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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(6): 682-692, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107680

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Between April 2020 and May 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) awarded more than $40 billion to health departments nationwide for COVID-19 prevention and response activities. One of the identified priorities for this investment was improving infection prevention and control (IPC) in nursing homes. PROGRAM: CDC developed a virtual course to train new and less experienced public health staff in core healthcare IPC principles and in the application of CDC COVID-19 healthcare IPC guidance for nursing homes. IMPLEMENTATION: From October 2020 to August 2021, the CDC led training sessions for 12 cohorts of public health staff using pretraining reading materials, case-based scenarios, didactic presentations, peer-learning opportunities, and subject matter expert-led discussions. Multiple electronic assessments were distributed to learners over time to measure changes in self-reported knowledge and confidence and to collect feedback on the course. Participating public health programs were also assessed to measure overall course impact. EVALUATION: Among 182 enrolled learners, 94% completed the training. Most learners were infection preventionists (42%) or epidemiologists (38%), had less than 1 year of experience in their health department role (75%), and had less than 1 year of subject matter experience (54%). After training, learners reported increased knowledge and confidence in applying the CDC COVID-19 healthcare IPC guidance for nursing homes (≥81%) with the greatest increase in performing COVID-19 IPC consultations and assessments (87%). The majority of participating programs agreed that the course provided an overall benefit (88%) and reduced training burden (72%). DISCUSSION: The CDC's virtual course was effective in increasing public health capacity for COVID-19 healthcare IPC in nursing homes and provides a possible model to increase IPC capacity for other infectious diseases and other healthcare settings. Future virtual healthcare IPC courses could be enhanced by tailoring materials to health department needs, reinforcing training through applied learning experiences, and supporting mechanisms to retain trained staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Infection Control , Nursing Homes , Public Health
3.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 57(2): 245-258, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819287

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the critical role of advanced practice registered nurses in the care of older adults living in nursing homes. This population is one of the frailest, marginalized, and often neglected in the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic impact on nursing homes resulted in a stunning number of infections and subsequent resident deaths. This is a shameful reminder of the many challenges and gaps in the nursing home industry including inadequate staffing, high staff turnover, improper isolation technique, and lack of fundamental knowledge of how to adequately implement infection prevention and control processes. Strong advanced practice registered nurse leadership may have mitigated some of these factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Aged , Humans , Leadership , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , United States
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277062, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098773

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Psychological First Aid is a brief intervention based on international guidance from the World Health Organisation. Free to access online training in the intervention was introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic in UK. We aimed to determine the uptake of Psychological First Aid training among healthcare workers in care homes in the UK and to assess its effects on their wellbeing. DESIGN: This was a sequential mixed methods design. METHODS: Healthcare workers (nurses and carers) working in care homes in the UK were surveyed about their uptake of Psychological First Aid, their stress, coping efficacy and the key concepts of Psychological First Aid (safety, calmness, hopefulness, connectedness, and accomplishment). Those that completed the Psychological First Aid training were asked to share their experiences via qualitative survey. Data collection was conducted between June and October 2021. Analyses included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. A six step thematic analysis was used to interpret the qualitative data. RESULTS: 388 participants responded to the survey. The uptake of Psychological First Aid training was 37 (9.5%). Psychological first aid was a significant predictor for coping efficacy (ß = 17.54, p = .001). Participants with a physical or mental health condition experienced higher stress and lower coping regardless of PFA training. Four themes were identified from the qualitative analysis: self-awareness and growth, relationships with others, overcoming stress and accessibility. CONCLUSION: While this study suggests some benefits to healthcare workers in care home settings undergoing PFA the poor uptake of the training warrants further investigation. IMPACT: Care home staff need psychological support. This gap remains as few completed PFA training. This is the first study in UK and worldwide to look at the effects of psychological first aid on stress and coping in this population and it warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychological First Aid , Health Personnel/psychology , Nursing Homes , United Kingdom
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090357

ABSTRACT

In the SCOPE study, we monitored SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a national sample of residents and staff from Belgian nursing homes. Here, we report the seroprevalence among infected and infection-naive residents and staff after the primary COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Among 1554 vaccinated nursing home residents and 1082 vaccinated staff from 69 nursing homes in Belgium, we assessed the proportion having SARS-CoV-2 antibodies approximately two (April 2021), four (June 2021), and six months (August 2021) after a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We measured the seroprevalence using SARS-CoV-2 antibody rapid tests and collected socio-demographic and COVID-19 medical data using an online questionnaire. Two months after vaccination (baseline), we found a seroprevalence of 91% (95% CI: 89-93) among vaccinated residents and 99% (95% CI: 98-99) among vaccinated staff. Six months after vaccination, the seroprevalence significantly decreased to 68% (95% CI: 64-72) among residents and to 89% (95% CI; 86-91) among staff (p < 0.001). The seroprevalence was more likely to decrease among infection-naive residents, older residents, or residents with a high care dependency level. These findings emphasize the need for close monitoring of nursing home residents, as a substantial part of this population fails to mount a persistent antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Belgium/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , Immunization Programs , Antibodies, Viral , Nursing Homes , Vaccination
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090153

