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2.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732147

ABSTRACT

Sobczyk and Gaunt genetically predicted circulating zinc, selenium, copper, and vitamin K1 levels-instead of directly measuring nutrients in blood-and hypothesized that these levels would associate with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Selenium , Copper , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Nutrients , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin K 1 , Zinc
3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725878

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Challenges arise concerning how to optimally support the immune system in the general population, especially under self-confinement. An optimal immune response depends on an adequate diet and nutrition in order to keep infection at bay. For example, sufficient protein intake is crucial for optimal antibody production. Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk. Frequently, poor nutrient status is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which in turn can impact the immune system. Dietary constituents with especially high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity include vitamin C, vitamin E, and phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. Several of these can interact with transcription factors such as NF-kB and Nrf-2, related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, respectively. Vitamin D in particular may perturb viral cellular infection via interacting with cell entry receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), ACE2. Dietary fiber, fermented by the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, has also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, we highlight the importance of an optimal status of relevant nutrients to effectively reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby strengthening the immune system during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Nutrients/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antioxidants , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nutritional Status/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715582

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus, infecting human cells via its spike protein, causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 is characterized by shortness of breath, fever, and pneumonia and is sometimes fatal. Unfortunately, to date, there is still no definite therapy to treat COVID-19. Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) approved only supportive care. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need to maintain a correct intake of nutrients to support very weakened patients in overcoming disease arose. The literature available on nutrient intake for COVID-19 is mainly focused on prevention. However, the safe intake of micro- and/or macro-nutrients can be useful either for preventing infection and supporting the immune response during COVID-19, as well as in the post-acute phase, i.e., "long COVID", that is sometimes characterized by the onset of various long lasting and disabling symptoms. The aim of this review is to focus on the role of nutrient intake during all the different phases of the disease, including prevention, the acute phase, and finally long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nutrients , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1891, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671627

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has produced broad clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic infection to hospitalization and death. Despite progress from genomic and clinical epidemiology research, risk factors for developing severe COVID-19 are incompletely understood and identification of modifiable risk factors is desperately needed. We conducted linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) analysis to estimate cross-trait genetic correlation between COVID-19 severity and various polygenic phenotypes. To attenuate the genetic contribution of smoking and BMI, we further conducted sensitivity analyses by pruning genomic regions associated with smoking/BMI and repeating LDSR analyses. We identified robust positive associations between the genetic architecture of severe COVID-19 and both BMI and smoking. We observed strong positive genetic correlation (rg) with diabetes (rg = 0.25) and shortness of breath walking on level ground (rg = 0.28) and novel protective associations with vitamin E (rg = - 0.53), calcium (rg = - 0.33), retinol (rg = - 0.59), Apolipoprotein A (rg = - 0.13), and HDL (rg = - 0.17), but no association with vitamin D (rg = - 0.02). Removing genomic regions associated with smoking and BMI generally attenuated the associations, but the associations with nutrient biomarkers persisted. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the shared genetic architecture of COVID-19 severity and numerous clinical/physiologic parameters. Associations with blood and plasma-derived traits identified biomarkers for Mendelian randomization studies to explore causality and nominates therapeutic targets for clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Linkage Disequilibrium/genetics , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Dyspnea/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Multifactorial Inheritance , Nutrients , Patient Acuity , Phenotype , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Smoking/genetics
6.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 92(1): 1-2, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655467
7.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
8.
Nutr Res ; 100: 19-32, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586919

ABSTRACT

Persons with underlying noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are more likely to acquire severe coronavirus disease 2019 disease and to die from coronavirus disease 2019. An urgent need for potential therapy to prevent and control NCDs is critical. We hypothesized that higher intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, or vegetables would be linked with a low risk of NCDs in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to explore the association between NCDs, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arthritis, depression, and dietary factors. A total of 56,462 adults aged 18 years (2009-2019) were included. Dietary factors, including intakes of multiple individual nutrients, fruits, and vegetables, were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between dietary factors and NCDs. Interactions were found between intakes of multiple individual nutrients and sex for T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Only in women was a 2-fold increase in daily multiple individual nutrient intake (vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C; potassium, protein; phosphorus; calcium; iron; monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid; n-3 fatty acid and n-6 fatty acid; and water) associated with a lower prevalence of T2DM, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoarthritis. In both women and men, high fruit or vegetable consumption was linked with a lower risk of T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, osteoarthritis, and depression than low consumption. Our findings found higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and multiple individual nutrients are linked with a lower risk of NCDs in the Korean adult population. Further work is needed to identify whether interactions between intake of multiple individual nutrients, vegetables, and fruits affect the presence of NCDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diet , Female , Fruit , Humans , Male , Nutrients , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vegetables
9.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(3): 352-369, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517622

