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J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2393-2403, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261152


BACKGROUND: US nursing homes are required to follow Centers for Disease Control guidance for COVID-19 transmission-based precautions (TBP) when admitting COVID-positive patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess how frequently nursing homes had shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) or staffing in weeks when they admitted COVID-positive patients, which likely made it more difficult to follow TBP, and to compare facility characteristics by admissions practices. DESIGN AND SETTING: Facility-level data from the Nursing Home COVID-19 Public File for the period between June 7, 2020 and March 7, 2021 was combined with additional data. The percentages of nursing homes that admitted COVID-positive patients and that had shortages when admitting were calculated for each week. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between facility characteristics and the likelihood of admitting COVID-positive patients. MEASUREMENTS: Facilities were categorized as having admitted COVID-positive patients in a week if one or more admissions requiring TBP were reported for that week. Facilities that reported having less than a 1-week supply of any type of PPE or being short any type of staff in a week were defined, respectively, as having a PPE shortage or staffing shortage in that week. RESULTS: Over the 40-week study period, 39% of US nursing homes admitted COVID-positive patients in at least 1 week in which they were experiencing PPE or staffing shortages. Facilities that admitted COVID-positive patients with shortages generally had lower Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services overall five-star ratings than other facilities. Only a small percentage of facilities that admitted COVID-positive patients while facing shortages were located in counties with severe shortages of PPE or staffing. In logistic regression models, shortages were not associated with COVID-positive admissions. CONCLUSION: The widespread practice of admitting COVID-positive patients while facing shortages may have put nursing home residents and staff at heightened risk of COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
J Nurs Adm ; 51(4): 177-178, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140038


The COVID-19 pandemic exhausted the nursing workforce, casting doubt that future supply will meet demand. To preserve their workforces, nursing leaders are offering emotional support to the frontline. Although these efforts are essential, leaders are overlooking an untapped opportunity to safeguard staffing levels: creating a more flexible nursing workforce. In this article, the authors discuss flexible nurse staffing and suggest 4 key opportunities for improvement.

COVID-19/nursing , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Humans
Am J Nurs ; 121(3): 7, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132577
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2462-2466, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127494


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nursing homes have experienced a disproportionate share of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Early analyses indicated that baseline quality was not predictive of nursing home cases, but a more nuanced study of the role of nurse staffing is needed to target resources and better respond to future outbreaks. We sought to understand whether baseline nurse staffing is associated with the presence of COVID-19 in nursing homes and whether staffing impacts outbreak severity. DESIGN: We analyzed Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) facility-level data on COVID-19 cases and deaths merged with nursing home and county characteristics. We used logistic regressions to examine the associations of staffing levels from Nursing Home Compare with the outcomes of any COVID-19 cases and, conditional on at least one case, an outbreak. Among facilities with at least one case, we modeled count of deaths using hurdle negative binomial-2 regressions. SETTING: All nursing homes in the CMS COVID-19 Nursing Home Dataset with reports that passed the CMS Quality Assurance Check as of June 25, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Residents of nursing homes that met COVID-19 reporting requirements. MEASUREMENTS: A nursing home is defined as having at least one case is if one or more confirmed or suspected COVID-19 case among residents or staff is reported. Conditional on at least one case, we examine two outcomes: an outbreak, defined as confirmed cases/certified beds >10% or total confirmed and suspected cases/beds >20% or >10 deaths, and the total number of deaths attributed to COVID-19 among residents and staff. RESULTS: A total of 71% of the 13,167 nursing homes that reported COVID-19 data as of June 14 had at least one case among residents and/or staff. Of those, 27% experienced an outbreak. Higher registered nurse-hours are associated with a higher probability of experiencing any cases. However, among facilities with at least one case, higher nurse aide (NA) hours and total nursing hours are associated with a lower probability of experiencing an outbreak and with fewer deaths. The strongest predictor of cases and outbreaks in nursing homes is per capita cases in the county. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of COVID-19 in the community remains the strongest predictor of COVID-19 cases and deaths in nursing homes, but higher NA hours and total nursing hours may help contain the number of cases and deaths.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , United States
Prof Inferm ; 73(3): 129-130, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000570


