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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(6): e2317055, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238043

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study examines prepandemic-to-postpandemic changes in mortality, nutrition and feeding practices, anthropometry, vaccination, and other measures in a sample of children from the Indian National Family Health Survey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Mothers , Disease Outbreaks , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
2.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234887

ABSTRACT

Chronic degenerative diseases (CDD) are non-infectious, slow-progressing, and long-lasting diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, obesity, chronic respiratory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Chronic Disease
3.
Nutrition ; 112: 112057, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the clinical usefulness of assessing nutritional status using validated tools for the indication of enteral nutrition for patients with incurable cancer in palliative care. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients were assessed for nutritional risk using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and for cancer cachexia (CC) using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score upon enrollment and after ∼30 d. The outcome was stable or improved Karnofsky Performance Status. Logistic regression models were used, providing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: A total of 180 patients participated. The only nutritional status parameter that was associated with function was CC. The less severe the CC, the more likely Karnofsky Performance Status was to remain stable or improve over 30 d (non-cachectic: OR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.01-3.47; malnourished: OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42). Furthermore, white skin color (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.04-2.47), higher educational level (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.13-2.78), and inadequate calorie intake (OR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.02-2.81) were also associated with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score to identify the existence and severity of CC, which is associated with function, has the potential to help clinical decision making concerning the indication of enteral nutrition in patients with incurable cancer receiving palliative care.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Palliative Care , Humans , Prospective Studies , Prognosis , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Nutritional Status , Cachexia/therapy , Cachexia/complications , Decision Making
4.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240825

ABSTRACT

Child hunger was prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the extent, determinants, and impact on pre-school children aged 6 months to 7 years old from Malaysian urban poor households are still unknown. This exploratory cross-sectional study was performed between July 2020 and January 2021 at the Lembah Subang People Housing Project, Petaling. The households' food security status was assessed using the previously validated Radimer/Cornell questionnaire, and the children's anthropometric measurements were taken. Food diversity score was assessed using the World Health Organization Infant and Young Children Feeding (under-2 children) or Food and Agriculture Organization Women's Dietary Diversity (2-year-old-and-above children) systems. Overall, 106 households were recruited. The prevalence of child hunger is 58.4% (95% CI: 50.0, 67.4). Significant differences were found in breastfeeding and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between under-2 and ≥2-year-old children. There were no significant differences between child hunger and other food-insecure groups in weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores. Only a higher dietary diversity score was significantly protective against child hunger after adjusting for maternal age, paternal employment status, and the number of household children (ORadjusted: 0.637 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.916), p = 0.015)). Proactive strategies are warranted to reduce child hunger during the COVID-19 pandemic by improving childhood dietary diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutritional Status , Infant , Humans , Child, Preschool , Female , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hunger , Prevalence , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Poverty
5.
Nutrients ; 15(9)2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325825

ABSTRACT

During the last decade, feeding patterns, more specifically those of children, have worsened-affecting dietary habits and Mediterranean diet adherence. Here, we examine the post-pandemic feeding habits of Spanish toddlers. A total of 2465 parents of children aged between 12 and 36 months completed an online 25-item multiple-choice survey asking about dietary habits and Mediterranean diet adherence. Only 34 children (1.38%) had an adequate intake of all of the food groups included in the questionnaire. Adherence worsened as toddlers grew (p < 0.0001). Further, lower compliance was found in children with a higher intake of fast food (p < 0.001), those with siblings (p = 0.0045), and children who were the second or third child (p = 0.0005). The food group with the most commonly reported adequate intake was fish (88% of children), followed by pulses (80%), water (79%), and meat (78%). Cow's milk was the most commonly consumed dairy product among all age groups analyzed. Half of the children exhibited a low consumption of milk and dairy products. These results showed that a lack of adherence to a balanced diet is common among Spanish toddlers in the post-pandemic period and that greater parent education could improve the nutrition of toddlers.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Animals , Cattle , Female , Pandemics , Nutritional Status , Milk , Feeding Behavior
9.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 48(7): 484-497, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306771

ABSTRACT

In January 2022, a group of experts came together to discuss current perspectives and future directions in nutritional immunology as part of a symposium organized by the Canadian Nutrition Society. Objectives included (1) creating an understanding of the complex interplay between diet and the immune system from infants through to older adults, (2) illustrating the role of micronutrients that are vital to the immune system, (3) learning about current research comparing the impact of various dietary patterns and novel approaches to reduce inflammation, autoimmune conditions, allergies, and infections, and (4) discussing select dietary recommendations aimed at improving disease-specific immune function. The aims of this review are to summarize the symposium and to identify key areas of research that require additional exploration to better understand the dynamic relationship between nutrition and immune function.


