Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 80
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282622, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236980

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Sleep is critical to a person's physical and mental health, but there are few studies systematically assessing risk factors for sleep disorders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for a sleep disorder through machine-learning and assess this methodology. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study using the publicly available National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was conducted in patients who completed the demographic, dietary, exercise, and mental health questionnaire and had laboratory and physical exam data. METHODS: A physician diagnosis of insomnia was the outcome of this study. Univariate logistic models, with insomnia as the outcome, were used to identify covariates that were associated with insomnia. Covariates that had a p<0.0001 on univariate analysis were included within the final machine-learning model. The machine learning model XGBoost was used due to its prevalence within the literature as well as its increased predictive accuracy in healthcare prediction. Model covariates were ranked according to the cover statistic to identify risk factors for insomnia. Shapely Additive Explanations (SHAP) were utilized to visualize the relationship between these potential risk factors and insomnia. RESULTS: Of the 7,929 patients that met the inclusion criteria in this study, 4,055 (51% were female, 3,874 (49%) were male. The mean age was 49.2 (SD = 18.4), with 2,885 (36%) White patients, 2,144 (27%) Black patients, 1,639 (21%) Hispanic patients, and 1,261 (16%) patients of another race. The machine learning model had 64 out of a total of 684 features that were found to be significant on univariate analysis (P<0.0001 used). These were fitted into the XGBoost model and an AUROC = 0.87, Sensitivity = 0.77, Specificity = 0.77 were observed. The top four highest ranked features by cover, a measure of the percentage contribution of the covariate to the overall model prediction, were the Patient Health Questionnaire depression survey (PHQ-9) (Cover = 31.1%), age (Cover = 7.54%), physician recommendation of exercise (Cover = 3.86%), weight (Cover = 2.99%), and waist circumference (Cover = 2.70%). CONCLUSION: Machine learning models can effectively predict risk for a sleep disorder using demographic, laboratory, physical exam, and lifestyle covariates and identify key risk factors.


Subject(s)
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Machine Learning
2.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted some dietary habits of Americans. OBJECTIVE: We examined characteristics associated with a high intake of sweet foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) during the COVID-19 pandemic among US adults. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: The SummerStyles survey data were collected in 2021 among 4034 US adults (≥18 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequencies were measured of consuming various sweet foods (chocolate/candy, doughnuts/sweet rolls/Danish/muffins/Pop-Tarts, cookies/cake/pie/brownies, and ice cream/frozen desserts) and SSB (regular sodas, sweetened coffee/tea drinks fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The responses were categorized into 0, >0 to <1, 1 to <2, and ≥2 times/day. The descriptive variables were sociodemographics, food insecurity, weight status, metropolitan status, census regions, and eating habit changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multinomial regressions were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for being a high consumer of sweet foods and SSB after controlling for characteristics. RESULTS: During 2021, 15% of adults reported consuming sweet foods ≥2 times/day, and 30% reported drinking SSB ≥2 times/day. The factors that were significantly associated with greater odds of high sweet food intake (≥2 times/day) were lower household income (AOR = 1.53 for <$35,000 vs. ≥$100,000), often/sometimes experiencing food insecurity (AOR = 1.41 vs. never), and eating more sweet foods than usual since start of the pandemic (AOR = 2.47 vs. same as usual). The factors that were significantly associated with greater odds of high SSB intake (≥2 times/day) were males (AOR = 1.51), lower education (AOR = 1.98 for ≤high school; AOR = 1.33 for some college vs. college graduate), currently having children (AOR = 1.65), living in nonmetropolitan areas (AOR = 1.34), and drinking more SSB than usual since the pandemic began (AOR = 2.23 vs. same as usual). Younger age, Black race, and reductions in consumption during COVID-19 were related to lower sweet food and SSB intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, which identified high consumers of sweet foods or SSB, can be used to inform efforts to reduce consumers' added sugars intake during pandemic recovery and support their health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Drinks , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Male , Child , Humans , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Female , Beverages , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fruit
3.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323015