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the need to stem the transmission and protect the most vulnerable in society led to infection control restrictions effectively locking down an entire country. These restrictions were also imposed on residential care settings for older people, initially in March 2020, and subsequently at varying times throughout the year that followed. Furthermore, the restrictions led to the suspension in all visiting to residents expect in exceptional circumstances and on compassionate grounds. The purpose of this research study was to develop an understanding of the experience of residents, their families, and carers in an Irish residential care setting during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were collected in a residential care centre for older people in Ireland, using semi-structured interviews of residents, family members and staff. Interviews were conducted in person for residents and virtually for family members and staff. In total 29 people were interviewed. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic data analysis approach. Four themes and three subthemes were developed from the data. The main themes were 'difficult but safe', 'communication', 'staff going above and beyond', 'what about the future?' Residents, families and staff of the residential care setting had to manage and cope with the challenges of the restrictions imposed during COVID-19 lockdown. This study highlighted the negative impacts of visiting restrictions on staff, residents and their family members during the COVID-19 lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Aged , Nursing Homes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Delivery of Health Care
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275718, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089413

ABSTRACT

There are limited data describing SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses and their durability following infection and vaccination in nursing home residents. We conducted a prospective longitudinal evaluation of 11 consenting SARS-CoV-2-positive nursing home residents to evaluate the quantitative titers and durability of binding antibodies detected after SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent COVID-19 vaccination. The evaluation included nine visits over 150 days from October 25, 2020, through April 1, 2021. Visits included questionnaire administration, blood collection for serology, and paired anterior nasal specimen collection for testing by BinaxNOW™ COVID-19 Ag Card (BinaxNOW), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and viral culture. We evaluated quantitative titers of binding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post-infection and post-vaccination (beginning after the first dose of the primary series). The median age among participants was 74 years; one participant was immunocompromised. Of 10 participants with post-infection serology results, 9 (90%) had detectable Pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA antibodies, and 8 (80%) had detectable IgM antibodies. At first antibody detection post-infection, two-thirds (6/9, 67%) of participants were RT-PCR-positive, but none were culture- positive. Ten participants received vaccination; all had detectable Pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA antibodies through their final observation ≤90 days post-first dose. Post-vaccination geometric means of IgG titers were 10-200-fold higher than post-infection. Nursing home residents in this cohort mounted robust immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 post-infection and post-vaccination. The augmented antibody responses post-vaccination are potential indicators of enhanced protection that vaccination may confer on previously infected nursing home residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Georgia , Prospective Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin A , Nursing Homes , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(10): e1010554, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089312

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had high mortality rates in the elderly and frail worldwide, particularly in care homes. This is driven by the difficulty of isolating care homes from the wider community, the large population sizes within care facilities (relative to typical households), and the age/frailty of the residents. To quantify the mortality risk posed by disease, the case fatality risk (CFR) is an important tool. This quantifies the proportion of cases that result in death. Throughout the pandemic, CFR amongst care home residents in England has been monitored closely. To estimate CFR, we apply both novel and existing methods to data on deaths in care homes, collected by Public Health England and the Care Quality Commission. We compare these different methods, evaluating their relative strengths and weaknesses. Using these methods, we estimate temporal trends in the instantaneous CFR (at both daily and weekly resolutions) and the overall CFR across the whole of England, and dis-aggregated at regional level. We also investigate how the CFR varies based on age and on the type of care required, dis-aggregating by whether care homes include nursing staff and by age of residents. This work has contributed to the summary of measures used for monitoring the UK epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nursing Homes , Population Density , England/epidemiology
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(2): E201-E207, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081078

