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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597256

ABSTRACT

Dietary adequacy and diversity during the lactation period are necessary to ensure good health and nutrition among women and children. Behavioral interventions pertaining to health and nutrition counselling during pregnancy and lactation are critical for awareness about dietary diversity. The issue assumes salience for marginalized communities because of the Covid-19 pandemic and associated economic and societal disruptions. This paper assesses the dietary patterns among 400 lactating mothers in the tribal-dominated district of Palghar in Maharashtra, India in 2020. The study is based on primary data regarding consumption of 10 food groups among women across 10 food groups based on 24-hour recall period. The primary outcome variable was binary information regarding Minimum Dietary Diversity defined as consumption from at least 5 food groups. Econometric analysis based on multilevel models and item-response theory is applied to identify food groups that were most difficult to be received by mothers during the early and late lactation period. We find that the daily diet of lactating mothers in Palghar primarily consists of grains, white roots, tubers, and pulses. In contrast, the intake of dairy, eggs, and non-vegetarian food items is much lower. Only Half of the lactating women (56.5 percent; 95% CI: 37.4; 73.8) have a minimum diversified diet (MDD). The prevalence of lactating women with MDD was higher among households with higher income (73.1 percent; 95% CI: 45.2; 89.9) than those in lower income group (50.7 percent; 95% CI: 42.3; 58.9). Lactating Women (in early phase) who received health and nutrition counseling services are more likely (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 0.90; 6.26) to consume a diversified diet. Food groups such as fruits, meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and seeds were among the rare food items in daily diet. The dietary pattern lacking in fruits, nuts, and heme (iron) sources indicates more significant risks of micronutrient deficiencies. The findings call for improving dietary diversity among lactating mothers, particularly from the marginalized communities, and are driven by low consumption of dairy products or various fruits and vegetables. Among the different food items, the consumption of micronutrient-rich seeds and nuts is most difficult to be accessed by lactating mothers. Also, diet-centric counseling and informing lactating mothers of its benefits are necessary to increase dietary diversity for improving maternal and child nutrition.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Lactation/physiology , Nutritional Status/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Female , Fruit , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Vegetables , Young Adult
2.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(1): 6-11, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592667

ABSTRACT

The bidirectional relationship between TB and nutrition is well recognized - primary undernutrition is a risk factor for developing TB disease, while TB results in wasting. Although nutrition support is acknowledged as an important intervention in TB programmes, it is seldom afforded commensurate priority for action. TB incidence and deaths worldwide are falling too slowly to meet WHO End TB Strategy milestones, and the number of undernourished people is increasing, likely to be further exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Undernutrition needs to be more urgently and intensively addressed. This is especially true for the WHO South-East Asia Region, where the high rates of undernutrition are a key driver of the TB epidemic. The evidence base has been sufficiently robust for clear and workable programmatic guidance to be formulated on assessment, counselling and interventions for TB patients. Many high-burden countries have developed policies addressing TB and nutrition. Gaps in research to date have frustrated the development of more refined programmatic approaches related to addressing TB and malnutrition. Future research can be shaped to inform targeted, actionable policies and programmes delivering dual benefits in terms of undernutrition and TB. There are clear opportunities for policy-makers to amplify efforts to end TB by addressing undernutrition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 763994, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581116

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has imposed challenges for older adults to access food, particularly in minority, lower income, and rural communities. However, the impact of COVID-19 on food access, diet quality, and nutrition of diverse older adult populations has not been systematically assessed. Objective: To examine changes in food access, diet quality, and nutritional status among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential differential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on these nutrition-related outcomes using the framework of the socio-ecological model. Methods: An electronic search was conducted on 3 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science) on March 7, 2021. Original, peer-reviewed English-language studies published 10/1/2019-3/1/2021 were considered for which the mean age of participants was 50 years and older. In order to be considered, studies must have examined food access, food security, or nutrition constructs as an outcome. Results: The initial search yielded 13,628 results, of which 9,145 were duplicates. Of the remaining 4,483 articles, 13 articles were in scope and therefore selected in the final analysis, which can be characterized as descriptive (n = 5), analytical (n = 6), and correlational (n = 2). Studies were conducted among community-dwelling older adult populations (n = 7) as well as those temporarily residing in hospital settings (n = 6) in 10 countries. None of the in-scope studies examined the impact of food programs or specific public policies or disaggregated data by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: More research is needed to examine the impact of COVID-19 on food access/security and the differential barriers experienced by older adult populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Diet , Humans , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580551

