Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 58
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Neuropeptides ; 90: 102201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446996

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global emergency with high mortality. There are few effective treatments, and many severe patients are treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Japanese Kampo medicine ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is effective in treating ICU patients with COVID-19. Nine patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent respiratory management with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and enteral nutrition. Four patients received NYT (7.5 g daily) from an elemental diet tube. We retrospectively examined the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), length of IMV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, rate of tracheostomy, and mortality rate. The median age of the enrolled participants was 60.0 years (4 men and 5 women). The median body mass index was 27.6. The most common comorbidity was diabetes (4 patients, 44%), followed by hypertension (3 patients, 33%) and chronic kidney disease (2 patients, 22%). The median length of IMV, ICU stay, and hospital stay were all shorter in the NYT group than in the non-NYT group (IMV; 4.0 days vs 14.3 days, ICU; 5.3 days vs 14.5 days, hospital stay; 19.9 days vs 28.2 days). In the NYT and non-NYT groups, the median PNI at admission was 29.0 and 31.2, respectively. One week after admission, the PNI was 30.7 in the NYT group and 24.4 in non-NYT group. PNI was significantly (p = 0.032) increased in the NYT group (+13.6%) than in the non-NYT group (-22.0%). The Japanese Kampo medicine NYT might be useful for treating patients with severe COVID-19 in ICU. This study was conducted in a small number of cases, and further large clinical trials are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Medicine, Kampo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
2.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14800, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: PNI is a calculated parameter using the albumin and the lymphocyte count from the CBC, which demonstrates the immunological and nutritional status of the patient. The aim of this study is to show the relationship between PNI and mortality in COVID-19 patients and to reveal a PNI cut-off value for mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 690 PCR positive COVID-19 ICU patients were recorded. COVID-19 ICU patients were divided into two groups; the first group consisted of survivors, while the second group consisted of patients who died in the ICU. Patients were also evaluated in two groups according to the PNI cut-off value that predicted mortality (PNI ≤ 42.00, PNI ≥ 43) and were compared in terms of demographics, laboratory parameters, clinical findings and mortality rates. RESULTS: When 690 COVID-19 patients were divided into two groups as survivors (50.6%) and deceased (49.4%) in intensive care, PNI value was significantly lower in the deceased group compared to the surviving group (P < .001). The PNI cut-off value predicting mortality was determined as ≤42. Patients were classified into two groups according to the PNI cut-off value. PNI ≤42 was determined as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR:2.9 P < .001). AUC values for PNI, albumin, and lymphocyte were 0.628, 0.612, and 0.590, respectively; P < .001 for all. CONCLUSION: PNI is an inexpensive method that can be easily calculated on the basis of routine laboratory parameters. We believe that the PNI value of COVID-19 patients on admission to the ICU may be an independent factor to predict mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutrition Assessment , Critical Care , Humans , Nutritional Status , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 24(6): 543-554, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367076

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 disease often presents with malnutrition and nutrition impact symptoms, such as reduced appetite, nausea and loss of taste. This review summarizes the most up-to-date research on nutritional assessment in relation to mortality and morbidity risk in patients with COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous studies have been published on malnutrition, muscle wasting, obesity, and nutrition impact symptoms associated with COVID-19, mostly observational and in hospitalized patients. These studies have shown a high prevalence of symptoms (loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dysphagia, fatigue, and loss of smell and taste), malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies and obesity in patients with COVID-19, all of which were associated with increased mortality and morbidity risks. SUMMARY: Early screening and assessment of malnutrition, muscle wasting, obesity, nutrition impact symptoms and micronutrient status in patients with COVID-19, followed by pro-active nutrition support is warranted, and expected to contribute to improved recovery. There is limited research on nutritional status or nutrition impact symptoms in patients living at home or in residential care. RCTs studying the effects of nutrition intervention on clinical outcomes are lacking. Future research should focus on these evidence gaps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Body Composition , Humans , Malnutrition/etiology , Nutritional Status , Obesity/complications
4.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(4): 751-768, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355885