ABSTRACT

Despite the enormous global market of dietary supplements, the impact of dietary supplements on kidney disease is still unclear. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2015 to 2017, this study evaluated the association between dietary supplement and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 13,271 Korean adults. Among the dietary supplements, vitamin and mineral intake was the highest at 61.41%, followed by omega-3 fatty acids at 11.85%, and ginseng at 7.99%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in those who consumed amino acids and proteins, ginseng and red ginseng, and herbal medicine (plant extract)-berries than in those who did not. Conversely, patients who consumed probiotic supplements had a significantly lower prevalence of CKD than those who did not. In the population without CKD risk factors or history of CKD, the prevalence of CKD was high in the group consuming ginseng and red ginseng. After adjusting for covariates, the herbal medicine (plant extract)-berry group showed an independent association with CKD incidence. In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary supplements may affect kidney function. Further large-scale cohort studies are required to elucidate the exact effects of each dietary supplement on CKD.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Plant Extracts , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023015, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was to examine the changes in dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes between before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: A total of 54,995 participants aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2011-2020 KNHANES were included. The 10-year trend (2011-2020) and differences between 2019 and 2020 for dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes were estimated using SAS. RESULTS: In the past 10 years (2011-2020), the dietary habits (increase in skipping meals and eating out), food intake (increase in meats and decrease in fruits and vegetables), and nutrient intake (increase in fat and decrease in sodium) in adults have changed. When comparing between 2019 and 2020, there were 4.6%p decrease in the eating out more than once a day. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the intakes of food, energy and most of nutrients between 2019 and 2020, except for the proportion of energy intake from fat (1.0%p increase) and carbohydrate (1.0%p decrease). CONCLUSIONS: Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor the effects of changes in dietary habits on health as well as food and nutrient intakes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Diet , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Food
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 887, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317418

ABSTRACT

Multimorbidity increases the risk of all-cause mortality, and along with age, is an independent risk factor for severe disease and mortality from COVID-19. Inequities in the social determinants of health contributed to increased mortality from COVID-19 among disadvantaged populations. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of multimorbid conditions and associations with the social determinants of health in the US prior to the pandemic.Methods Data from the 2017-18 cycle of NHANES were used to determine the prevalence of 13 chronic conditions, and the prevalence of having 0, 1, or 2 or more of those conditions, among the US adult population aged ≥ 20 years. Multimorbidity was defined as having 2 or more of these conditions. Data were stratified according to demographic, socioeconomic and indicators of health access, and analyses including logistic regression, performed to determine the factors associated with multimorbidity.Results The prevalence of multimorbidity was 58.4% (95% CI 55.2 to 61.7). Multimorbidity was strongly associated with age and was highly prevalent among those aged 20-29 years at 22.2% (95% CI 16.9 to 27.6) and continued to increase with older age. The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest in those defined as Other or multiple races (66.9%), followed in decreasing frequency by rates among non-Hispanic Whites (61.2%), non-Hispanic Blacks (57.4%), Hispanic (52.0%) and Asian (41.3%) groups.Logistic regression showed a statistically significant relationship between multimorbidity and age, as expected. Asian race was associated with a reduced likelihood of 2 or more chronic conditions (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.57; P < 0.0001). Socioeconomic factors were related to multimorbidity. Being above the poverty level (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91, p = 0.013); and a lack of regular access to health care (OR 0.61 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.88, p = 0.008) were both associated with a reduced likelihood of multimorbidity. Furthermore, there was a borderline association between not having health insurance and reduced likelihood of multimorbidity (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40 to 1.0; p = 0.053).Conclusions There are high levels of multimorbidity in the US adult population, evident from young adulthood and increasing with age. Cardiometabolic causes of multimorbidity were highly prevalent, especially obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes; conditions subsequently found to be associated with severe disease and death from COVID-19. A lack of access to care was paradoxically associated with reduced likelihood of comorbidity, likely linked to underdiagnosis of chronic conditions. Obesity, poverty, and lack of access to healthcare are factors related to multimorbidity and were also relevant to the health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, that must be addressed through comprehensive social and public policy measures. More research is needed on the etiology and determinants of multimorbidity, on those affected, patterns of co-morbidity, and implications for individual health and impact on health systems and society to promote optimal outcomes. Comprehensive public health policies are needed to tackle multimorbidity and reduce disparities in the social determinants of health, as well as to provide universal access to healthcare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multimorbidity , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Nutrition Surveys , Social Determinants of Health , Obesity/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291485

