genetics system8 that the N terminus of nsp9 and the kinase-like active-site residues in the NiRAN domain are required for successful SARS-CoV-2 replication. Collectively, our results reveal an unconventional mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 caps its RNA genome, thus exposing a new target in the development of antivirals to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
RNA Caps , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Guanosine Diphosphate/metabolism , Humans , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/chemistry , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Protein Domains , RNA Caps/chemistry , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
14.
Sci Signal ; 15(729): eabg8744, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784765

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Critical cases of COVID-19 are characterized by the production of excessive amounts of cytokines and extensive lung damage, which is partially caused by the fusion of SARS-CoV-2-infected pneumocytes. Here, we found that cell fusion caused by the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein induced a type I interferon (IFN) response. This function of the S protein required its cleavage by proteases at the S1/S2 and the S2' sites. We further showed that cell fusion damaged nuclei and resulted in the formation of micronuclei that were sensed by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS and led to the activation of its downstream effector STING. Phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator IRF3 and the expression of IFNB, which encodes a type I IFN, were abrogated in cGAS-deficient fused cells. Moreover, infection with VSV-SARS-CoV-2 also induced cell fusion, DNA damage, and cGAS-STING-dependent expression of IFNB. Together, these results uncover a pathway underlying the IFN response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data suggest a mechanism by which fused pneumocytes in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 may enhance the production of IFNs and other cytokines, thus exacerbating disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Fusion , Cytokines , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(3): 269, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764162

ABSTRACT

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) contributes to immune responses against tumors and may control viral infection including SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, activation of the STING pathway by airway silica or smoke exposure leads to cell death, self-dsDNA release, and STING/type I IFN dependent acute lung inflammation/ARDS. The inflammatory response induced by a synthetic non-nucleotide-based diABZI STING agonist, in comparison to the natural cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, is unknown. A low dose of diABZI (1 µg by endotracheal route for 3 consecutive days) triggered an acute neutrophilic inflammation, disruption of the respiratory barrier, DNA release with NET formation, PANoptosis cell death, and inflammatory cytokines with type I IFN dependent acute lung inflammation. Downstream upregulation of DNA sensors including cGAS, DDX41, IFI204, as well as NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, suggested a secondary inflammatory response to dsDNA as a danger signal. DNase I treatment, inhibition of NET formation together with an investigation in gene-deficient mice highlighted extracellular DNA and TLR9, but not cGAS, as central to diABZI-induced neutrophilic response. Therefore, activation of acute cell death with DNA release may lead to ARDS which may be modeled by diABZI. These results show that airway targeting by STING activator as a therapeutic strategy for infection may enhance lung inflammation with severe ARDS. STING agonist diABZI induces neutrophilic lung inflammation and PANoptosis A, Airway STING priming induce a neutrophilic lung inflammation with epithelial barrier damage, double-stranded DNA release in the bronchoalvelolar space, cell death, NETosis and type I interferon release. B, 1. The diamidobenzimidazole (diABZI), a STING agonist is internalized into the cytoplasm through unknown receptor and induce the activation and dimerization of STING followed by TBK1/IRF3 phosporylation leading to type I IFN response. STING activation also leads to NF-kB activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. 2. The activation of TNFR1 and IFNAR1 signaling pathway results in ZBP1 and RIPK3/ASC/CASP8 activation leading to MLKL phosphorylation and necroptosis induction. 3. This can also leads to Caspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis induction. 4. Self-dsDNA or mtDNA sensing by NLRP3 or AIM2 induces inflammsome formation leading to Gasdermin D cleavage enabling Gasdermin D pore formation and the release mature IL-1ß and pyroptosis. NLRP3 inflammasome formation can be enhanced by the ZBP1/RIPK3/CASP8 complex. 5. A second signal of STING activation with diABZI induces cell death and the release of self-DNA which is sensed by cGAS and form 2'3'-cGAMP leading to STING hyper activation, the amplification of TBK1/IRF3 and NF-kB pathway and the subsequent production of IFN-I and inflammatory TNFα and IL-6. This also leads to IFI204 and DDX41 upregulation thus, amplifying the inflammatory loop. The upregulation of apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis is indicative of STING-dependent PANoptosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
16.
Aging Cell ; 21(4): e13594, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752476