ABSTRACT

Performing nutrition assessment remotely via telehealth is a topic of significant interest given the global pandemic in 2020 that has necessitated physical distancing and virtual communications. This review presents an evidence-based approach to conducting nutrition assessments remotely. The authors present suggestions for adaptations that can be used to perform a remote nutrition-focused physical exam. Direct-to-consumer technologies that can be used in remote nutrition assessment are discussed and compared. Practice tips for conducting a telehealth visit are also presented. The aim of this publication is to provide interdisciplinary clinicians a set of guidelines and best practices for performing nutrition assessments in the era of telehealth.


Subject(s)
Nutrition Assessment , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14974, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322502

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health crisis that has the potential to exacerbate worldwide malnutrition. This study examines whether patients with a history of malnutrition are predisposed to severe COVID-19. To do so, data on 103,099 COVID-19 inpatient encounters from 56 hospitals in the United States between March 2020 and June 2020 were retrieved from the Cerner COVID-19 Dataset. Patients with a history of malnutrition between 2015 and 2019 were identified, and a random intercept logistic regression models for pediatric and adult patients were built controlling for patient demographics, socioeconomic status, admission vital signs, and related comorbidities. Statistical interactions between malnutrition and patient age were significant in both the pediatric [log-odds and 95% confidence interval: 0.094 (0.012, 0.175)] and adult [- 0.014 (- 0.021, - 0.006] models. These interactions, together with the main effect terms of malnutrition and age, imply higher odds for severe COVID-19 for children between 6 and 17 years with history of malnutrition. Even higher odds of severe COVID-19 exist for adults (with history of malnutrition) between 18 and 79 years. These results indicate that the long-term effect of malnutrition predisposes patients to severe COVID-19 in an age-dependent way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Vital Signs , Young Adult
6.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(5): 970-983, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to ascertain risk indicators of in-hospital mortality and severity as well as to provide a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic significance of the prognostic nutrition index (PNI) as a predictor of adverse outcomes in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied patients with COVID-19 who were referred to our hospital from February 16 to November 1, 2020. Patients with either a real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test that was positive for COVID-19 or high clinical suspicion based on the World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidance were enrolled. A parallel systematic review/meta-analysis (in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) was performed. RESULTS: A total of 504 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included in this study, among which 101 (20.04%) patients died during hospitalization, and 372 (73.81%) patients were categorized as severe cases. At a multivariable level, lower PNI, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and higher D-dimer levels were independent risk indicators of in-hospital mortality. Additionally, patients with a history of diabetes, lower PNI, and higher LDH levels had a higher tendency to develop severe disease. The meta-analysis indicated the PNI as an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80; P < .001) and disease severity (OR = 0.78; P = .009). CONCLUSION: Our results emphasized the predictive value of the PNI in the prognosis of patients with COVID-19, necessitating the implementation of a risk stratification index based on PNI values in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutrition Assessment , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9917302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311190

ABSTRACT

Background: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been reported to significantly correlate with poor survival and postoperative complications in patients with various diseases, but its relationship with mortality in COVID-19 patients has not been addressed. Method: A multicenter retrospective study involving patients with severe COVID-19 was conducted to investigate whether malnutrition and other clinical characteristics could be used to stratify the patients based on risk. Results: A total of 395 patients were included in our study, with 236 patients in the training cohort, 59 patients in the internal validation cohort, and 100 patients in the external validation cohort. During hospitalization, 63/236 (26.69%) and 14/59 (23.73%) patients died in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. PNI had the strongest relationships with the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level but was less strongly correlated with the CURB65, APACHE II, and SOFA scores. The baseline PNI score, platelet (PLT) count, LDH level, and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio were independent predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients. A nomogram incorporating these four predictors showed good calibration and discrimination in the derivation and validation cohorts. A PNI score less than 33.405 was associated with a higher risk of mortality in severe COVID-19 patients in the Cox regression analysis. Conclusion: These findings have implications for predicting the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients at the time of admission and provide the first direct evidence that a lower PNI is related to a worse prognosis in severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hydro-Lyases/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Quinine , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048948, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311167

