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1.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003729, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous product placement trials in supermarkets are limited in scope and outcome data collected. This study assessed the effects on store-level sales, household-level purchasing, and dietary behaviours of a healthier supermarket layout. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a prospective matched controlled cluster trial with 2 intervention components: (i) new fresh fruit and vegetable sections near store entrances (replacing smaller displays at the back) and frozen vegetables repositioned to the entrance aisle, plus (ii) the removal of confectionery from checkouts and aisle ends opposite. In this pilot study, the intervention was implemented for 6 months in 3 discount supermarkets in England. Three control stores were matched on store sales and customer profiles and neighbourhood deprivation. Women customers aged 18 to 45 years, with loyalty cards, were assigned to the intervention (n = 62) or control group (n = 88) of their primary store. The trial registration number is NCT03518151. Interrupted time series analysis showed that increases in store-level sales of fruits and vegetables were greater in intervention stores than predicted at 3 (1.71 standard deviations (SDs) (95% CI 0.45, 2.96), P = 0.01) and 6 months follow-up (2.42 SDs (0.22, 4.62), P = 0.03), equivalent to approximately 6,170 and approximately 9,820 extra portions per store, per week, respectively. The proportion of purchasing fruits and vegetables per week rose among intervention participants at 3 and 6 months compared to control participants (0.2% versus -3.0%, P = 0.22; 1.7% versus -3.5%, P = 0.05, respectively). Store sales of confectionery were lower in intervention stores than predicted at 3 (-1.05 SDs (-1.98, -0.12), P = 0.03) and 6 months (-1.37 SDs (-2.95, 0.22), P = 0.09), equivalent to approximately 1,359 and approximately 1,575 fewer portions per store, per week, respectively; no differences were observed for confectionery purchasing. Changes in dietary variables were predominantly in the expected direction for health benefit. Intervention implementation was not within control of the research team, and stores could not be randomised. It is a pilot study, and, therefore, not powered to detect an effect. CONCLUSIONS: Healthier supermarket layouts can improve the nutrition profile of store sales and likely improve household purchasing and dietary quality. Placing fruits and vegetables near store entrances should be considered alongside policies to limit prominent placement of unhealthy foods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03518151 (pre-results).


Subject(s)
Commerce , Consumer Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Food , Nutritive Value , Supermarkets , Adolescent , Adult , Candy , Choice Behavior , Commerce/economics , Consumer Behavior/economics , Diet, Healthy/economics , England , Female , Food/adverse effects , Food/economics , Food Preferences , Frozen Foods , Fruit , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Vegetables , Young Adult
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While consent exists, that nutritional status has prognostic impact in the critically ill, the optimal feeding strategy has been a matter of debate. METHODS: Narrative review of the recent evidence and international guideline recommendations focusing on basic principles of nutrition in the ICU and the treatment of specific patient groups. Covered topics are: the importance and diagnosis of malnutrition in the ICU, the optimal timing and route of nutrition, energy and protein requirements, the supplementation of specific nutrients, as well as monitoring and complications of a Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT). Furthermore, this review summarizes the available evidence to optimize the MNT of patients grouped by primarily affected organ system. RESULTS: Due to the considerable heterogeneity of the critically ill, MNT should be carefully adapted to the individual patient with special focus on phase of critical illness, metabolic tolerance, leading symptoms, and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: MNT in the ICU is complex and requiring an interdisciplinary approach and frequent reevaluation. The impact of personalized and disease-specific MNT on patient-centered clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Food, Formulated , Malnutrition/therapy , Nutritional Status , Nutritional Support , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Food, Formulated/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Nutritional Support/adverse effects , Nutritive Value , Parenteral Nutrition , Treatment Outcome
3.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15044, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436402

ABSTRACT

In humans, exercise-induced thermogenesis is a markedly variable component of total energy expenditure, which had been acutely affected worldwide by COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition may affect metabolic adaptation/fuel selection in response to an acute decrease in voluntary activity. Using mice fed short-term high-fat diet (HFD) compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice, we evaluated whole-body fuel utilization by metabolic cages before and 3 days after omitting a voluntary running wheel in the cage. Short-term (24-48 h) HFD was sufficient to increase energy intake, fat oxidation, and decrease carbohydrate oxidation. Running wheel omission did not change energy intake, but resulted in a significant 50% decrease in total activity and a ~20% in energy expenditure in the active phase (night-time), compared to the period with wheel, irrespective of the dietary composition, resulting in significant weight gain. Yet, while in LFD wheel omission significantly decreased active phase fat oxidation, thereby trending to increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER), in HFD it diminished active phase carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, acute decrease in voluntary activity resulted in positive energy balance in mice on both diets, and decreased oxidation of the minor energy (macronutrient) fuel source, demonstrating that dietary macronutrient composition determines fuel utilization choices under conditions of acute changes in energetic demand.