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The objective of the analysis is to investigate whether there is a correlation between deaths occurred within nursing homes in Lombardy Region and those related to the whole elderly population residing in the municipalities of their location at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The analysis considered a sample of 17 nursing homes belonging to the same legal entity (with a total of 2,197 beds). The changes occurred in the trend of deaths in 2020 between January the 1st and February the 20th, and between February the 21st and April the 4th, compared with the average number of deaths occurred in the same time intervals of the previous three-year period (2017-2019) were investigated. To verify the presence of a correlation between deaths occurring within nursing homes and those related to the whole elderly population residing in the municipalities of their respective locations, Pearson correlation index was calculated, distinguishing between elderly over 65 years of age and elderly over 85 years of age. Results: A statistically significant correlation was identified between the number of deaths among the overall population and the number of deaths among nursing homes residents between February the 21st and April the 20th, while no correlations were identified between January the 1st and February the 20th. Conclusions: The number of deaths occurred in the nursing homes of the sample considered shows similar trends to those of the elderly population of the municipalities in which they are located.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Pandemics
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 89(1): 359-366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease modifying treatments (DMTs) currently under development for Alzheimer's disease, have the potential to prevent or postpone institutionalization and more expensive care and might delay institutionalization of persons with dementia. OBJECTIVE: The current study estimates costs of living in a nursing home for persons with dementia in the Netherlands to help inform economic evaluations of future DMTs. METHODS: Data were collected during semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals and from the financial administration of a healthcare organization with several nursing homes. Personnel costs were calculated using a bottom-up approach by valuing the time estimates. Non-personnel costs were calculated using information from the financial administration of the healthcare organization. RESULTS: Total costs of a person with dementia per 24 hours, including both care staff and other healthcare providers, were € 151 for small-scale living wards and € 147 for independent living wards. Non-personnel costs were € 37 per day. CONCLUSION: This study provides Dutch estimates for total healthcare costs per day for institutionalized persons with dementia. These cost estimates can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses for future DMTs in dementia.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Health Care Costs , Humans , Institutionalization , Netherlands/epidemiology , Nursing Homes
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(9): e00033622, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065220

ABSTRACT

International migrants have been recognized as a population at risk in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide, various strategies have been deployed for the protection of this population, such as the establishment of reception and quarantine or isolation centers. This article reports the results of a study that explored the experiences of international migrants in nursing homes in Chile created to ensure a safe quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic, from an approach of ethical conditions for care. A qualitative study was carried out in 2020-2021. Thirty individual semi-structured online interviews were conducted in the cities of Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta and Santiago with international migrants with experience of using nursing homes; health teams of nursing homes; managers of nursing homes; local authorities; and national experts. Thematic analysis of the information was carried out. The study concludes that for international migrants, although the experience in nursing homes has meant significant health support, it is essential that the care provided, in addition to the requirement that it be framed in an approach of rights and respect for the dignity of each person, incorporate the perspective of interculturality in its work, that is, ensuring the right to culturally relevant health services, respectful of the culture of individuals, minorities, peoples and communities.


Migrantes internacionales han sido reconocidos como población de riesgo en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19. A nivel mundial se han desplegado diversas estrategias para la protección de esta población, como la habilitación de centros de recepción y cuarentena o aislamiento. El artículo da cuenta de los resultados de un estudio que exploró las experiencias de migrantes internacionales en residencias sanitarias dispuestas en Chile para la realización de cuarentenas seguras en el marco de la pandemia COVID-19, desde un enfoque de condiciones éticas para el cuidado. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo entre los años 2020-2021. Se efectuaron 30 entrevistas individuales semi-estructuradas en línea en las ciudades de Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta y Santiago a migrantes internacionales con experiencia de uso de residencias sanitarias; equipos de salud de residencias sanitarias; mánagers de dichos recintos; autoridades locales; y expertos nacionales. Se realizó análisis temático de la información. El estudio concluye que para migrantes internacionales, si bien la experiencia en residencias sanitarias ha significado un apoyo sanitario significativo, es imprescindible que el cuidado proporcionado, además de la exigencia que se enmarque en un enfoque de derechos y de respeto a la dignidad de cada persona, incorpore la perspectiva de la interculturalidad en su quehacer, es decir, asegurando el derecho a servicios de salud culturalmente pertinentes, respetuosos de la cultura de las personas, las minorías, los pueblos y las comunidades.