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutritional Status , Infant , Humans , Aged , Canada , Micronutrients , Vitamin D
10.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300895

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is associated with COVID-19 and can result in reduced food intake, increased muscle catabolism, and electrolyte imbalance. Therefore COVID-19 patients are at high risk of being malnourished and of refeeding syndrome. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of malnutrition and refeeding syndrome (RS) among COVID-19 patients in Hanoi, Vietnam. This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 1207 patients who were treated at the COVID-19 hospital of Hanoi Medical University (HMUH COVID-19) between September 2021 and March 2022. Nutritional status was evaluated by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) and laboratory markers. GLIM-defined malnutrition was found in 614 (50.9%) patients. Among those with malnutrition, 380 (31.5%) and 234 (19.4%) had moderate and severe malnutrition, respectively. The prevalence of risk of RS was 346 (28.7%). Those with severe and critical COVID symptoms are more likely to be at risk of RS compared to those with mild or moderate COVID, and having severe and critical COVID-19 infection increased the incidence of RS by 2.47 times, compared to mild and moderate disease. There was an association between levels of COVID-19, older ages, comorbidities, the inability of eating independently, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia with malnutrition. The proportion of COVID-19 patients who suffered from malnutrition was high. These results underscore the importance of early nutritional screening and assessment in COVID-19 patients, especially those with severe and critical infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Refeeding Syndrome , Humans , Nutritional Status , Refeeding Syndrome/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Hospitals
11.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence and co-existence of frailty and malnutrition and 2) to identify factors related to frailty (including malnutrition) according to the level of frailty. METHODS: Data collection was conducted from July 11, 2021, to January 23, 2022, in 558 older adults residing in 16 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Korea. The FRAIL-NH and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form were used to measure frailty and nutrition, respectively. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and a multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 83.68 (± 7.39) years. Among 558 participants, 37 (6.6%), 274 (49.1%), and 247 (44.3%) were robust, prefrail, and frail, respectively. At the same time, 75.8% were categorized as having malnutrition status (malnourished: 18.1%; risk of malnutrition: 57.7%), and 40.9% had co-existing malnutrition and frailty. In the multivariate analysis, malnutrition was identified as the major frailty-related factor. Compared with a normal nutritional status, the incidence of frailty in the malnutrition group was 10.35 times (95% CI: 3.78-28.36) higher than the incidence of robustness and 4.80 times (95% CI: 2.69-8.59) higher than the incidence of prefrail. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty and malnutrition, and their co-existence, among older adults residing in LTCFs was high. Malnutrition is a major factor that increases the incidence of frailty. Therefore, active interventions are needed to improve the nutritional status of this population.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frailty/complications , Frailty/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Geriatric Assessment , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Assessment , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Frail Elderly
12.
Nutrition ; 111: 112025, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) often experience physical complaints and poor nutritional intake, which negatively affect their nutritional status (NS). The aim of this study was to describe the NS of patients with COVID-19 1-y post-ICU stay. METHODS: This was an observational study of adult patients with COVID-19 1-y post-ICU stay. NS assessment (nutrient balance, body composition, and physical status) was performed. We examined nutritional intake and nutrition-related complaints. Nutritional requirements were determined with indirect calorimetry and body composition with bioelectrical impedance. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. Physical status was determined using handgrip strength, the 6-min walk test, and the 1-min sit-to-stand test. Descriptive statistics and paired sample t tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: We included 48 patients (73% men; median age 60 y [IQR 52;65]). Median weight loss during the ICU stay was 13%. One-y post-ICU stay, 12% of weight was regained. Median body mass index was 26 kg/m2 and 23% of the patients were obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2 and high FMI). Of the patients, 50% had high FMI and 19% had low FFMI. Median reported nutritional intake was 90% of measured resting energy expenditure. Nutrition-related complaints were seen in 16%. Percentages of normal values reached in physical tests were 92% of handgrip strength, 95% of 6-min walking distance, and 79% of 1-min sit-to-stand test. CONCLUSIONS: Despite almost fully regained weight and good physical recovery in adult patients 1-y post-ICU stay, NS remained impaired because of elevated FMI, even though reported nutritional intake was below the estimated requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutritional Status , Male , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Hand Strength , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Intensive Care Units
13.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306658

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are at increased risk of malnutrition and related mortality. The predictive value of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf®), hand-grip strength (HGS), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was determined with respect to in-hospital mortality or endotracheal intubation. The study included 101 patients admitted to a sub-intensive care unit from November 2021 to April 2022. The discriminative capacity of MNA-sf, HGS, and body composition parameters (skeletal mass index and phase angle) was assessed computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Analyses were stratified by age groups (<70/70+ years). The MNA-sf alone or in combination with HGS or BIA was not able to reliably predict our outcome. In younger participants, HGS showed a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.54 (AUC: 0.77). In older participants, phase angle (AUC: 0.72) was the best predictor and MNA-sf in combination with HGS had an AUC of 0.66. In our sample, MNA- sf alone, or in combination with HGS and BIA was not useful to predict our outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Phase angle and HGS may be useful tools to predict worse outcomes in older and younger patients, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Hand Strength , Electric Impedance , COVID-19/diagnosis , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Geriatric Assessment/methods
14.
JAMA Health Forum ; 4(4): e231472, 2023 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292354