Subject(s)
Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Energy Metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animal Feed , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Energy Intake , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Running , Time Factors
4.
Health Rep ; 32(8): 18-26, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health measures related to the COVID-19 pandemic have upended the way Canadians eat and shop for food. Since the pandemic began, many Canadians have reported consuming food away from home (FAFH) less often. FAFH tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home. Little is known about patterns of Canadians' FAFH consumption before the pandemic. This study used 2015 national-level nutrition data, the most recent available, to characterize patterns of FAFH consumption and selected markers of dietary intake. DATA AND METHODS: National-level food intake data came from the first 24-hour dietary recall provided by 20,475 respondents aged 1 or older to the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition. Mean daily intakes of selected food subgroups and nutrients, adjusted for total energy intake, were compared between those who had consumed any food in a restaurant on the previous day and those who had not. Estimates were generated overall and for eight age and sex groups. RESULTS: In 2015, overall, 21.8% of Canadians had consumed FAFH in a restaurant on the previous day. Eating out was most common among males aged 19 to 54 (27.7%) and least common among young children aged 1 to 5 (8.4%). Compared with Canadians who had not eaten out on the previous day, those who had eaten out had consumed, on that day, fewer servings of whole fruit; whole grains; dark green and orange vegetables; other vegetables (excluding potatoes); milk and fortified soy-based beverages; and legumes, nuts and seeds, on average. Those who had eaten out had consumed, on average, less fibre and total sugar, and more total fat, saturated fat and sodium on that day. There were few differences for meat and poultry, fish and seafood, and protein intake. DISCUSSION: On the day that Canadians ate out in a restaurant, their dietary intake was generally less favourable than that of Canadians who did not eat out. If Canadians continue to eat at home more and to consume less FAFH, as early pandemic-period reports suggest, then results can be used to gauge the potential dietary implications of these shifts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Nutritive Value , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Surveys , Eating , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/therapy , Risk Reduction Behavior , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Female , France/epidemiology , Habits , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation , Time Factors , Weight Gain
6.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(2): 209-220, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267053

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, care for an adequate diet, well adapted to the body's needs and the current level of physical activity, becomes of particular importance. Many dietary compounds participate in the functioning of the immune system, while vitamins D, C, A (including beta-carotene), E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, amino acids, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and intestinal microbiota are crucial in various types of defence processes. There has been no evidence that consumed food and its compounds, including those with pro-/prebiotic properties, play a significant role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or alleviating its course. However, in terms of the nutritional value of food and the prevention of dysbiosis, recommending a varied diet with a high proportion of plant-based foods and an adequate amount of animal-based foods has a sound scientific basis. Malnutrition, underweight and obesity are considered independent and prognostic risk factors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which reduce a patient's chances of survival. Therefore, ensuring good nutritional status, including healthy body weight, is a reasonable approach in the prevention of viral infection SARS-CoV-2 or alleviating its course. The document is accompanied by two catalogues of practical nutritional recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed to the general population and children.


Subject(s)
Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion/standards , Nutritional Status , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Societies, Medical/standards , Academies and Institutes/standards , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Nutritive Value , Poland , Public Health , Trace Elements/therapeutic use
7.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 283-289, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219577

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review paper is to explore the strategies employed to tackle micronutrient deficiencies with illustrations from field-based experience. Hidden hunger is the presence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies (particularly iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A), which can occur without a deficit in energy intake as a result of consuming an energy-dense, but nutrient-poor diet. It is estimated that it affects more than two billion people worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where there is a reliance on low-cost food staples and where the diversity of the diet is limited. Finding a way to improve the nutritional quality of diets for the poorest people is central to meeting the UN sustainable development goals particularly sustainable development goal 2: end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. As we pass the midpoint of the UN's Decade for Action on Nutrition, it is timely to reflect on progress towards achieving sustainable development goal 2 and the strategies to reduce hidden hunger. Many low- and middle-income countries are falling behind national nutrition targets, and this has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic as well as other recent shocks to the global food system which have disproportionately impacted the world's most vulnerable communities. Addressing inequalities within the food system must be central to developing a sustainable, cost-effective strategy for improving food quality that delivers benefit to the seldom heard and marginalised communities.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Hunger , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Micronutrients/deficiency , Agriculture , Biofortification , COVID-19 , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Eating , Food Security , Food, Fortified , Humans , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Poverty , United Nations
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201237

ABSTRACT

In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/methods , Feeding Behavior , Nutritive Value , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Beverages , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Diet Surveys , Energy Intake , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Vegetables
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2165-2172, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Food preferences are often modified in populations during stressful, unanticipated events. We examined how a U.S. population's food choices changed during the beginning of the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders, specifically during the spring of 2020. METHODS AND RESULTS: Daily dietary intake data from a digital behavior change weight loss program, which includes an interface for logging meals, beverages, and snacks, were analyzed to assess self-reported food choices from March 5-March 11, 2020 ("Start-COVID") and during the first week of the COVID-19 lockdown (March 12-March 18, 2020; "during-COVID"). The final sample consisted of 381,564 participants: 318,076 (83.4%) females, the majority who were aged 45-65 years (45.2%). Results indicate that self-reported servings of fresh fruit and vegetable intake decreased from start-to during-COVID, while intake of red meat and starchy vegetables increased. More men than women increased their intake of red meat and processed meat. Less overall change in fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in those 66 and older, compared to aged 18-35. Lean meat and starchy vegetable intake increased in older participants, but the change was negligible in younger subjects. More subjects aged 18-35 years reduced their intake of caffeine, desserts, lean meat, and salads compared to older participants. No changes were observed in snack or alcohol intake logged. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that particular food groups were altered according to age and gender during the first weeks of COVID lockdown. Understanding changes in food choices during a crisis may be useful for preparing supply chains and public health responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choice Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Feeding Behavior , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Patient Compliance , Serving Size , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
10.
Appetite ; 157: 105005, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125898