Migrantes internacionais foram reconhecidos como uma população de risco no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19. Em todo o mundo, várias estratégias têm sido implantadas para a proteção dessa população, como o estabelecimento de centros de acolhimento e quarentena ou isolamento. Este artigo relata os resultados de um estudo que explorou as experiências de migrantes internacionais em residências de saúde organizadas no Chile para quarentena segura no âmbito da pandemia de COVID-19, a partir de uma abordagem de condições éticas para o atendimento. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo entre os anos de 2020-2021. Foram realizadas 30 entrevistas individuais semiestruturadas online nas cidades de Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta e Santiago com migrantes internacionais com experiência de uso de residências de saúde; equipes de saúde das residências de saúde; gestores dos referidos locais; autoridades locais; e especialistas nacionais. Foi realizada análise temática das informações. O estudo conclui que para os migrantes internacionais, embora a experiência em residências de saúde tenha significado significativo apoio à saúde, é imprescindível que os cuidados prestados, além da exigência de que sejam enquadrados em uma abordagem de direitos e respeito à dignidade de cada pessoa, incorporar a perspectiva da interculturalidade em seu trabalho, ou seja, garantir o direito a serviços de saúde culturalmente relevantes, que respeitem a cultura dos indivíduos, minorias, povos e comunidades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(39): 1235-1238, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056546

ABSTRACT

Nursing home residents continue to experience significant COVID-19 morbidity and mortality (1). On March 29, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a second mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster dose for adults aged ≥50 years and all immunocompromised persons who had received a first booster ≥4 months earlier.* On September 1, 2022, ACIP voted to recommend bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccine boosters for all persons aged ≥12 years who had completed the primary series using monovalent vaccines ≥2 months earlier (2). Data on COVID-19 booster dose vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the nursing home population are limited (3). For this analysis, academic, federal, and private partners evaluated routine care data collected from 196 U.S. community nursing homes to estimate VE of a second mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster dose among nursing home residents who had received 3 previous COVID-19 vaccine doses (2 primary series doses and 1 booster dose). Residents who received second mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster doses during March 29-June 15, 2022, with follow-up through July 25, 2022, were found to have 60-day VE of 25.8% against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19 infection), 73.9% against severe COVID-19 outcomes (a combined endpoint of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations or deaths), and 89.6% against COVID-19-associated deaths alone. During this period, subvariants BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 (March-June 2022), and BA.4 and BA.5 (July 2022) of the B.1.1.529 and BA.2 (Omicron) variant were predominant. These findings suggest that among nursing home residents, second mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster doses provided additional protection over first booster doses against severe COVID-19 outcomes during a time of emerging Omicron variants. Facilities should continue to ensure that nursing home residents remain up to date with COVID-19 vaccination, including bivalent vaccine booster doses, to prevent severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S147-S154, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes experience disproportionate morbidity and mortality related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and were prioritized for vaccine introduction. We evaluated COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among nursing home residents. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort of 4315 nursing home residents during 14 December 2020-9 November 2021. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios comparing residents with a completed vaccination series with unvaccinated among those with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, by vaccine product, and by time period. RESULTS: Overall adjusted VE was 58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44% to 69%) among residents without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the pre-Delta period, the VE within 150 days of receipt of the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech (67%; 95% CI, 40% to 82%) and Moderna (75%; 95% CI, 32% to 91%) was similar. During the Delta period, VE measured >150 days after the second dose was 33% (95% CI, -2% to 56%) for Pfizer-BioNTech and 77% (95% CI, 48% to 91%) for Moderna. Rates of infection were 78% lower (95% CI, 67% to 85%) among residents with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and completed vaccination series compared with unvaccinated residents without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines were effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections among nursing home residents, and history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection provided additional protection. Maintaining high coverage of recommended doses of COVID-19 vaccines remains a critical tool for preventing infections in nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S225-S230, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051350