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic has refreshed and expanded recognition of the vital role that sustained antibody (Ab) secretion plays in our immune defenses against microbes and of the importance of vaccines that elicit Ab protection against infection. With this backdrop, it is especially timely to review aspects of the molecular programming that govern how the cells that secrete Abs arise, persist, and meet the challenge of secreting vast amounts of these glycoproteins. Whereas plasmablasts and plasma cells (PCs) are the primary sources of secreted Abs, the process leading to the existence of these cell types starts with naive B lymphocytes that proliferate and differentiate toward several potential fates. At each step, cells reside in specific microenvironments in which they not only receive signals from cytokines and other cell surface receptors but also draw on the interstitium for nutrients. Nutrients in turn influence flux through intermediary metabolism and sensor enzymes that regulate gene transcription, translation, and metabolism. This review will focus on nutrient supply and how sensor mechanisms influence distinct cellular stages that lead to PCs and their adaptations as factories dedicated to Ab secretion. Salient findings of this group and others, sometimes exhibiting differences, will be summarized with regard to the journey to a distinctive metabolic program in PCs.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulins/metabolism , Nutrients , Plasma Cells , Signal Transduction
10.
Allergy ; 77(5): 1373-1388, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462723

ABSTRACT

It remains uncertain as to whether nutrient supplementation for the general population considered healthy could be useful in the prevention of RTIs, such as COVID-19. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the evidence was evaluated for primary prevention of any viral respiratory tract infection (RTI) such as SARS-CoV-2, through supplementation of nutrients with a recognized role in immune function: multiple micronutrients, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin B12, C, D, E, beta-carotene, zinc, iron and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The search produced 15,163 records of which 93 papers (based on 115 studies) met the inclusion criteria, resulting in 199,055 subjects (191,636 children and 7,419 adults) from 37 countries. Sixty-three studies were included in the meta-analyses, which was performed for children and adults separately. By stratifying the meta-analysis by world regions, only studies performed in Asia showed a significant but heterogeneous protective effect of zinc supplementation on RTIs (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.7-0.96, I2  = 79.1%, p = .000). Vitamin D supplementation in adults significantly decreased the incidence of RTI (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-0.99, p = .272), particularly in North America (RR 0.82 95% CI 0.68-0.97), but not in Europe or Oceania. Supplementation of nutrients in the general population has either no or at most a very limited effect on prevention of RTIs. Zinc supplementation appears protective for children in Asia, whilst vitamin D may protect adults in the USA and Canada. In 10/115 (8.7%) studies post-hoc analyses based on stratification for nutritional status was performed. In only one study zinc supplementation was found to be more effective in children with low zinc serum as compared to children with normal zinc serum levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Dietary Supplements , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Nutrients , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Zinc
11.
Ageing Res Rev ; 67: 101302, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a debilitating syndrome that significantly impacts individuals over the age of 65 years. There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for dementia. Impairment of nutrient sensing pathways has been implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia, and may offer a novel treatment approach for dementia. AIMS: This systematic review collates all available evidence for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics that modify nutrient sensing in the context of preventing cognitive decline or improving cognition in ageing, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia populations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched using key search terms focusing on available therapeutics such as 'metformin', 'GLP1', 'insulin' and the dementias including 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'Parkinson's disease'. Articles were screened using Covidence systematic review software (Veritas Health Innovation, Melbourne, Australia). The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool v 2.0 for human studies and SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies. RESULTS: Out of 2619 articles, 114 were included describing 31 different 'modulation of nutrient sensing pathway' therapeutics, 13 of which specifically were utilized in human interventional trials for normal ageing or dementia. Growth hormone secretagogues improved cognitive outcomes in human mild cognitive impairment, and potentially normal ageing populations. In animals, all investigated therapeutic classes exhibited some cognitive benefits in dementia models. While the risk of bias was relatively low in human studies, this risk in animal studies was largely unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of nutrient sensing pathway therapeutics, particularly growth hormone secretagogues, have the potential to improve cognitive outcomes. Overall, there is a clear lack of translation from animal models to human populations.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Nutrients
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390658