ABSTRACT

Prevailing prevention measures against morbidity, such as vaccination and safe hygiene practices, vary among local cultural contexts, and little is known about the extent to which these behaviors mitigate poor nutritional status in young children in Southeast Asia. We examined the associations between nutrition status with full immunization coverage, and water, sanitation and hygiene status among children aged 12-59 months in the 2015-2016 Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (n = 9060). When adjusted for confounding factors, children with incomplete immunization status were more likely to be stunted (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-1.75, p < 0.001), wasted (aOR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.31-2.12, p < 0.001), and overweight (aOR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.51, p < 0.05), whereas children who used unimproved water sources were more likely to be overweight (aOR 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.64, p < 0.01). The further implementation of simple and cost-effective health promotion activities and practices at the household level may be important interventions for healthy child growth and development, particularly under restricted living conditions due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Hygiene , Nutritional Status , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Thailand
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576033

ABSTRACT

The soar in COVID-19 cases around the globe has forced many to adapt to social distancing and self-isolation. In order to reduce contact with healthcare facilities and other patients, the CDC has advocated the use of telemedicine, i.e., electronic information and telecommunication technology. While these changes may disrupt normal behaviors and routines and induce anxiety, resulting in decreased vigilance to healthy diet and physical activity and reluctance to seek medical attention, they may just as well be circumvented using modern technology. Indeed, as the beginning of the pandemic a plethora of alternatives to conventional physical interactions were introduced. In this Perspective, we portray the role of SmartPhone applications (apps) in monitoring healthy nutrition, from their basic functionality as food diaries required for simple decision-making and nutritional interventions, through more advanced purposes, such as multi-dimensional data-mining and development of machine learning algorithms. Finally, we will delineate the emerging field of personalized nutrition and introduce pioneering technologies and concepts yet to be incorporated in SmartPhone-based dietary surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Telemedicine , COVID-19/therapy , Exercise , Humans , Nutritional Status
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575182

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Insecurity/economics , Humans , Independent Living/economics , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542684

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social isolation, semi-lockdown, and "stay at home" orders were imposed upon the population in the interest of infection control. This dramatically changes the daily routine of children and adolescents, with a large impact on lifestyle and wellbeing. Children with obesity have been shown to be at a higher risk of negative lifestyle changes and weight gain during lockdown. Obesity and COVID-19 negatively affect children and adolescents' wellbeing, with adverse effects on psychophysical health, due in large part to food choices, snacking between meals, and comfort eating. Moreover, a markable decrease in physical activity levels and an increase in sedentary behavior is associated with weight gain, especially in children with excessive weight. In addition, obesity is the most common comorbidity in severe cases of COVID-19, suggesting that immune dysregulation, metabolic unbalance, inadequate nutritional status, and dysbiosis are key factors in the complex mechanistic and clinical interplay between obesity and COVID-19. This narrative review aims to describe the most up-to-date evidence on the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, focusing on the role of excessive weight and weight gain in pediatrics. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us that nutrition education interventions, access to healthy food, as well as family nutrition counselling should be covered by pediatric services to prevent obesity, which worsens disease outcomes related to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Snacks
8.
Nutr Diet ; 78(5): 463-465, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517988
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(11): 1091-1096, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate vitamin D nutritional status in children after outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as the effect of strict epidemic prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 epidemic on vitamin D nutritional status in children. METHODS: A total of 7 460 children who underwent routine physical examinations from February to August, 2020 and had normal results were retrospectively enrolled as the observation group, and 10 102 children who underwent routine physical examinations from February to August, 2019 (no epidemic of COVID-19) and had normal results were enrolled as the control group. The serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was compared between the two groups. The children in the observation and control groups who underwent physical examinations in March and April were selected as the epidemic prevention subgroup (n=1 710) and non-epidemic subgroup (n=2 877) respectively. The subjects were divided into five age groups (infancy, early childhood, preschool, school age and adolescence), and serum 25(OH)D levels of children of all ages were compared between the epidemic prevention and non-epidemic subgroups. RESULTS: The observation group had a lower serum level of 25(OH)D than the control group in March and April (P<0.001). The epidemic prevention subgroup had a lower serum level of 25(OH)D than the non-epidemic subgroup in all age groups (P<0.001). The vitamin D sufficiency rate in early childhood, preschool, school and adolescent children from the epidemic prevention subgroup was lower than the non-epidemic subgroup (P<0.001), with a reduction of 10.71%, 18.76%, 59.63% and 56.29% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Strict prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 epidemic may lead to a significant reduction in vitamin D level in children, especially school-aged and adolescent children. It is recommended to timely monitor vitamin D level in children, take vitamin D supplements, and increase the time of outdoor sunshine as far as possible under the premise of adherence to epidemic prevention regulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
10.
Vopr Pitan ; 90(5): 6-14, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498406