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant has been hypothesized to exhibit faster clearance (time from peak viral concentration to clearance of acute infection), decreased sensitivity of antigen tests, and increased immune escape (the ability of the variant to evade immunity conferred by past infection or vaccination) compared to prior variants. These factors necessitate reevaluation of prevention and control strategies, particularly in high-risk, congregate settings like nursing homes that have been heavily impacted by other coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) variants. We used a simple model representing individual-level viral shedding dynamics to estimate the optimal strategy for testing nursing home healthcare personnel and quantify potential reduction in transmission of COVID-19. This provides a framework for prospectively evaluating testing strategies in emerging variant scenarios when data are limited. We find that case-initiated testing prevents 38% of transmission within a facility if implemented within a day of an index case testing positive, and screening testing strategies could prevent 30% to 78% of transmission within a facility if implemented daily, depending on test sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Nursing Homes
17.
Aten Primaria ; 54(10): 102463, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to analyse the association of demographic, clinical and pharmacological risk factors with the presence of SARS-COV-2 virus infection, as well as to know the variables related to mortality from COVID-19 in nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. The study variables of those residents who acquired the infection (case) were compared with those of the residents who did not acquire it (control). A subgroup analysis was carried out to study those variables related to mortality. SITE: Nursing homes in the region of Guipúzcoa (Spain). PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: 4 NHs with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 between March and December 2020 participated in the study. The infectivity and, secondary, mortality was studied, as well as demographic, clinical and pharmacological variables associated with them. Data were collected from the computerised clinical records. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Infection and mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infection and mortality. RESULTS: 436 residents were studied (median age 87 years (IQR 11)), 173 acquired SARS-CoV-2 (39.7%). People with dementia and Global Deterioration Scale ≥6 were less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus [OR=0.65 (95% CI 0.43-0.97; p<.05)]. Overall case fatality rate was 10.3% (a mortality of 26% among those who acquired the infection). COVID-19 mortality was significantly associated with a Global Deterioration Scale ≥6 (OR=4.9 (95% CI 1.5-16.1)), COPD diagnosis (OR=7.8 (95% CI 1.9-31.3)) and antipsychotic use (OR=3.1 (95% CI 1.0-9.0)). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced dementia has been associated with less risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection but higher risk of COVID-19 mortality. COPD and chronic use of antipsychotics have also been associated with mortality. These results highlight the importance of determining the stage of diseases such as dementia as well as maintaining some caution in the use of some drugs such as antipsychotics.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Dementia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Nursing Homes , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 55(7): 546-552, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in spring and summer 2020, the anxiety and concerns of residents living in long-term care facilities about contracting and falling ill from the virus (corona concerns) increased. Contact to close persons represents an important asset in coping with concerns or anxiety; however, this was strictly regulated particularly in nursing facilities. Therefore, an elevated psychological burden was assumed; however, there is a lack of representative data. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to answer the question: how do social contacts influence the corona concerns of long-term nursing home residents? MATERIAL AND METHODS: In summer 2020 a representative sample of 259 long-term nursing home residents in the whole of Austria participated in a standardized face-to-face interview. RESULTS: Firstly, the data show a high emotional burden in nursing home residents; however, many residents also demonstrated a certain degree of mental resilience. Secondly, there was an association between emotional loneliness and higher corona concerns (odds ratio, OR = 2.30; p < 0.01). Thirdly, a frequent contact with relatives via telephone or in person also related to higher corona concerns (OR = 1.32; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the current times, when one crisis is replaced by the next, more knowledge is needed about the mental resilience of long-term nursing home residents and how it can be promoted. Furthermore, more knowledge is needed about the role of relatives and whether they are more the origin of concerns or they represent a strategy for coping with concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Loneliness
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043729

ABSTRACT

During the first COVID-19 pandemic wave in Spain, 50% of deaths occurred in nursing homes, making it necessary for some hospitals to support these facilities with the care of infected patients. This study compares origin, characteristics, and mortality of patients admitted with COVID-19 during six pandemic waves in the Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja in Madrid. It is a retrospective observational study of patients ≥80 years old, admitted with an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a total of 546 patients included, whose final outcome was death or discharge. During the first wave, those from nursing homes had a higher risk of death than those from home; during the two successive waves, the risk was higher for those from home; and in the last two waves, the risk equalized and decreased exponentially in both groups. Men had 72% higher risk of death than women. For each year of age, the risk increased by 4% (p = 0.036). For each Charlson index point, the risk increased by 14% (p = 0.019). Individuals in nursing homes, despite being older with higher comorbidity, did not show a higher overall lethality. The mortality decreased progressively in each successive wave due to high vaccination rates and COVID-19 control measures in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 130: 34-43, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing homes are explained by transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from nurses or visitors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe an outbreak with 64 of the 67 residents identified as COVID-19 cases within two weeks (34 in nursing block 1, 30 in nursing block 2), at least 32 of them had relevant symptoms of COVID-19. Thirteen of the residents' deaths were associated with COVID-19. In addition, 27 of approximately 60 staff members were identified as COVID-19 cases, 23 of them had relevant symptoms. In none of the samples from residents or staff was a mutation of SARS-CoV-2 detected. Quarantine of the residents was already in force at the beginning of the outbreak. A common source among the staff was considered to be unlikely because the two nursing home blocks had no staff rotation and the staff had to wear FFP2 masks during contact with residents. Three months after the outbreak the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 was detected on 14 of 39 sampled indoor surfaces of the air ventilation system with Ct values between 34.9 and 41.9, but only at the air supply in the corridor (11 of 24 samples) and the air overflow in the door between the corridor and the residents' rooms (three of 11 samples) but not at the air exhaust in the residents' bathrooms. CONCLUSIONS: The air ventilation system and an inversion weather situation three days before the first confirmed case may have enhanced viral spread inside the nursing home assuming that a common source with a high viral load had existed at the time of outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Explosive Agents , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Nursing Homes , Disease Outbreaks
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