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate whether oral health behaviors were related to the dietary intake of vitamins. In this cross-sectional study, we included respondents of the 2016 national health and nutrition examination survey, and dental diseases from Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, findings of blood tests related to metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, oral health status, and behaviors were collected. Participants were divided into two groups based on their oral health behavior: the yes group (performed interdental cleaning or tongue brushing) and the no group (did not perform the behaviors). The study included 218 participants (male: 107, female: 111) aged 64.5 (range, 22-93) years. There were 133 (61.0%) and 85 (39.0%) participants in the yes and no groups, respectively. The daily intake of vitamins A, B2, B6, E, and K, folic acid, and niacin in the yes group was significantly higher than that in the no group. Oral health behavior correlated with the intake of vitamin B2 (p = 0.029), folic acid (p = 0.006), and vitamin K (p = 0.043) after adjusting for possible confounders. Oral health behavior (interdental cleaning or tongue brushing) correlated with the daily intake of vitamins B2, K, and folic acid.


Subject(s)
Vitamin A , Vitamins , Male , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutrition Surveys , Folic Acid , Riboflavin , Vitamin K , Eating , Health Behavior
7.
Clin Ther ; 45(5): 390-399.e4, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296847

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The evolving epidemiology and treatment landscape of COVID-19 necessitates research into potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) from the use of new treatments for COVID-19, particularly those that contain ritonavir, a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P350 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolic pathway. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of pDDIs between medications for chronic conditions metabolized through the CYP3A4 metabolic pathway and ritonavir-containing COVID-19 medications in the US general population. METHODS: This study combined National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) waves 2015 to 2016 and 2017 to March 2020 to observe pDDI prevalence between ritonavir-containing therapy and coadministered medications among US adults 18 years or older. CYP3A4-mediated medications were identified from affirmative medication questionnaire response and associated prescription examination by surveyors. CYP3A4-mediated medications with associated pDDIs with ritonavir and assessed pDDI severity (minor, major, moderate, and severe) were obtained from the University of Liverpool's COVID-19 online drug interaction checker, Lexicomp, and US Food and Drug Administration fact sheets. pDDI prevalence and severity were evaluated by demographic characteristics and COVID-19 risk factors. FINDINGS: A total of 15,685 adult participants were identified during the 2015 to 2020 NHANES waves. Survey participants used a mean (SD) of 2.7 (1.8) drugs with likelihood of a pDDI. The weighted prevalence of major to contraindicated pDDIs among the US population was 29.3%. Prevalence rates among those 60 years and older, with serious heart conditions, with moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), with severe CKD, with diabetes, and with HIV were 60.2%, 80.7%, 73.9%, 69.5%, 63.4%, and 68.5%, respectively. Results remained largely unchanged after removal of statins from the list of drugs associated with ritonavir-based pDDIs. IMPLICATIONS: Approximately one-third of the US population would be at risk for a major or contraindicated pDDI should they receive a ritonavir-containing regimen, and this risk increases significantly among individuals 60 years or older and with comorbidities such as serious heart conditions, CKD, diabetes, and HIV. The state of polypharmacy in the US population and the quickly changing COVID-19 landscape indicate significant risk of pDDIs among those requiring treatment with ritonavir-containing COVID-19 medications. Practitioners should take polypharmacy, age, and comorbidity profile into account when prescribing COVID-19 therapies. Alternative treatment regimens should be considered, especially for those of older age and those with risk factors for progression to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drug Interactions , HIV Infections/drug therapy
8.