ABSTRACT

The nutritional sequelae of COVID-19 have not been explored in a large cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with the change in nutritional status between discharge and 30 days post-discharge (D30). Secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of subjective functional loss and severe disability at D30 and their associated factors. METHODS: Collected data included symptoms, nutritional status, self-evaluation of food intake, Performance Status (PS) Scale, Asthenia Scale, self-evaluation of strength (SES) for arms and legs at discharge and at D30. An SES <7 was used to determine subjective functional loss. A composite criteria for severe disability was elaborated combining malnutrition, subjective functional loss and PS >2. Patients were classified into three groups according to change in nutritional status between discharge and D30 (persistent malnutrition, correction of malnutrition and the absence of malnutrition). RESULTS: Of 549 consecutive patients hospitalised for COVID-19 between 1 March and 29 April 2020, 130 died including 17 after discharge (23.7%). At D30, 312 patients were at home, 288 (92.3%) of whom were interviewed. Of the latter, 33.3% were malnourished at discharge and still malnourished at D30, while 23.2% were malnourished at discharge but no longer malnourished at D30. The highest predictive factors of persistent malnutrition were intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR=3.42, 95% CI: 2.04 to 5.75), subjective functional loss at discharge (OR=3.26, 95% CI: 1.75 to 6.08) and male sex (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.44 to 3.97). Subjective functional loss at discharge (76.8%) was the main predictive factor of subjective functional loss at D30 (26.3%) (OR=32.6, 95% CI: 4.36 to 244.0). Lastly, 8.3% had a severe disability, with a higher risk in patients requiring an ICU stay (OR=3.39, 95% CI: 1.43 to 8.06). CONCLUSION: Patients who survived a severe form of COVID-19 had a high risk of persistent malnutrition, functional loss and severe disability at D30. We believe that nutritional support and rehabilitation should be strengthened, particularly for male patients who were admitted in ICU and had subjective functional loss at discharge. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04451694.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Aftercare , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
9.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 463-465, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Completing malnutrition assessments when physically distant has been an immediate challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even during periods of physical distancing, continuing nutrition assessments amongst those without COVID-19 is vital given that high malnutrition prevalence exists in clinical settings. The investigation aim was to assess the reliability of utilising the validated Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool, without compared to with physical examination. METHODOLOGY: Original paper-based SGA documentation from a hospital-wide audit was reassessed by a blinded experienced clinician using history alone without reviewing documented physical examination. Participants included adults admitted to a tertiary hospital with no maternity or obstetric services. Those terminally ill, undergoing end-of-life palliative care, with disordered eating or admitted to emergency or intensive care units were excluded. McNemar's test assessed paired categorical data. Cohen's kappa coefficient assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were completed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in malnutrition identification (p < 0.454) with 97% (473/489) of assessments identical. High sensitivity (87.2%, 68/78), specificity (98.9%, 405/411), positive (91.9%, 68/74) and negative (97.6%, 405/415) predictive values were evident. High inter- and intra-rater reliability was confirmed (kappa values 0.875 and 0.987). CONCLUSION: The Abridged-SGA utilising the four key factors of the SGA history identified many malnourished amongst those without COVID-19 who otherwise would not be identified when physical distancing is required due to the pandemic. It did not overestimate malnutrition. Until alternative means of assessing physical parameters remotely are validated, the pragmatic value of practitioners' judgement when utilising the Abridged-SGA was confirmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Diet/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Humans , Malnutrition/complications , Pandemics , Physical Examination , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Weight Loss
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288968