ABSTRACT

This JAMA Forum discusses key changes to the social safety net after the COVID-19 public health emergency ends and provides information regarding the ways health care professionals can support individuals experiencing food and nutrition security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Nutritional Status , Food
15.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 24(3): 563-583, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292113

ABSTRACT

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is the most widely used technique in body composition analysis. When we focus the use of phase sensitive BIA on its raw parameters Resistance (R), Reactance (Xc) and Phase Angle (PhA), we eliminate the bias of using predictive equations based on reference models. In particular PhA, have demonstrated their prognostic utility in multiple aspects of health and disease. In recent years, as a strong association between prognostic and diagnostic factors has been observed, scientific interest in the utility of PhA has increased. In the different fields of knowledge in biomedical research, there are different ways of assessing the impact of a scientific-technical aspect such as PhA. Single frequency with phase detection bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) using a 50 kHz single frequency device and tetrapolar wrist-ankle electrode placement is the most widely used bioimpedance approach for characterization of whole-body composition. However, the incorporation of vector representation of raw bioelectrical parameters and direct mathematical calculations without the need for regression equations for the analysis of body compartments has been one of the most important aspects for the development of research in this area. These results provide new evidence for the validity of phase-sensitive bioelectrical measurements as biomarkers of fluid and nutritional status. To enable the development of clinical research that provides consistent results, it is essential to establish appropriate standardization of PhA measurement techniques. Standardization of test protocols will facilitate the diagnosis and assessment of the risk associated with reduced PhA and the evaluation of changes in response to therapeutic interventions. In this paper, we describe and overview the value of PhA in biomedical research, technical and instrumental aspects of PhA research, analysis of Areas of clinical research (cancer patients, digestive and liver diseases, critical and surgical patients, Respiratory, infectious, and COVID-19, obesity and metabolic diseases, Heart and kidney failure, Malnutrition and sarcopenia), characterisation of the different research outcomes, Morphofunctional assessment in disease-related malnutrition and other metabolic disorders: validation of PhA with reference clinical practice techniques, strengths and limitations. Based on the detailed study of the measurement technique, some of the key issues to be considered in future PhA research. On the other hand, it is important to assess the clinical conditions and the phenotype of the patients, as well as to establish a disease-specific clinical profile. The appropriate selection of the most critical outcomes is another fundamental aspect of research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Humans , Body Composition/physiology , Nutritional Status , Biomarkers , Electric Impedance
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303410

ABSTRACT

Food is the plants and animals we consume, and nutrition is the way in which food influences bodily wellness [...].


Subject(s)
Food , Nutritional Status
17.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 304-317, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2261137

ABSTRACT

El mundo ha convulsionado por la pandemia ocasionada por el coronavirus (COVID-19) que fuese reportado en diciembre de 2019 desde Wuhan-China, este virus tiene altas tasas de contagio y ocasiona severas enfermedades respiratorias e inclusive la muerte. Ante esta crisis, el confinamiento ha permitido controlar eficazmente la propagación. El impacto negativo sobre el estilo de vida constituye un nuevo factor de riesgo para el estado nutricional y de salud. Objetivo: Describir el estado de salud y nutrición de los/as nutricionistas durante el confinamiento por la covid-19: desde una perspectiva de género. Materiales y métodos: En este contexto, se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo, transversal y enfoque cuantitativo, para indagar algunas variables: sociodemográficas, económicas, condición de salud, y estado nutricional. Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada online dirigida a 359 nutricionistas graduados hasta el 28 de agosto de 2020 en la Universidad Técnica del Norte. Se usaron los correos electrónicos del Sistema Integrado Informático Universitario (SIIU). La muestra aleatoria fue de 136 profesionales, 95% de confianza (error = 6,7%). Resultados: El 79,41% fueron mujeres en su mayoría menores de 30 años y 20,59% hombres mayores de 30 años. El 59,56% tiene empleo, 23,52% en el área de salud. Los ingresos económicos de la mayor parte de hombres superan los 788 dólares. El 38,97% de la muestra tiene sobrepeso y el riesgo cardio metabólico afecta al 71,43% de hombres y 47,22% de mujeres, cerca del 25% poseen al menos una enfermedad crónica como: sobrepeso, hipotiroidismo, depresión/ansiedad e hipertensión arterial. El 32% tuvo familiares con Covid-19 de los cuales un 19,6% fallecieron. Conclusión: Los nutricionistas se han visto afectados en su situación laboral, económica, social y de salud(AU)