ABSTRACT

For the first time, the world is facing a global threat to humanity and unprecedented challenges associated with the spread of COVID-19. The fight against the new coronavirus infection requires the joint efforts of the entire world community and equal cooperation. The entire healthcare system is working today in a mobilization format. During the ongoing pandemic, the issue of nutrition of the population remains relevant. Increasing the adaptive potential of the body by optimizing nutrition is a necessity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dietetics , Humans , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480735

ABSTRACT

The Best Food Forward (BFF) project aims to provide multiple nutrition supports and interventions to improve family food security (FS) and health outcomes associated with FS within two metropolitan school districts. A quasi-experimental time-series design guided a multilevel evaluation for BFF through surveys, biometric screenings, focus groups, and observations among a random sample of caregiver-child dyads. FS, utilization of school meal programs, and nutrition behaviors were observed and analyzed at three time points: preintervention, postintervention pre-COVID-19, and postintervention post-COVID-19. Participants included 122 parents and 162 youth. Families reported (1) an income less than $35,000 annually (48.8%) and (2) a COVID-19-related job loss (36.9%). Parents used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Programs or Women, Infants, Children benefits prior to (51.1%) and following COVID-19 (50.0%). No significant differences in FS were found. RM-ANOVA indicated an increase in breakfast consumption at home and a decrease in use of the school breakfast program (F(1.78, 74) = 19.64, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.21) and school lunch program (F(1.51, 74) = 23.30, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.24). Rates of FS and eating behaviors did not change significantly over time. Correlations of program usage and eating behaviors demonstrate the importance of promoting participation in school meal programs. BFF may have prevented significant decreases in FS during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Food Services , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Infant , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Much research shows that blood calcidiol (25(OH)D3) levels correlate strongly with SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. There is open discussion regarding whether low D3 is caused by the infection or if deficiency negatively affects immune defense. The aim of this study was to collect further evidence on this topic. METHODS: Systematic literature search was performed to identify retrospective cohort as well as clinical studies on COVID-19 mortality rates versus D3 blood levels. Mortality rates from clinical studies were corrected for age, sex, and diabetes. Data were analyzed using correlation and linear regression. RESULTS: One population study and seven clinical studies were identified, which reported D3 blood levels preinfection or on the day of hospital admission. The two independent datasets showed a negative Pearson correlation of D3 levels and mortality risk (r(17) = -0.4154, p = 0.0770/r(13) = -0.4886, p = 0.0646). For the combined data, median (IQR) D3 levels were 23.2 ng/mL (17.4-26.8), and a significant Pearson correlation was observed (r(32) = -0.3989, p = 0.0194). Regression suggested a theoretical point of zero mortality at approximately 50 ng/mL D3. CONCLUSIONS: The datasets provide strong evidence that low D3 is a predictor rather than just a side effect of the infection. Despite ongoing vaccinations, we recommend raising serum 25(OH)D levels to above 50 ng/mL to prevent or mitigate new outbreaks due to escape mutations or decreasing antibody activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Calcifediol/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Nutritional Status , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27500, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462564