Pediatr Int ; 65(1): e15472, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The age-adjusted prevalence of child and adolescent obesity has been stabilized in the Korean population, although severe obesity has increased with adverse health effects. In this study, we detailed the prevalence of and trends in overweight, obesity, and severe obesity in Korean children and adolescents by age group and sex from a nationally representative sample, using a new, 2017 age- and sex-specific reference for body mass index. METHODS: We collected Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from the years 2007-2020. A total of 23,595 subjects (11,210 females) aged 2-18 years were included in this study. We calculated the recent prevalence of overweight and obesity, including severe obesity, by weighted data from 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity (class II and class III obesity) was 23.5% and 14.2% (2.5% and 0.5%), respectively. Males showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. Adolescents aged 13-15 years showed the highest prevalence of severe obesity. A positive linear trend was significant for overweight (p = 0.025), class I obesity (p < 0.001), and class II obesity (p = 0.002) for both sexes and all ages combined. However, the trend of obesity prevalence was different in each subgroup. Comparing pre- and post- COVID-19 pandemic, obesity prevalence seemed to increase, but not significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previous reports that obesity in children and adolescents has remained stable, we found that the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity has increased in Korean children and adolescents. The effects of COVID-19 on this trend require further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Pediatric Obesity , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(10): e74, 2023 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly altered the daily lives of people in unprecedented ways, causing a variety of mental health problems. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression among Korean adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore the factors associated with depressive mood using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: We analyzed participants aged ≥ 19 years from KNHANES 2018 (n = 5,837) and 2020 (n = 5,265) to measure and compare the prevalence of depression before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression was defined as a score ≥ 10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Furthermore, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate the independent predictors of depressive mood during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was notably higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the pre-pandemic period (5.2% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.043). In a multivariate model, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.41), age < 50 years (19-29 years: aOR, 7.31; 95% CI, 2.40-22.21; 30-39 years: aOR, 7.38; 95% CI, 2.66-20.47; 40-49 years: aOR, 4.94; 95% CI, 1.84-13.31 compared to ≥ 80 years), unemployment (aOR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.41-2.85), upper-middle class household income (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.18-2.85 compared to upper-class income), being a beneficiary of Medicaid (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.33-4.14), poor self-rated health (aOR, 4.99; 95% CI, 1.51-3.47 compared to good self-rated health), and current smoking (aOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.51-3.47) were found to be significant risk factors for depression during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Depression was significantly more prevalent among Korean adults during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the pre-pandemic era. Therefore, more attention should be paid to individuals vulnerable to depression during pandemics. Implementing psychological support public policies and developing interventions to prevent the adverse outcomes of COVID-19-related depression should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
10.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 43(1): 40-49, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the association between early age onset of alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse in adulthood. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 16 829 individuals' (8349 males, 8435 females) survey responses obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2016 through 2019. Alcohol dependence was measured using the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption), and the ages at which alcohol consumption began were grouped into four categories: under 16, 16 to 18, 19 to 23, and over 24. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between current alcohol misuse and age at onset of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Compared to individuals who started drinking alcohol after the age of 24, those who began drinking alcohol before the age of 16 were more likely to score 8 or more on AUDIT-C questions (under 16: males, odds ratio [OR] 2.50, confidence interval [CI] 1.97-3.17; females, OR: 1.66, CI: 1.18-2.33). Similar to the main analysis, the earlier the onset of alcohol assumption starts, the more likely one is to develop alcohol misuse in adulthood according to subgroup analysis stratified by independent variables in both gender. CONCLUSION: The lower the age at the onset of alcohol consumption, the higher the likelihood of alcohol misuse in adulthood. While both males and females showed the same trend in response to the AUDIT-C questions, males tended to have a stronger association between early onset alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Male , Female , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Age of Onset , Alcohol Drinking , Ethanol
11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 8(5): 443-452, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264255