The world has been convulsed by the pandemic caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) that was reported in December 2019 from Wuhan-China, this virus has high rates of contagion and causes severe respiratory diseases and even death. In the face of this crisis, confinement has made it possible to effectively control the spread. The negative impact on lifestyle constitutes a new risk factor for nutritional and health status. Objective: To describe the state of health and nutrition of nutritionists during confinement due to covid-19: from a gender perspective. Materials and methods: In this context, a descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was developed to investigate some variables: sociodemographic, economic, health condition, and nutritional status. An online structured survey was applied to 359 nutritionists graduated until August 28, 2020 at the Universidad Técnica del Norte. The emails of the Integrated University Information System (SIIU) were used. The random sample was 136 professionals, 95% confidence (error = 6.7%). Results: 79.41% were women, mostly under 30 years of age, and 20.59% were men over 30 years of age. 59.56% have a job, 23.52% in the health area. The economic income of most men exceeds 788 dollars. 38.97% of the sample is overweight and cardiometabolic risk affects 71.43% of men and 47.22% of women, about 25% have at least one chronic disease such as: overweight, hypothyroidism, depression/anxiety and high blood pressure. 32% had relatives with Covid-19, of whom 19.6% died. Conclusion: Nutritionists have been affected in their work, economic, social and health situation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Nutritionists , COVID-19 , Nutritional Status , Risk Factors , Life Style , Obesity
18.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260749

ABSTRACT

Fatty acids (FA) are well-known, important components of human nutrition [...].


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Nutritional Status , Biomarkers , Humans , Nutrients
19.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 37(6): 1307-1315, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When nutrition assessments must be performed virtually, such as during the coronavirus pandemic, it is difficult to fully assess patients for malnutrition without the ability to perform a nutrition-focused physical exam. Practitioners may ask patients about their physical appearance, but there is currently no validated set of questions whose answers correlate with nutrition-focused physical findings for the diagnosis of malnutrition in such situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations between patients' responses to verbalized questions and physical signs of malnutrition. METHODS: Questions related to the physical findings of malnutrition were developed and evaluated for content validity. Thirty patients receiving nutrition assessments at an acute care veterans' hospital were asked the questions prior to a nutrition-focused physical exam. Patients' responses were compared with a diagnosis of malnutrition and physical findings of muscle, fat, fluid accumulation, and handgrip strength. RESULTS: Four questions significantly correlated with malnutrition: "Does the area around your eyes appear sunken in?" (P = 0.03), "Are you able to see your ribs?" (P = 0.05), "Do you feel you are unusually skinny for you?" (P = 0.001), and "Do you find yourself eating less due to swelling in your belly?" (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: There are relationships between patients' responses to certain verbalized questions and their physical status. Such questions can be used to identify physical signs of malnutrition when nutrition-focused physical exams cannot be performed. Further research is needed to validate these questions in other populations.


Subject(s)
Hand Strength , Malnutrition , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Physical Examination , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Health Promot Pract ; 24(1_suppl): 80S-91S, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272832

ABSTRACT

Background. Food insecurity, affecting approximately 10% of the U.S. population, with up to 40% or higher in some communities, is associated with higher rates of chronic conditions and inversely associated with diet quality. Nutrition interventions implemented at food pantries are an effective strategy to increase healthy food choices and improve health outcomes for people experiencing food and nutrition insecurity. Supporting Wellness at Pantries (SWAP), a stoplight nutrition ranking system, can facilitate healthy food procurement and distribution at pantries. Purpose. Guided by the RE-AIM Framework, this study assesses the implementation and outcomes of SWAP as nutritional guidance and institutional policy intervention, to increase procurement and distribution of healthy foods in pantries. Method. Mixed-methods evaluation included observations, process forms, and in-depth interviews. Food inventory assessments were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Results. Two large pantries in New Haven, Connecticut, collectively reaching more than 12,200 individuals yearly, implemented SWAP in 2019. Implementation was consistent prepandemic at both pantries. Due to COVID-mandated distribution changes, pantries adapted SWAP implementation during the pandemic while still maintaining the "spirit of SWAP." One pantry increased the percentage of Green foods offered. Challenges to healthy food distribution are considered. Discussion. This study has implications for policy, systems, and environmental changes. It shows the potential for SWAP adoption at pantries, which can serve as a guide for continued healthy food procurement and advocacy. Maintaining the "spirit of SWAP" shows promising results for food pantries looking to implement nutrition interventions when standard practice may not be possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Assistance , Humans , Food Supply , Nutritional Status , Food Preferences , Food
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