ABSTRACT

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are an important group of drugs of several generations, ranging from the oldest phenobarbital (1912) to the most recent cenobamate (2019). Cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly used to treat epilepsy. The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019 created new challenges in the effective treatment of epilepsy in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this review is to present data from the last few years on drug-drug interactions among of AEDs, as well as AEDs with other drugs, nutrients and food. Literature data was collected mainly in PubMed, as well as google base. The most important pharmacokinetic parameters of the chosen 29 AEDs, mechanism of action and clinical application, as well as their biotransformation, are presented. We pay a special attention to the new potential interactions of the applied first-generation AEDs (carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone), on decreased concentration of some medications (atazanavir and remdesivir), or their compositions (darunavir/cobicistat and lopinavir/ritonavir) used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. CBD interactions with AEDs are clearly defined. In addition, nutrients, as well as diet, cause changes in pharmacokinetics of some AEDs. The understanding of the pharmacokinetic interactions of the AEDs seems to be important in effective management of epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Nutrients/metabolism , Anticonvulsants/chemistry , Anticonvulsants/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/virology , Cannabidiol/chemistry , Cannabidiol/pharmacokinetics , Carbamazepine/chemistry , Carbamazepine/pharmacokinetics , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Clobazam/chemistry , Clobazam/pharmacokinetics , Clobazam/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Int J Surg ; 93: 106079, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in lung cancer patients awaiting elective surgery, the feasibility of delivering a novel four-week multimodal prehabilitation intervention and its effects on preoperative functional capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), compared to standard hospital care. METHODS: Adult patients awaiting elective thoracotomy for lung cancer stages I, II or IIIa, were approached to participate in an open-label, randomized controlled trial of two parallel arms: multimodal prehabilitation combining a mixed-nutrient supplement with structured supervised and home-based exercise training, and relaxation-strategies (Prehab) or standard hospital care (Control). Feasibility was assessed based on recruitment and adherence rates to the intervention and study outcome assessment. Functional capacity, measured by the 6-min walk test (6MWT), and HRQoL were measured at baseline and after four weeks (preoperative). RESULTS: Within 5 months, 34 patients were enrolled and randomized (2:1) to Prehab (n = 24; median age = 67 years) or Control (n = 10; median age = 69 years); recruitment rate of 58.6%. The study was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence to the prescribed intensity of the supervised exercise program was 84.1% (SD 23.1). Self-reported adherence to the home-based exercise program was 88.2% (SD 21) and to the nutritional supplement, 93.2% (SD 14.2). Adherence to patients' preoperative assessment was 82% and 88% in Prehab and Control, respectively. The mean adjusted difference in 4-week preoperative 6MWT between groups was 37.7 m (95% CI, -6.1 to 81.4), p = 0.089. There were no differences in HRQoL between groups. CONCLUSION: Within a preoperative timeframe, it was feasible to deliver this novel multimodal prehabilitation intervention in lung cancer patients awaiting surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Nutritional Support , Preoperative Care , Preoperative Exercise , Aged , Exercise Therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Nutrients , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346480

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of non-communicable disease in New Zealand (NZ) is driven in part by unhealthy diet selections, with food costs contributing to an increased risk for vulnerable population groups. This study aimed to: (i) identify the nutrient density-to-cost ratio of NZ foods; (ii) model the impact of substituting foods with a lower nutrient density-to-cost ratio with those with a higher nutrient density-to-cost ratio on diet quality and affordability in representative NZ population samples for low and medium socioeconomic status (SES) households by ethnicity; and (iii) evaluate food processing level. Foods were categorized, coded for processing level and discretionary status, analyzed for nutrient density and cost, and ranked by nutrient density-to-cost ratio. The top quartile of nutrient dense, low-cost foods were 56% unprocessed (vegetables, fruit, porridge, pasta, rice, nuts/seeds), 31% ultra-processed (vegetable dishes, fortified bread, breakfast cereals unfortified <15 g sugars/100 g and fortified 15-30 g sugars/100 g), 6% processed (fruit juice), and 6% culinary processed (oils). Using substitution modeling, diet quality improved by 59% and 71% for adults and children, respectively, and affordability increased by 20-24%, depending on ethnicity and SES. The NZ diet can be made healthier and more affordable when nutritious, low-cost foods are selected. Processing levels in the healthier, modeled diet suggest that some non-discretionary ultra-processed foods may provide a valuable source of low-cost nutrition for food insecure populations.


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutrients , Adult , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , New Zealand
16.
Food Funct ; 12(17): 7637-7650, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319051

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 implications are still a threat to global health. In the face of this pandemic, food and nutrition are key issues that can boost the immune system. The bioactivity of functional foods and nutrients (probiotics, prebiotics, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, glutamine, arginine, nucleotides, and PUFAs) contributes to immune system modulation, which establishes the status of nutrients as a factor of immune competence. These foods can contribute, especially during a pandemic, to the minimization of complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, it is important to support the nutritional strategies for strengthening the immune status, associated with good eating habits, as a way to confront COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Functional Food , Immunomodulation , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Nutritional Status/immunology , Arginine , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Glutamine , Humans , Phenols , Prebiotics , Probiotics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trace Elements
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259554