ABSTRACT

Disproportionately high incidence and mortality of respiratory infection such as influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 have been evidenced in the elderly, but the role and the mechanism of age-associated immune deregulation in disease exacerbation are not well defined. Using a late generation of mice deficient in telomerase RNA (Terc-/- ), we herein demonstrated that aged mice were exquisitely susceptible to respiratory viral infection, with excessive inflammation and increased mortality. Furthermore, we identified the cGAS/STING pathway, which was essentially induced by the leaked mitochondrial DNA, as a biologically relevant mechanism contributing to exaggerated inflammation in Terc-/- mice following viral infection. Innate immune cells, mainly, macrophages with shortened telomeres, exhibited hallmarks of cellular senescence, mitochondrial distress, and aberrant activation of STING and NLRP3 inflammasome pathways, which predisposed mice to severe viral pneumonia during commonly mild infections. Application of STING inhibitor and, more importantly, senolytic agent, reduced the burden of stressed macrophages, improved mitochondrial integrity, and suppressed STING activation, thereby conferring the protection for Terc-/- mice against respiratory infection. Together, the findings expand our understanding of innate immune senescence and reveal the potential of the senolytics as a promising treatment to alleviate the symptom of viral pneumonia, particularly for the older population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Animals , Inflammation , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Telomere/metabolism
17.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(5): e2343, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729205

ABSTRACT

Despite only comprising half of all known viral species, RNA viruses are disproportionately responsible for many of the worst epidemics in human history, including outbreaks of influenza, poliomyelitis, Ebola, and most recently, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The propensity for RNA viruses to replicate in cytosolic compartments has led to an evolutionary arms race and the emergence of cytosolic sensors to recognise and initiate the host innate immune response. Although significant progress has been made in identifying and characterising cytosolic RNA sensors as anti-viral innate immune factors, the potential role for cytosolic DNA sensors in RNA viral infection is only recently being appreciated. Among these, the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway has attracted increasing attention. The cGAS-STING signalling pathway has emerged as a key innate immune signalling axis that is implicated in diverse human diseases from infectious diseases to neurodegeneration and cancer. Here we review the existing literature on RNA viruses and their reciprocal interactions with the cGAS-STING pathway and share insights into RNA virus diversity by touching on the similarities and differences of RNA viral strategies.


Subject(s)
Membrane Proteins , Nucleotidyltransferases , RNA Viruses , DNA , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , RNA , RNA Viruses/genetics
18.
Nature ; 603(7899): 145-151, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631700

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, is characterized by lung pathology and extrapulmonary complications1,2. Type I interferons (IFNs) have an essential role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 (refs 3-5). Although rapid induction of type I IFNs limits virus propagation, a sustained increase in the levels of type I IFNs in the late phase of the infection is associated with aberrant inflammation and poor clinical outcome5-17. Here we show that the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, which controls immunity to cytosolic DNA, is a critical driver of aberrant type I IFN responses in COVID-19 (ref. 18). Profiling COVID-19 skin manifestations, we uncover a STING-dependent type I IFN signature that is primarily mediated by macrophages adjacent to areas of endothelial cell damage. Moreover, cGAS-STING activity was detected in lung samples from patients with COVID-19 with prominent tissue destruction, and was associated with type I IFN responses. A lung-on-chip model revealed that, in addition to macrophages, infection with SARS-CoV-2 activates cGAS-STING signalling in endothelial cells through mitochondrial DNA release, which leads to cell death and type I IFN production. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of STING reduces severe lung inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 and improves disease outcome. Collectively, our study establishes a mechanistic basis of pathological type I IFN responses in COVID-19 and reveals a principle for the development of host-directed therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Skin/immunology , Skin/metabolism , Skin/pathology
19.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 114020, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486938

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant is an essential component in subunit vaccines. Many agonists of pathogen recognition receptors have been developed as potent adjuvants to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Recently discovered cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway has attracted much attention as it is a key mediator for modulating immune responses. Vaccines adjuvanted with STING agonists are found to mediate a robust immune defense against infections and cancer. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms of STING agonists in the context of vaccination. Next, we present recent progress in novel STING agonist discovery and the delivery strategies. We next highlight recent work in optimizing the efficacy while minimizing toxicity of STING agonist-assisted subunit vaccines for protection against infectious diseases or treatment of cancer. Finally, we share our perspectives of current issues and future directions in further developing STING agonists for adjuvanting subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
20.
Biol Direct ; 16(1): 20, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477450

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, largely attributed to dysregulated immune activation and extensive lung tissue damage. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we reported that viral infection could induce syncytia formation within cells expressing ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, leading to the production of micronuclei with an average rate of about 4 per syncytium (> 93%). Remarkably, these micronuclei were manifested with a high level of activation of both DNA damage response and cGAS-STING signaling, as indicated by micronucleus translocation of γH2Ax and cGAS, and upregulation of their respective downstream target genes. Since activation of these signaling pathways were known to be associated with cellular catastrophe and aberrant immune activation, these findings help explain the pathological effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cellular and molecular levels, and provide novel potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Damage , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Giant Cells/metabolism , Giant Cells/virology , HeLa Cells , Humans , Micronucleus Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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