ABSTRACT

Importance: The burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the US is higher among Black and Hispanic vs White adults. Inclusion of race in guidance for statin indication may lead to decreased disparities in statin use. Objective: To evaluate prevalence of primary prevention statin use by race and ethnicity according to 10-year ASCVD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial, cross-sectional analysis performed in May 2022 used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of health status in the US, from 2013 to March 2020 (limited cycle due to the COVID-19 pandemic), to evaluate statin use for primary prevention of ASCVD and to estimate 10-year ASCVD risk. Participants aged 40 to 75 years without ASCVD, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 190 mg/dL or greater, and with data on medication use were included. Exposures: Self-identified race and ethnicity (Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White) and 10-year ASCVD risk category (5%-<7.5%, 7.5%-<20%, ≥20%). Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of statin use, defined as identification of statin use on pill bottle review. Results: A total of 3417 participants representing 39.4 million US adults after applying sampling weights (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [8.0] years; 1289 women [weighted percentage, 37.8%] and 2128 men [weighted percentage, 62.2%]; 329 Asian [weighted percentage, 4.2%], 1032 Black [weighted percentage, 12.7%], 786 Hispanic [weighted percentage, 10.1%], and 1270 White [weighted percentage, 73.0%]) were included. Compared with White participants, statin use was lower in Black and Hispanic participants and comparable among Asian participants in the overall cohort (Asian, 25.5%; Black, 20.0%; Hispanic, 15.4%; White, 27.9%) and within ASCVD risk strata. Within each race and ethnicity group, a graded increase in statin use was observed across increasing ASCVD risk strata. Statin use was low in the highest risk stratum overall with significantly lower rates of use among Black (23.8%; prevalence ratio [PR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98 vs White) and Hispanic participants (23.9%; PR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99 vs White). Among other factors, routine health care access and health insurance were significantly associated with higher statin use in Black, Hispanic, and White adults. Prevalence of statin use did not meaningfully change over time by race and ethnicity or by ASCVD risk stratum. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, statin use for primary prevention of ASCVD was low among all race and ethnicity groups regardless of ASCVD risk, with the lowest use occurring among Black and Hispanic adults. Improvements in access to care may promote equitable use of primary prevention statins in Black and Hispanic adults.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Ethnicity , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Primary Prevention
12.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e35, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253238