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected various aspects, including socioeconomic status and health. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on oral health based on the number of teeth that contribute to mastication, and the nutritional status of elderly patients with digestive cancers.The authors defined the before and during COVID-19 periods in this study as January 2019 to December 2019 and January 2020 to December 2020, respectively. Patients with digestive cancer who underwent general, laboratory, and orthopantomograph examinations for preoperative oral health assessment before general anesthesia participated in this study. The authors investigated the following general characteristics: (1) sex, (2) age, and (3) the organ affected by disease and scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia. The authors collected information about (4) the number of teeth that could contribute to mastication as a clinical oral health parameter. The parameters: (5) body mass index, (6) serum total protein levels, and (7) serum albumin levels were used to indicate the nutritional status.A total of 233 elderly patients with digestive cancer participated in this study. There was no significant difference between the age of the patients with digestive cancer. There was also no significant difference in the number of teeth that could contribute to mastication. Additionally, there was no significant difference in nutritional status as indicated by the body mass index, serum total protein levels, and serum albumin levels.This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 did not have a significant influence on the oral health and nutritional status of elderly patients with digestive cancer. However, the influence of COVID-19 on community oral health may become apparent in the future. Thus, dental professionals should continue further research regarding the effects of COVID-19 on oral health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Proteins , Body Mass Index , Female , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mastication/physiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tooth Loss/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463666

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition, in all its forms, during the critical stages of child growth and development can have lifelong impacts on health and well-being. While most forms of malnutrition can be prevented with simple dietary interventions, both undernutrition and overnutrition remain persistent and burdensome challenges for large portions of the global population, especially for young children who are dependent on others for nourishment. In addition to dietary factors, children's health also faces the growing challenges of climate change, environmental degradation, pollution, and infectious disease. Food production and consumption practices both sit at the nexus of these issues, and both must be significantly transformed if we are to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Food sources (i.e., animal-source foods vs. plant-source foods), food production practices, the effects of food processing, the impacts of a more globalized food system, and food loss and waste have all been receiving growing attention in health and sustainability research and policy discussions. Much of this work points to recommendations to reduce resource-intensive animal-source foods, heavily processed foods, and foods associated with excessive waste and pollution, while simultaneously increasing plant-source options. However, some of these recommendations require a little more nuance when considered in the context of issues such as global child health. All types of foods can play significant roles in providing essential nutrition for children across the globe, and for improving the well-being and livelihoods of their families and communities. Dairy foods provide a prime example of this need for nuance, as both dairy production practices and consumption patterns vary greatly throughout the world, as do their impacts on child health and food system sustainability. The objective of this narrative review is to highlight the role of dairy in supporting child health in the context of food system sustainability. When considering child health within this context it is recommended to take a holistic approach that considers all four domains of sustainability (health, economics, society, and the environment) to better weigh trade-offs, optimize outcomes, and avoid unintended consequences. To ensure that children have access to nutritious and safe foods within sustainable food systems, special consideration of their needs must be included within the broader food systems transformation narrative.


Subject(s)
Child Health , Food Supply , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Food , Humans , Nutritional Status , Sustainable Development
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463651

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine the relationships of lifestyle habits and nutritional status with emotional behavior among schoolchildren in Sri Lanka. Five hundred and eight schoolchildren (195 boys and 313 girls) aged 5-10 years were included. Emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Nutritional status was used for body mass index-for-age z-score. Breakfast consumption, daily moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), wake-up time, and bedtime were considered lifestyle habits. The mean total difficulties score ± standard deviation was 12.0 ± 5.3, and the mean prosocial behavior score was 7.4 ± 1.9. In total, 89.2% children ate breakfast, and 41.3% engaged in at least 60 min of MVPA per day. After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that breakfast skipping was associated with high scores on conduct problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50 to 5.77, p < 0.01) and that late bedtime was related to low prosocial behavior scores (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.17 to 5.03, p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that promoting regular lifestyle habits helps reduce psychological difficulties in schoolchildren. However, further research, including longitudinal studies, are required to identify the mechanism underlying this relationship.