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked world health authorities generating a global health crisis. The present study discusses the main finding in nutrition sciences associated with COVID-19 in the literature. We conducted a consensus critical review using primary sources, scientific articles, and secondary bibliographic indexes, databases, and web pages. The method was a narrative literature review of the available literature regarding nutrition interventions and nutrition-related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main search engines used in the present research were PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. We found how the COVID-19 lockdown promoted unhealthy dietary changes and increases in body weight of the population, showing obesity and low physical activity levels as increased risk factors of COVID-19 affection and physiopathology. In addition, hospitalized COVID-19 patients presented malnutrition and deficiencies in vitamin C, D, B12 selenium, iron, omega-3, and medium and long-chain fatty acids highlighting the potential health effect of vitamin C and D interventions. Further investigations are needed to show the complete role and implications of nutrition both in the prevention and in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Life Style , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Exercise , Female , Health Behavior , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nutrients/deficiency , Obesity/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 68: 101324, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152265

ABSTRACT

Age-related diseases for which there are no effective treatments include cardiovascular diseases; neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease; eye disorders such as cataract and age-related macular degeneration; and, more recently, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). These diseases are associated with plasma and/or tissue increases in cholesterol derivatives mainly formed by auto-oxidation: 7-ketocholesterol, also known as 7-oxo-cholesterol, and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol. The formation of these oxysterols can be considered as a consequence of mitochondrial and peroxisomal dysfunction, leading to increased in oxidative stress, which is accentuated with age. 7-ketocholesterol and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol cause a specific form of cytotoxic activity defined as oxiapoptophagy, including oxidative stress and induction of death by apoptosis associated with autophagic criteria. Oxiaptophagy is associated with organelle dysfunction and in particular with mitochondrial and peroxisomal alterations involved in the induction of cell death and in the rupture of redox balance. As the criteria characterizing 7-ketocholesterol- and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol-induced cytotoxicity are often simultaneously observed in major age-related diseases (cardiovascular diseases, age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease) the involvement of these oxysterols in the pathophysiology of the latter seems increasingly likely. It is therefore important to better understand the signalling pathways associated with the toxicity of 7-ketocholesterol and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol in order to identify pharmacological targets, nutrients and synthetic molecules attenuating or inhibiting the cytotoxic activities of these oxysterols. Numerous natural cytoprotective compounds have been identified: vitamins, fatty acids, polyphenols, terpenes, vegetal pigments, antioxidants, mixtures of compounds (oils, plant extracts) and bacterial enzymes. However, few synthetic molecules are able to prevent 7-ketocholesterol- and/or 7ß-hydroxycholesterol-induced cytotoxicity: dimethyl fumarate, monomethyl fumarate, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG126, memantine, simvastatine, Trolox, dimethylsufoxide, mangafodipir and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) inhibitors. The effectiveness of these compounds, several of which are already in use in humans, makes it possible to consider using them for the treatment of certain age-related diseases associated with increased plasma and/or tissue levels of 7-ketocholesterol and/or 7ß-hydroxycholesterol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aging , Humans , Hydroxycholesterols , Ketocholesterols , Nutrients , Oils , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094258

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) as a branch of computer science, the purpose of which is to imitate thought processes, learning abilities and knowledge management, finds more and more applications in experimental and clinical medicine. In recent decades, there has been an expansion of AI applications in biomedical sciences. The possibilities of artificial intelligence in the field of medical diagnostics, risk prediction and support of therapeutic techniques are growing rapidly. The aim of the article is to analyze the current use of AI in nutrients science research. The literature review was conducted in PubMed. A total of 399 records published between 1987 and 2020 were obtained, of which, after analyzing the titles and abstracts, 261 were rejected. In the next stages, the remaining records were analyzed using the full-text versions and, finally, 55 papers were selected. These papers were divided into three areas: AI in biomedical nutrients research (20 studies), AI in clinical nutrients research (22 studies) and AI in nutritional epidemiology (13 studies). It was found that the artificial neural network (ANN) methodology was dominant in the group of research on food composition study and production of nutrients. However, machine learning (ML) algorithms were widely used in studies on the influence of nutrients on the functioning of the human body in health and disease and in studies on the gut microbiota. Deep learning (DL) algorithms prevailed in a group of research works on clinical nutrients intake. The development of dietary systems using AI technology may lead to the creation of a global network that will be able to both actively support and monitor the personalized supply of nutrients.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Biomedical Research/methods , Machine Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Nutrients , Humans
20.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094257

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the burden of musculoskeletal disorders is increasing with great variations between-countries, which makes it difficult for policymakers to provide resources and adequate interventions in order to provide for their appropriate management [...].


Subject(s)
Diet , Dietary Supplements , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Nutrients , Animals , Biomarkers/analysis , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/diagnosis , Musculoskeletal Diseases/metabolism , Musculoskeletal Diseases/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/therapy , Nutritional Status
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