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: SARS-CoV2 infection is associated with an increased risk of malnutrition. Although there are numerous screening and nutritional management protocols for malnutrition, only few studies have reported nutritional evolution after COVID-19. The objectives of this study were to describe the evolution of nutritional parameters between admission and 30 days after hospital discharge, and to determine predictive factors of poor nutritional outcome after recovery in adult COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this observational longitudinal study, we report findings after discharge in 91 out of 114 patients initially admitted for COVID-19 who received early nutritional management. Nutritional status was defined using GLIM criteria and compared between admission and day 30 after discharge. Baseline predictors of nutritional status at day 30 were assessed using logistic regression. Results: Thirty days after discharge, 28.6% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were malnourished, compared to 42.3% at admission. Half of malnourished patients (53%) at admission recovered a normal nutritional status after discharge. Weight trajectories were heterogeneous and differed if patients had been transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization (p = 0.025). High oxygen requirement during hospitalization (invasive ventilation p = 0.016 (OR 8.3 [1.6-61.2]) and/or oxygen therapy over 5 L/min p = 0.021 (OR 3.2 [1.2-8.9]) were strong predictors of malnutrition one month after discharge. Conclusions: With early nutritional management, most patients hospitalized for COVID-19 improved nutritional parameters after discharge. These findings emphasize the importance of nutritional care in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in medicine departments, especially in those transferred from ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Hospitalization , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14544, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII) are inflammation-based novel markers that predict the prognosis in various patient populations. We have investigated the relationship between the disease severity in COVID-19, and the PNI and SII scores in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional retrospective study included 118 hospitalised patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. The patients were divided into two groups as those who were hospitalised at the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had been internalised at the clinic (non-ICU). RESULTS: Of the 118 patients, 50.8% were male. The mean age was 57.7 ± 17.5 years in non-ICU patients and 70.3 ± 11.7 years in ICU patients and the difference was statistically significant (P < .001). The lymphocyte count and the albumin levels were significantly lower in ICU patients (P < .001, P < .001, respectively). The PNI score was significantly lower in ICU patients compared with non-ICU patients (P < .001). The SII score was found to be significantly higher in ICU patients compared with non-ICU patients (P < .001). The value of PNI and SII scores in prediction of the disease severity in COVID-19 was evaluated with the ROC analysis (PNI: AUC = 0.796, 95%CI: 0.715-0.877, P < .001; SII: AUC =0.689, 95% CI: 0.559-0.819, P=.004). When the cut-off value was taken as ≤36.7 for the PNI score, it was found to have 73.4% sensitivity and 70.8% specificity for predicting of the disease severity and ICU admission probability was 4.4 times higher. When the cut-off value was taken as ≥813.6 for SII score, it was found to have 70.8% sensitivity and 66.0% specificity for predicting of the disease severity and ICU admission probability was six times higher. CONCLUSION: The PNI and the SII scores are independent predictors of the prognosis and the disease severity in COVID-19 patients who require hospitalisation at the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutrition Assessment , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 479-482, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NUTrition Risk in the Critically ill (NUTRIC score) and modified Nutric score (mNUTRIC score) have been validated as screening tool for quantifying risk of adverse outcome in patients admitted in intensive care department. They differ for the measurement of IL-6 levels. In patients with COVID-19 disease the inflammatory response plays a crucial role leading to cytochine storm responsible of multiple organ damage. In this population, levels of IL-6 have been measured as indicator of inflammatory status. Aim of the study is to compare prognostic performance of both scores in predicting ICU mortality between patients with COVID-19 disease. METHODS: A single centre, retrospective, cohort study on patients admitted in ICU with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 was performed. Prognostic performance of NUTRIC score and mNUTRIC score were assessed and compared for discriminative abilities for ICU-mortality. RESULTS: 43 patients were enrolled, age 64 (55; 70), BMI 28 ± 4. Mean NUTRIC score was 2.5 ± 1, mNUTRIC was 2.6 ± 1.1. Mortality was 39.5%, all patients had low nutritional risk according to both scores (≤5 and ≤ 4 for NUTRIC and mNUTRIC score respectively). The discriminative ability of Nutric Score for ICU mortality was 0.675 (95% CI: 0.524-0.825), while that of mNutric score was 0.655 (0.513-0.861), p = 0.667. CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic performance of Nutric score and mNutric score is comparable, but the discriminative ability is low even in patients with high inflammatory status as in COVID-19 affected population. These scores may not be appropriate in patients with COVID-19 for the determination of nutritional risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/mortality , Nutrition Assessment , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 46, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Could nutritional status serve as prognostic factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? The present study evaluated the clinical and nutritional characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explored the relationship between risk for malnutrition at admission and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in two hospitals in Hubei, China. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 were typed as mild/moderate, severe, or critically ill. Clinical data and in-hospital death were collected. The risk for malnutrition was assessed using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) via objective parameters at admission. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-five patients were enrolled, including 66 severe patients and 41 critically ill patients. Twenty-five deaths were observed, making 8.47% in the whole population and 37.88% in the critically ill subgroup. Patients had significant differences in nutrition-related parameters and inflammatory biomarkers among three types of disease severity. Patients with lower GNRI and PNI, as well as higher CONUT scores, had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. The receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated the good prognostic implication of GNRI and CONUT score. The multivariate logistic regression showed that baseline nutritional status, assessed by GNRI, PNI, or CONUT score, was a prognostic indicator for in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Despite variant screening tools, poor nutritional status was associated with in-hospital death in patients infected with COVID-19. This study highlighted the importance of nutritional screening at admission and the new insight of nutritional monitoring or therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 223-229, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several factors that worsen the prognosis of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have been identified, such as obesity or diabetes. However, despite that nutrition may change in a lockdown situation, little is known about the influence of malnutrition among subjects hospitalized due to COVID-19. Our study aimed to assess whether the presence of malnutrition among patients admitted due to COVID-19 had any impact on clinical outcomes compared with patients with the same condition but well nourished. METHODS: 75 patients admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 were analyzed cross-sectionally. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was completed by phone interview. Clinical parameters included were extracted from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: According to the SGA, 27 admitted due to a COVID-19 infection had malnutrition. Patients not well nourished were older than patients with a SGA grade A (65 ± 14.1 vs 49 ± 15.1 years; p < 0.0001). Length of hospital stay among poorly nourished patients was significantly higher (18.4 ± 15.6 vs 8.5 ± 7.7 days; p = 0.001). Mortality rates and admission to ICU were greater among subjects with any degree of malnutrition compared with well-nourished patients (7.4% vs 0%; p = 0.05 and 44.4% vs 6.3%; p < 0.0001). CRP (120.9 ± 106.2 vs 60.8 ± 62.9 mg/l; p = 0.03), D-dimer (1516.9 ± 1466.9 vs 461.1 ± 353.7 ng/mL; p < 0.0001) and ferritin (847.8 ± 741.1 vs 617.8 ± 598.7mcg/l; p = 0.03) were higher in the group with malnutrition. Haemoglobin (11.6 ± 2.1 vs 13.6 ± 1.5 g/dl; p < 0.0001) and albumin 3.2 ± 0.7 vs 4.1 ± 0.5 g/dl; p < 0.0001) were lower in patients with any degree of malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a poor nutritional status is related to a longer stay in hospital, a greater admission in the ICU and a higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , Adult , Albumins/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/mortality , Malnutrition/therapy , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(3): e272-e274, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232688