Subject(s)
Breakfast , Nutritional Status , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Habits , Humans , Life Style , Male , Sri Lanka , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19984, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462035

ABSTRACT

The influence of the confinement on the changes of eating behaviors in men and women in Poland and between groups were assessed. Results were obtained for 112 men and 200 women. An anonymous questionnaire available on-line from 29 April to 19 May 2020 was the research tool. It contained questions about the frequency of consumption "before" and "during" confinement. Additionally, anthropometric measurements were declared by the respondents. An increase in the number of meals and an improvement in their regularity were observed in both groups. However, the frequency of snacking also increased. During lockdown women consumed potatoes, sweets, canned meat and eggs and men consumed canned meat more frequently. Products consumed less frequently were: fast food, instant soups and energy drinks (women), and white bread and fast food (men). The frequency of alcohol consumption also increased during lockdown. Average body weight and BMI increased significantly during social isolation. Body weight increase was declared by almost half of women and 40% of men. During the blockade period caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in the dietary behavior of the study group of women and men were found. The nature of these changes varied according to gender and the dietary parameters analyzed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Female , Humans , Male , Nutritional Status , Physical Distancing , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Weight Gain
18.
Adv Nutr ; 12(5): 2037-2039, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452681
19.
Adv Nutr ; 11(4): 1002-1015, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455233

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing and dietary interventions may be a strategy to reduce this burden. In the general population, higher potassium intake is considered protective for cardiovascular health. Due to the risk of hyperkalemia in CKD, limiting potassium intake is often recommended. However, given that poor cardiovascular function can cause kidney damage, following a low-potassium diet may be deleterious for patients with CKD. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on dietary potassium intake and CKD progression. Multiple databases were searched on 7 June 2019 and data were managed with Covidence. No intervention trials met the inclusion criteria. Eleven observational studies met the inclusion criteria (10 post hoc analyses, 1 retrospective cohort), representing 49,573 stage 1-5 predialysis patients with CKD from 41 different countries. Of the 11 studies, 6 studies reported exclusively on early CKD (stage 1-2), 4 studies separately reported analyses on both early and late (stage 3-5) CKD, and 2 studies reported exclusively on late CKD. A total of 9 studies reported risk of disease progression in early CKD; in 4 studies high potassium intake was associated with lower risk, while in 2 studies the low intake showed a higher progression of risk, and 3 studies reported no relation. In late CKD, results are mixed: 2 studies suggested benefit of higher potassium intake and 1 suggested benefit of lower potassium intake, whereas 3 studies were neutral. These results should be interpreted with caution, as considerations preventing firm conclusions include 1) the overall low range of dietary potassium intake, with all studies reporting an average intake below the 2004 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives guidelines, and 2) the method used to assess potassium intake in most studies (i.e., urine) in late stages of CKD. Ideally, well-controlled intervention studies are needed to understand how dietary potassium intake is linked to CKD progression.


Subject(s)
Potassium, Dietary , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Kidney , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While consent exists, that nutritional status has prognostic impact in the critically ill, the optimal feeding strategy has been a matter of debate. METHODS: Narrative review of the recent evidence and international guideline recommendations focusing on basic principles of nutrition in the ICU and the treatment of specific patient groups. Covered topics are: the importance and diagnosis of malnutrition in the ICU, the optimal timing and route of nutrition, energy and protein requirements, the supplementation of specific nutrients, as well as monitoring and complications of a Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT). Furthermore, this review summarizes the available evidence to optimize the MNT of patients grouped by primarily affected organ system. RESULTS: Due to the considerable heterogeneity of the critically ill, MNT should be carefully adapted to the individual patient with special focus on phase of critical illness, metabolic tolerance, leading symptoms, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: MNT in the ICU is complex and requiring an interdisciplinary approach and frequent reevaluation. The impact of personalized and disease-specific MNT on patient-centered clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Food, Formulated , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Food, Formulated/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Nutritive Value , Parenteral Nutrition , Treatment Outcome
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