ABSTRACT

To limit the transmission of COVID-19, nationwide lockdown was imposed in France between March, 17th and May 10th, 2020. This disruption in individuals' daily routines likely altered food consumption habits. We examined how changes in food choice motives related to changes in nutritional quality during the lockdown compared to before. A convenience sample of 938 French adults completed online questionnaires on the Qualtrics platform at the end of April 2020. Participants were retrospectively asked about their food choice motives and food consumption during the month before and in the first month of the lockdown. The importance of nine food choice motives was assessed: health, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, ethical concern, weight control, mood, familiarity, and price, scoring from 1 to 4. Food intakes were recorded using a food frequency questionnaire including 110 foods, 12 non-alcoholic beverages and 4 alcoholic beverages. Adherence to the French dietary recommendations before and during the lockdown was estimated using the simplified PNNS-GS2, scoring from -17 to 11.5. The nutritional quality of diet was lower during the lockdown compared to before (-0.32, SD 2.28, p < 0.001). Food choice motives significantly changed and an increase in the importance of weight control was associated with increased nutritional quality (ß = 0.89, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.032), whereas an increase in the importance of mood was associated with decreased nutritional quality (ß = -0.43, p = 0.021, partial η2 = 0.006). The lockdown period in France was related to a decrease in nutritional quality of diet on average, which could be partly explained by changes in food choice motives. The lockdown was indeed related to modification of food choice motives, notably with an increase of mood as a food choice motive for 48% of the participants, but also with an increase of health (26%), ethical concern (21%) and natural content (19%) suggesting a growing awareness of the importance of sustainable food choices in some participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Motivation , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Choice Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Food Chem ; 349: 129178, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065087

ABSTRACT

Chinese steamed breads (CSB) and noodles are staple foods for many people. The production of frozen steamed products and boiled noodles has kept increasing. This is due to the increasing demand of ready-to-eat frozen food products from the market. Frozen storage significantly increases the self-life of the products and reduces the production costs. On the other hand, the freezing and frozen storage lead to quality loss of the frozen products. This review summarizes effects of freezing and frozen storage on diverse quality attributes (e.g., structural and textural properties) of frozen northern-type steamed breads and boiled noodles. Food safety of the frozen products related to the COVID-19 pandemic is discussed. To counteract the quality loss of the frozen products, suitable processing methods, selection of basic ingredients and uses of various food additives can be done. Research gaps to improve the textural, cooking and nutritional quality of frozen CSB and noodles are suggested.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Flour/analysis , Food Storage , Cooking , Freezing , Humans , Nutritive Value , Steam
12.
Appetite ; 157: 105005, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866417

ABSTRACT

To limit the transmission of COVID-19, nationwide lockdown was imposed in France between March, 17th and May 10th, 2020. This disruption in individuals' daily routines likely altered food consumption habits. We examined how changes in food choice motives related to changes in nutritional quality during the lockdown compared to before. A convenience sample of 938 French adults completed online questionnaires on the Qualtrics platform at the end of April 2020. Participants were retrospectively asked about their food choice motives and food consumption during the month before and in the first month of the lockdown. The importance of nine food choice motives was assessed: health, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, ethical concern, weight control, mood, familiarity, and price, scoring from 1 to 4. Food intakes were recorded using a food frequency questionnaire including 110 foods, 12 non-alcoholic beverages and 4 alcoholic beverages. Adherence to the French dietary recommendations before and during the lockdown was estimated using the simplified PNNS-GS2, scoring from -17 to 11.5. The nutritional quality of diet was lower during the lockdown compared to before (-0.32, SD 2.28, p < 0.001). Food choice motives significantly changed and an increase in the importance of weight control was associated with increased nutritional quality (ß = 0.89, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.032), whereas an increase in the importance of mood was associated with decreased nutritional quality (ß = -0.43, p = 0.021, partial η2 = 0.006). The lockdown period in France was related to a decrease in nutritional quality of diet on average, which could be partly explained by changes in food choice motives. The lockdown was indeed related to modification of food choice motives, notably with an increase of mood as a food choice motive for 48% of the participants, but also with an increase of health (26%), ethical concern (21%) and natural content (19%) suggesting a growing awareness of the importance of sustainable food choices in some participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Motivation , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Choice Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , SARS-CoV-2
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