ABSTRACT

Good nutrition is an integral component of patient care. Not only does eating correctly provide substantial physical benefits, it also ensures psychological comfort throughout admission. Nevertheless, our formative years as medical students, and now as junior doctors, have shown us that patient nutrition is frequently neglected both in the clinical setting and in the subject matter of our education.Amid the coronavirus pandemic, this is especially problematic; older, frailer patients, with multiple comorbidities and higher rates of malnutrition, are faring much worse with the virus. Combined with the fact that 40% of patients admitted to hospital are malnourished to some degree, we are looking at a huge population of potential COVID-19 patients facing a further decline in nutritional status and higher mortality as a result of this, making attention to nutrition more important than ever.As junior doctors, we have a role in the nutritional assessment of and support for our patients by ensuring that all patients are suitably assessed using a scoring tool with the appropriate ensuing actions taken. We must also ensure that our knowledge regarding nutritional assessment and support is adequate and aim to supplement this via additional learning to meet the minimum requirements for our curriculum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Medical Staff, Hospital , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 239-244, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevalence of malnutrition among adult Filipino patients with COVID 19 is 71.83%. Malnutrition has long been associated with poor outcomes among patients with pneumonia. This may be due to the increased risk of malnourished patients to develop impaired muscle and respiratory function. We aimed to determine the outcomes of adult COVID 19 patients admitted in a tertiary government hospital accordingly to nutrition status and risk. METHODS: Retrospective study on the adult COVID 19 patients admitted from July 15 to September 15, 2020 who were screened using the Philippine Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition modified Subjective Global Assessment Grade tool. Chi-square or Fisher exact test, as well as Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Dunn test, as appropriate were done. Survival analysis for mortality was done with right-censored data length of initial admission in days. Cox proportional hazard regression was done to determine the association of the main variables of interest with mortality with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Malnourished patients were 30% less likely to be discharged [HR 0.70 95% CI (0.50, 0.97)]; malnutrition was also associated with length of hospital stay as those who were malnourished had longer lengths of hospital stay of about 4 days on the average [HR 3.55 95% CI (0.83, 6.27)]. High nutrition risk was significantly associated with length of hospital stay [HR 4.36 95% CI (0.89, 7.83)]. CONCLUSION: The only risk factor for mortality shown in this study is ICU transfer. Malnutrition, moderate nutrition risk, and high nutrition risk were risk factors of having longer lengths of hospital stays. While only malnutrition was the risk factor for being less likely to be discharged. We reiterate that nutrition assessment and support are important in mitigating the effects of COVID 19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Government , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/mortality , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Philippines/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 369-376, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with COVID-19 infection presents with a broad clinical spectrum of symptoms and complications. As a consequence nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in weight- and muscle loss, and malnutrition. The aim of the present study is to delineate nutritional complaints, the (course of the) nutritional status and risk of sarcopenia of COVID-19 patients, during hospitalisation and after discharge. METHODS: In this prospective observational study in 407 hospital admitted COVID-19 patients in four university and peripheral hospitals, data were collected during dietetic consultations. Presence of nutrition related complaints (decreased appetite, loss of smell, changed taste, loss of taste, chewing and swallowing problems, nausea, vomiting, feeling of being full, stool frequency and consistency, gastric retention, need for help with food intake due to weakness and shortness of breath and nutritional status (weight loss, BMI, risk of sarcopenia with SARC-F ≥4 points) before, during hospital stay and after discharge were, where possible, collected. RESULTS: Included patients were most men (69%), median age of 64.8 ± 12.4 years, 60% were admitted to ICU at any time point during hospitalisation with a median LOS of 15 days and an in-hospital mortality rate of 21%. The most commonly reported complaints were: decreased appetite (58%), feeling of being full (49%) and shortness of breath (43%). One in three patients experienced changed taste, loss of taste and/or loss of smell. Prior to hospital admission, 67% of the patients was overweight (BMI >25 kg/m2), 35% of the patients was characterised as malnourished, mainly caused by considerable weight loss. Serious acute weight loss (>5 kg) was showed in 22% of the patents during the hospital stay; most of these patients (85%) were admitted to the ICU at any point in time. A high risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F ≥ 4 points) was scored in 73% of the patients during hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, one in five hospital admitted COVID-19 patients suffered from serious acute weight loss and 73% had a high risk of sarcopenia. Moreover, almost all patients had one or more nutritional complaints. Of these complaints, decreased appetite, feeling of being full, shortness of breath and changed taste and loss of taste were the most predominant nutrition related complaints. These symptoms have serious repercussions on nutritional status. Although nutritional complaints persisted a long time after discharge, only a small group of patients received dietetic treatment after hospital discharge in recovery phase. Clinicians should consider the risks of acute malnutrition and sarcopenia in COVID-19 patients and investigate multidisciplinary treatment including dietetics during hospital stay and after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , Sarcopenia/etiology , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Appetite , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187013

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (COVID-19) has hit older adults harder due to a combination of age-related immunological and metabolic alterations. The aim of this review was to analyze the COVID-19 literature with respect to nutritional status and nutrition management in older adults. No studies only on people aged 65+ years were found, and documentation on those 80+ was rare. Age was found to be strongly associated with worse outcomes, and with poor nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition was high among severely and critically ill patients. The studies found a need for nutrition screening and management, and for nutrition support as part of follow-up after a hospital stay. Most tested screening tools showed high sensitivity in identifying nutritional risk, but none were recognized as best for screening older adults with COVID-19. For diagnosing malnutrition, the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria are recommended but were not used in the studies found. Documentation of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in relation to nutritional status is missing in older adults. Other COVID-19-associated factors with a possible impact on nutritional status are poor appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Vitamin D is the nutrient that has attracted the most interest. However, evidence for supplementation of COVID-19 patients is still limited and inconclusive.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Nutrition Therapy/methods , Nutritional Status , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Agnosia/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 377-382, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We conducted the present study to investigate the nutritional status of critically ill COVID-19 patients and validate the GLIM criteria with respect to the SGA. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 109 ICU patients were assessed for malnutrition based on GLIM and SGA criteria. The relation between nutrition assessment tools and duration of hospitalization and mortality were also evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of GLIM criteria concerning the detection of malnutrition was assessed based on the area under the curve. RESULTS: Malnutrition, according to the SGA and GLIM criteria, was found in 68 (62.4%) and 66 (61.5%) of our subjects. There was an optimal agreement between the GLIM criteria and the SGA criteria regarding malnutrition diagnosis (K = 0.85, P < 0.001). The area under curve for the GLIM was stratified based on the SGA results and was 0.927 (95% CI: 0.868-0.985) with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 93%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Malnutrition is frequently observed in critically ill COVID-19 patients. GLIM criteria is a valid tool and has a strong association with mortality and longer duration of ICU stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Adult , Aged , Anthropometry/methods , Area Under Curve , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Female , Global Health , Humans , Leadership , Male , Malnutrition/complications , Middle Aged , Muscular Atrophy , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weight Loss
20.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(4): 741-748, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyse data obtained from the multi-domain assessment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, to describe their health status at discharge, and to investigate whether subgroups of patients, more specific ICU patients and older adults (> 70 years), had more (or less) risk to experience specific impairments. METHODS: Retrospective case series in the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium of confirmed COVID-19 patients 'after surviving an ICU-stay', 'aged ≥ 70 years', or 'aged < 70 years with a length of hospitalization > 7 days'. Exclusion criteria were 'unwilling to cooperate', 'medically unstable', or 'palliative care policy'. Following tests were used: 'Five Times Sit To Stand Test', 'hand grip dynamometry', 'Barthel index', 'Swallowing screening', 'Montreal Cognitive Assessment', 'Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale', and 'Nutritional Risk Screening 2002'. RESULTS: One or more tests were obtained in 135/163 patients (83.3%). Physical impairments were present in 43.2-82.8% of the patients. Median BI was 10/20 indicating limited self-dependency. Swallow impairments were present in 3/53 (5.7%) and 24/76 (31.6%) had risk of malnutrition. Impaired memory was seen in 26/43 (60.5%) and 22/47 (46.8%) had elevated anxiety/depression scores. Older adults had more physical, functional, and cognitive impairments. ICU patients had a lower hand grip force. CONCLUSION(S): The high prevalence of physical, cognitive, psychological, and functional impairments in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, both ICU and non-ICU patients, indicates that assessment of impairments is imperative. These results imply that rehabilitation and follow-up is essential for these patients. This paper proposes a short, workable assessment composed with known outcome measures to assess different domains of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Critical Illness , Malnutrition/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Nutrition Assessment , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...