ABSTRACT

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element which has an important role as a constituent of seleno-proteins involved in various physiological processes. Previous research in Irish adults suggests that intakes of this important nutrient are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to estimate the current intakes and major food sources of Se by Irish adults. Mean daily intakes (MDIs) of Se were calculated using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey which involved 1500 Irish adults aged 18-90 years. The Se content of foods and drinks consumed over a 4-d period was determined using data from the Irish Total Diet Study (TDS). Adequacy of Se intakes was assessed by calculating the proportion of the population with intakes below the adequate intake (AI) of 70 µg/d and lower reference nutrient intake of 40 µg/d (LRNI). The MDI of Se in the total population was 71⋅7 µg/d, with significantly higher intakes reported in men (80⋅2 µg/d) compared with women (63⋅4 µg/d, P < 0⋅01). Meat and meat products were the major contributing food group to Se intakes for both men (37 %) and women (31 %). Overall, 47 % of the population were not meeting the recommended AI, while 4 % of the total population were not meeting the LRNI. Although the average intake of Se is above the AI, a significant proportion of the population is not meeting this recommendation and continued monitoring of Se intakes is necessary, particularly by at-risk groups and also in the context of sustainability.


Subject(s)
Selenium , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Nutritional Status , Diet , Eating , Nutrition Surveys
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(6): e36, 2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restrictions on daily life and changes in economic structure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) likely would have affected men and women differently. However, there is still a lack of research on the difference between men and women in the amount of change in depression during COVID-19 compared to before COVID-19. Therefore, the researchers investigated gender differences in the magnitude of increase in the prevalence of depression with its severity and individual symptoms during COVID-19 compared with pre-pandemic levels. METHODS: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2016 and 2018 were used to assess depression levels pre-pandemic and the KNHANES 2020 for pandemic depression levels. Depression was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). To analyze the differences between men and women in the magnitude of the mental health impact of COVID-19, the researchers analyzed the weighted differences in depression prevalence, severity, and individual symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before COVID-19 stratified by gender. RESULTS: In men, there were significant increases in weighted prevalence for depression (1.2% percentage point; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0-2.3) and severe symptoms of depression (2.6-fold; 95% CI, 1.2-5.7). Among the individual symptoms of depression, significant increases during the pandemic compared to before were: little interest or pleasure in doing things, 1.26-fold; feeling tired or having little energy, 2.2-fold; and suicidal thoughts, 1.7-fold. However, there was no significant difference in prevalence, symptoms severity, and any symptom before and during COVID-19 in women. CONCLUSIONS: Because the pandemic is likely to increase mental problems of the affected over time due to such problems as financial stress and joblessness or post-infection health issues, the researchers anticipate an increase in the prevalence of some mental illnesses. In particular, since the suicide rate of men is higher than that of women, from a public health perspective, active interventions are needed to prevent an increase in the suicide rate due to COVID-19. It is also necessary to establish national policies to overcome the psychological, social, and economic losses resulting from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Nutrition Surveys , Sex Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281812, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Annual vaccination for influenza is globally recommended for some prioritized groups due to its high morbidity and mortality. Until 2019, South Korea has provided free influenza vaccination to children aged ≤12, adults aged ≥65, and pregnant women to enhance vaccination coverage. In 2020, with the COVID-19 pandemic, free flu vaccination was temporarily broadened to adults aged 62-64 and children aged 13-18. We analyzed the trends in influenza vaccination coverages in South Korea and evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the expansion of the free vaccination policy on influenza vaccination coverage. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with nationwide survey data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We evaluated the trends in influenza vaccination coverages of target populations from 2010 to 2020. Influenza vaccination coverages of children aged 13-18, adults aged 62-64, and adults aged ≥65 were compared between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In total, 72,443 individuals were analyzed. From 2019 to 2020, with the expansion of free influenza vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic, the vaccination coverage of children aged 13-18 increased from 27.8% to 43.5% (P<0.001) but that of people aged 62-64 showed insignificant change from 57.4% to 51.5% (P = 0.266). Furthermore, the vaccination coverage in adults aged ≥65 declined from 87.2% to 79.1% (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: In 2020, along with COVID-19 outbreaks, a decline of influenza vaccination coverage in older adults was observed regardless of free immunizations. It is likely due to behavioral changes to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. This is supported by a greater reduction of influenza vaccination coverage in regions with higher COVID-19 outbreaks, as well as by South Korea's high medical accessibility and highly congested medical facilities. To sustain a high level of vaccination coverage of high-risk population during epidemics, additional efforts beyond free vaccination policies should be implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Child , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Aged , Vaccination Coverage , Nutrition Surveys , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Policy , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 5, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) inequity was recognized as a driver of some certain infectious diseases. However, few studies evaluated the association between SES and the burden of overall infections, and even fewer identified preventable mediators. This study aimed to assess the association between SES and overall infectious diseases burden, and the potential roles of factors including lifestyle, environmental pollution, chronic disease history. METHODS: We included 401,009 participants from the UK Biobank (UKB) and defined the infection status for each participant according to their diagnosis records. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to define SES for each participant. We further defined healthy lifestyle score, environment pollution score (EPS) and four types of chronic comorbidities. We used multivariate logistic regression to test the associations between the four above covariates and infectious diseases. Then, we performed the mediation and interaction analysis to explain the relationships between SES and other variables on infectious diseases. Finally, we employed seven types of sensitivity analyses, including considering the Townsend deprivation index as an area level SES variable, repeating our main analysis for some individual or composite factors and in some subgroups, as well as in an external data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, to verify the main results. RESULTS: In UKB, 60,771 (15.2%) participants were diagnosed with infectious diseases during follow-up. Lower SES [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5570] were associated with higher risk of overall infections. Lifestyle score mediated 2.9% of effects from SES, which ranged from 2.9 to 4.0% in different infection subtypes, while cardiovascular disease (CVD) mediated a proportion of 6.2% with a range from 2.1 to 6.8%. In addition, SES showed significant negative interaction with lifestyle score (OR = 0.8650) and a history of cancer (OR = 0.9096), while a significant synergy interaction was observed between SES and EPS (OR = 1.0024). In subgroup analysis, we found that males and African (AFR) with lower SES showed much higher infection risk. Results from sensitivity and validation analyses showed relative consistent with the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Low SES is shown to be an important risk factor for infectious disease, part of which may be mediated by poor lifestyle and chronic comorbidities. Efforts to enhance health education and improve the quality of living environment may help reduce burden of infectious disease, especially for people with low SES.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Communicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Social Class , Environmental Pollution , Life Style , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
16.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023014, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2226003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the changes in chronic disease management indicators, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesteremia, from 2010-2020 and before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This study included 58,504 individuals aged ≥30 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2020. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of chronic diseases and the difference in those between before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the SAS program PROC SURVEYREG. RESULTS: From 2010-2020, the awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before to during the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and the awareness, treatment, and control rates for hypercholesterolemia increased by 5.5%p, 6.9%p, and 4.1%p respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia increased, but the management indicators of the chronic diseases did not significantly deteriorate. Considering the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor changes in chronic disease management indicators and to develop efficient and accessible chronic disease prevention and management programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertension , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
17.
Nutrients ; 15(3)2023 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225470