The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of nursing supply flows, domestically and internationally. Its impact at the country-level has further highlighted preexisting nurse supply gaps and the effect of staffing shortages. Internationally, the pandemic has disrupted global supply chains. The world has witnessed the closing of borders, the interruption of travel, and, in some countries, the restriction of outflows. The State of the World's Nursing Report (SOWN) (WHO, 2020) noted a shortfall of almost six million nurses immediately pre-COVID-19, a shortage suffered particularly by low- and middle-income countries. This is of major concern given that increased international outflows of nurses in the new post-COVID era could undermine, even more than before, the readiness of those countries to meet healthcare demands (ICN, 2020). In this default scenario, some, but not all, highincome destination countries will continue to rely on international inflow of nurses to a significant extent, as they did pre-COVID- 19, further exacerbating the suffering of poor countries. Put simply, without country-level policy changes related to the nursing workforce and backed by international organisations, pre-COVID-19 trends of increased nurse flows from low- to high-income countries will likely continue. In this scenario, the iniquitous maldistribution of nurses may become more pronounced. This "do nothing" option risks undermining both country-level progress towards the attainment of Universal Health.

COVID-19/nursing , Emigration and Immigration/trends , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Nurses/supply & distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Health Policy , Humans , Internationality , Nurses/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 43(4): 400-406, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729220


The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced us to new challenges with personal protective equipment, long shifts, and changes in regular routines. This has placed a tremendous stress on health care workers. This article defines the various health care worker challenges, both at the bedside and on a personal front. Therapeutic strategies are discussed.

Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nursing Staff/psychology , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Work-Life Balance , Workload/psychology , Workload/statistics & numerical data
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(10): 1371-1377, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707615


OBJECTIVES: During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, US nursing homes (NHs) have been under pressure to maintain staff levels with limited access to personal protection equipment (PPE). This study examines the prevalence and factors associated with shortages of NH staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: We obtained self-reported information on staff shortages, resident and staff exposure to COVID-19, and PPE availability from a survey conducted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in May 2020. Multivariate logistic regressions of staff shortages with state fixed-effects were conducted to examine the effect of COVID-19 factors in NHs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 11,920 free-standing NHs. MEASURES: The dependent variables were self-reported shortages of licensed nurse staff, nurse aides, clinical staff, and other ancillary staff. We controlled for NH characteristics from the most recent Nursing Home Compare and Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting, market characteristics from Area Health Resources File, and state Medicaid reimbursement calculated from Truven data. RESULTS: Of the 11,920 NHs, 15.9%, 18.4%, 2.5%, and 9.8% reported shortages of licensed nurse staff, nurse aides, clinical staff, and other staff, respectively. Georgia and Minnesota reported the highest rates of shortages in licensed nurse and nurse aides (both >25%). Multivariate regressions suggest that shortages in licensed nurses and nurse aides were more likely in NHs having any resident with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.44, 1.60, respectively) and any staff with COVID-19 (AOR = 1.37, 1.34, respectively). Having 1-week supply of PPE was associated with lower probability of staff shortages. NHs with a higher proportion of Medicare residents were less likely to experience shortages. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Abundant staff shortages were reported by NHs and were mainly driven by COVID-19 factors. In the absence of appropriate staff, NHs may be unable to fulfill the requirement of infection control even under the risk of increased monetary penalties.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Personnel Turnover/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Workforce/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.2): e20200225, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-646371


ABSTRACT Objective: to know and analyze the nursing appeals on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: it is a documentary, qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory research with data collected in publications in two social media. Two hundred ninety-five publications of nursing professionals published on Twitter and Instagram between March 11 and 20, 2020 were submitted to content analysis using ATLAS.ti resources. Results: four thematic categories emerged: #stayathome, #whereismyPPE, #nowweareheroes, #nothingnewinthefrontline, according to frequency of communications. The appeals show a relationship with the social relevance of nursing professional work and with the conditions required for its exercise. Final considerations: old and new challenges of the profession were placed on the agenda in social media, especially related to the workforce and instruments of labor. These speeches can serve as a foundation for policies to improve working conditions and promote appreciation of the profession.

RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer y analizar las llamadas de enfermería en las redes sociales durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: investigación documental, cualitativa, descriptiva y exploratoria, con datos recopilados en publicaciones en dos redes sociales, sometidos a análisis de contenido utilizando recursos del software ATLAS.ti. Se analizaron 295 publicaciones de profesionales de enfermería publicadas en Twitter e Instagram entre el 11 y el 20 de marzo de 2020. Resultados: fue organizado en cuatro categorías temáticas: #quédeseencasa, #dóndeestámiEPP, #ahorasomoshéroes, #nadanuevoenlalíneadefrente, según la frecuencia en las comunicaciones. Las apelaciones muestran una relación con la utilidad social del trabajo profesional y las condiciones requeridas para su ejercicio. Consideraciones finales: los viejos y nuevos desafíos de la profesión se colocaron en la agenda de las redes sociales, especialmente en relación con las herramientas de trabajo y la propia fuerza laboral. Estos discursos pueden servir de base para políticas que mejoren las condiciones de trabajo y promuevan la apreciación de la profesión.

RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer e analisar os apelos da Enfermagem nas mídias sociais durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Método: pesquisa documental, qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória, com dados coletados em publicações em duas mídias sociais, submetidos à análise de conteúdo utilizando recursos do software ATLAS.ti. Foram analisadas 295 publicações de profissionais de enfermagem veiculadas no Twitter e no Instagram entre os dias 11 e 20 de março de 2020. Resultados: organizados em quatro categorias temáticas: #fiqueemcasa, #cadêmeuEPI, #agorasomosheróis, #nadadenovonofront, segundo frequência nas comunicações. Os apelos mostram relação com a utilidade social do trabalho profissional e com condições requeridas para seu exercício. Considerações finais: antigos e novos desafios da profissão foram colocados em pauta nas mídias sociais, especialmente relacionados aos instrumentos de trabalho e à própria força de trabalho. Esses discursos podem servir de alicerce para políticas de melhoria das condições trabalho e fomentar a valorização da profissão.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Personnel Selection/methods , Personnel Selection/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Coronavirus Infections , Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Nursing Staff/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged
Policy Polit Nurs Pract ; 21(3): 174-186, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637402


In the United States, 1.4 million nursing home residents have been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic with at least 25,923 resident and 449 staff deaths reported from the virus by June 1, 2020. The majority of residents have chronic illnesses and conditions and are vulnerable to infections and many share rooms and have congregate meals. There was evidence of inadequate registered nurse (RN) staffing levels and infection control procedures in many nursing homes prior to the outbreak of the virus. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of nurse staffing in California nursing homes and compare homes with and without COVID-19 residents. Study data were from both the California and Los Angeles Departments of Public Health and as well as news organizations on nursing homes reporting COVID-19 infections between March and May 4, 2020. Results indicate that nursing homes with total RN staffing levels under the recommended minimum standard (0.75 hours per resident day) had a two times greater probability of having COVID-19 resident infections. Nursing homes with lower Medicare five-star ratings on total nurse and RN staffing levels (adjusted for acuity), higher total health deficiencies, and more beds had a higher probability of having COVID-19 residents. Nursing homes with low RN and total staffing levels appear to leave residents vulnerable to COVID-19 infections. Establishing minimum staffing standards at the federal and state levels could prevent this in the future.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/organization & administration , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , COVID-19 , California , Humans , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , United States , Workforce
Nurs Manag (Harrow) ; 27(4): 32-40, 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599092


The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has meant that nurse leaders need to respond rapidly and decisively to the demands and challenges of a pandemic in a context of increased staff shortages and limited resources. This article suggests essential leadership skills and characteristics that nurses can use to underpin effective leadership in a crisis, emphasising the importance of decision-making and emotional intelligence. It also addresses two important questions: 'what do leaders in a crisis need to do that differs from any other time?' and 'what does effective leadership look like in a crisis?'

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Leadership , Nurse Administrators/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , COVID-19 , Decision Making , Health Resources/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Humans , Nursing Staff/organization & administration , Nursing Staff/supply & distribution