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic and has affected people's dietary behaviors, including food insecurity. This study aimed to ascertain whether COVID-19 may alter the prevalence of food insecurity, and if such food security status may be associated with dietary intake among Koreans. The general characteristics, dietary intake and food security status data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VIII (2019~2020) were analyzed. The prevalence of food insecurity and food group and nutrient consumption by food security status were analyzed before (2019) and after the start of the pandemic (2020). Findings suggested 4.3% of Koreans experienced food insecurity during the first year of the pandemic, yet it did not differ from that in the year before the pandemic. Before COVID-19, there was no significant difference in food group or nutrition consumption by food security status. However, in 2020, the fruit and vitamin C intake of the food-insecure group was significantly lower than that of the food-secure group. Additionally, the food-insecure group's ratio of subjects who did not meet the recommended level of fruits and the vitamin was higher compared to that of the secure group. In conclusion, COVID-19 did not affect food insecurity status, but did have a negative influence on dietary intake for food-insecure Koreans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Food Supply , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Food Insecurity , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(48): 1522-1525, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145604

ABSTRACT

CDC COVID-19 surveillance systems monitor SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence to collect information about asymptomatic, undiagnosed, and unreported disease using national convenience samples of blood donor data from commercial laboratories (1,2). However, nonrandom sampling of data from these systems could affect prevalence estimates (1-3). The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collects SARS-CoV-2 serology data among a sample of the general U.S. civilian population (4). In addition, NHANES collects self-reported COVID-19 vaccination and disease history, and its statistical sampling design is not based on health care access or blood donation. Therefore, NHANES data can be used to better quantify asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence and seropositivity attained through infection without vaccination. Preliminary NHANES 2021-2022 results indicated that 41.6% of adults aged ≥18 years had serology indicative of past infection and that 43.7% of these adults, including 57.1% of non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) adults, reported never having had COVID-19, possibly representing asymptomatic infection. In addition, 25.5% of adults whose serology indicated past infection reported never having received COVID-19 vaccination. Prevalences of seropositivity in the absence of vaccination were higher among younger adults and Black adults, reflecting the lower observed vaccination rates among these groups (5). These findings raise health equity concerns given the disparities observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination. Results from NHANES 2021-2022 can guide ongoing efforts to achieve vaccine equity in COVID-19 primary vaccination series and booster dose coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Adolescent , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Self Report , COVID-19 Vaccines
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275973, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119392

ABSTRACT

The US population faced stressors associated with suicide brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the relationship between stressors and suicidal ideation in the context of the pandemic may inform policies and programs to prevent suicidality and suicide. We compared suicidal ideation between two cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys of adults in the United States: the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 2020 COVID-19 and Life Stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-being (CLIMB) study (conducted March 31 to April 13). We estimated the association between stressors and suicidal ideation in bivariable and multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance to generate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR). Suicidal ideation increased from 3.4% in the 2017-2018 NHANES to 16.3% in the 2020 CLIMB survey, and from 5.8% to 26.4% among participants in low-income households. In the multivariable model, difficulty paying rent (aPR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and feeling alone (aPR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5-2.4) were associated with suicidal ideation but job loss was not (aPR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.6 to 1.2). Suicidal ideation increased by 12.9 percentage points and was almost 4.8 times higher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Suicidal ideation was more prevalent among people facing difficulty paying rent (31.5%), job loss (24.1%), and loneliness (25.1%), with each stressor associated with suicidal ideation in bivariable models. Difficulty paying rent and loneliness were most associated with suicidal ideation. Policies and programs to support people experiencing economic precarity and loneliness may contribute to suicide prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Nutrition Surveys , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099500

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing globally prior to COVID-19. The pandemic resulted in changes in lifestyle and personal habits such as universal mask-wearing and social distancing. However, there is insufficient information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of allergic conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. We analyzed the incidence rate for self-reported and doctor-diagnosed cases of allergic diseases of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. A total of 15,469 subjects were registered from a national cohort dataset of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each disease in 2020 compared to 2019. Subgroup analyses were performed according to age and sex. There were no statistically significant differences between the incidence of doctor-diagnosed and current allergic diseases in 2019 and 2020 (asthma, p = 0.667 and p = 0.268; atopic dermatitis, p = 0.268 and p = 0.973; allergic rhinitis, p = 0.691 and p = 0.942, respectively), and subgroup analysis showed consistent results. Among the Korean population from 2019 to 2020, the incidence of the allergic diseases asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis did not decrease as expected.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Humans , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nutrition Surveys , Risk Factors , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Prevalence
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL