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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234744

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with multiple organ failure and comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Risk factors, such as age, gender, and obesity, were associated with COVID-19 infection. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use several host receptors for viral entry, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in the lung and other organs. However, ACE2 could be shed from the surface to be soluble ACE2 (sACE2) in the circulation. The epigenetic factors affecting ACE2 expression include a type of small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we aimed at exploring the status of the sACE2 as well as serum levels of several upstream novel miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers that might have a potential role in T2DM patients. Serum samples were collected from 50 T2DM patients and 50 healthy controls, and sACE2 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, RNA was extracted, and TaqMan miRNA reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to measure serum miRNA levels. Our results revealed that sACE2 is decreased in the T2DM patients and is affected by age, gender, and obesity level. Additionally, 4 miRNAs, which are revealed by in silico analysis to be potentially upstream of ACE2 were detectable in the serum. Among them, miR-421 level was found to be decreased in the serum of diabetic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetic complications, as well as being differential in various body mass index (BMI) groups. The other 3 miRNAs (miR-3909, miR-212-5p, and miR-4677-3p) showed associations with multiple factors including age, gender, BMI, and serum markers, in addition to being correlated to each other. In conclusion, our study reveals a decline in the circulating serum levels of sACE2 in T2DM patients and identified 4 novel miRNAs that were associated with T2DM, which are influenced by different clinical and demographic factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/genetics
2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218423

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory predictors of COVID-19 severity are now well described and combined to propose mortality or severity scores. However, they all necessitate saturable equipment such as scanners, or procedures difficult to implement such as blood gas measures. To provide an easy and fast COVID-19 severity risk score upon hospital admission, and keeping in mind the above limits, we sought for a scoring system needing limited invasive data such as a simple blood test and co-morbidity assessment by anamnesis. A retrospective study of 303 patients (203 from Bordeaux University hospital and an external independent cohort of 100 patients from Paris Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital) collected clinical and biochemical parameters at admission. Using stepwise model selection by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), we built the severity score Covichem. Among 26 tested variables, 7: obesity, cardiovascular conditions, plasma sodium, albumin, ferritin, LDH and CK were the independent predictors of severity used in Covichem (accuracy 0.87, AUROC 0.91). Accuracy was 0.92 in the external validation cohort (89% sensitivity and 95% specificity). Covichem score could be useful as a rapid, costless and easy to implement severity assessment tool during acute COVID-19 pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2359-2364, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis. Little is known about the predisposing factors of this infection. The aim of this study was to explore an association between the serum vitamin D level, obesity, and underlying health conditions, as well as the vulnerability to COVID-19 in the Iranian population. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 201 patients with coronavirus infection and 201 controls. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. The study was carried out for 2 months (February 2020-April 2020) at Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Information containing age, gender, clinical symptoms, body mass index, computed tomography scan findings, and underlying health conditions related to each participant were elicited from health records. RESULTS: A significant negative correlation (p = .02) was observed between the serum vitamin D level and developing coronavirus infection. Also, the results showed that the COVID-19 cases were more likely to be overweight than the controls (p = .023). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and respiratory infections were found in 20.89%, 9.65%, and 6.96% of cases, respectively. These underlying health conditions were not significantly different between cases and controls (p = .81). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are two main predisposing factors associated with the vulnerability to coronavirus infection in the Iranian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Obesity/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2025-e2034, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(8): 1768-1777, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145693

ABSTRACT

Aim: In other respiratory infectious diseases, obesity may be associated with a poor outcome. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between obesity and severity or prognosis requires further analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study. Hospitalized patients were recruited in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2, 2020 to February 20, 2020. The data of body mass index (BMI) was obtained from follow-up of surviving patients. According to BMI, normal weight was defined as 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m2 and obesity as > 28.0 kg/m2. Results: A total of 463 patients were enrolled, of which 242 (52.3%) patients were in the normal weight group; 179 (38.7%) were in the overweight group; and 42 (9.1%) were in the obesity group. Compared to the normal group, obese patients were more likely to have a higher heart rate; lower finger oxygen saturation; higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophil counts, basophil counts, intravenous glucose, triacylglycerol, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, CD19+ cell counts and percentage; and lower levels of monocyte percentage, high density lipoprotein and CD3+ cell percentage. In addition, the proportions of hypertension (21.5% vs. 42.6%) and severe+critical illness (47.8 vs. 81.0 %) were significantly higher in the obesity group than those in normal group. However, no significant differences were observed between the normal and obesity groups in critical illness, organ damage and defined endpoint (mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit). Multiple logistic regression showed that obesity increased the risk of developing severe+critical illness (Odd ratio 3.586, 95% CI 1.550-8.298, P=0.003) in patients with COVID-19, and did not affect the risk of critical illness, organ damage and endpoints. Overweight did not affect the risk of severity, organ damage or endpoint in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: Obesity may be a risk factor for developing severity in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6428, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142462

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivation of the immune system through obesity and diabetes may enhance infection severity complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The objective was to determine the circulatory biomarkers for macrophage activation at baseline and after serum glucose normalization in obese type 2 diabetes (OT2D) subjects. A case-controlled interventional pilot study in OT2D (n = 23) and control subjects (n = 23). OT2D subjects underwent hyperinsulinemic clamp to normalize serum glucose. Plasma macrophage-related proteins were determined using Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer-scan plasma protein measurement at baseline (control and OT2D subjects) and after 1-h of insulin clamp (OT2D subjects only). Basal M1 macrophage activation was characterized by elevated levels of M1 macrophage-specific surface proteins, CD80 and CD38, and cytokines or chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, RANTES) released by activated M1 macrophages. Two potent M1 macrophage activation markers, CXCL9 and CXCL10, were decreased in OT2D. Activated M2 macrophages were characterized by elevated levels of plasma CD163, TFGß-1, MMP7 and MMP9 in OT2D. Conventional mediators of both M1 and M2 macrophage activation markers (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13) were not altered. No changes were observed in plasma levels of M1/M2 macrophage activation markers in OT2D in response to acute normalization of glycemia. In the basal state, macrophage activation markers are elevated, and these reflect the expression of circulatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, that were not changed by glucose normalisation. These differences could potentially predispose diabetic individuals to increased infection severity complicated by ARDS. Clinical trial reg. no: NCT03102801; registration date April 6, 2017.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Macrophage Activation , Obesity/complications , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4334-4341, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130629

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are new global problems. The understanding of the host immune response in COVID-19 and its implications in the development of therapeutic agents are new challenges. Here, we evaluated the development of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing (Nt) antibodies in symptomatic hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We followed up 117 COVID-19 confirmed patients from a reference health center for COVID-19 during the epidemic in Santiago de Chile. One and two sequential blood samples from 117 to 68 cases were, respectively, obtained to evaluate the immune response. Immunofluorescence and neutralization assays in Vero E6 cells with a Chilean SARS-CoV-2 strain were performed. Out of the 68 patients, 44% were women and 56% men, and the most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (47.7%) and diabetes (27.4%). The most frequent symptoms or signs related to COVID-19 were dyspnea, cough, fever, myalgia, and headache. In all the study population, 76.1% and 60.7% of patients were positive for IgG and Nt antibodies in the first blood sample. All patients except one were positive for IgG and Nt antibodies in the second sample. IgG and Nt antibodies positivity increased significantly according to the disease evolution periods. Higher Nt antibody titers were observed in the first sample in patients under 60 years of age. Obese and diabetic patients had no increase in Nt antibodies, unlike normal weight and diabetes-free patients. Both hypertensive and normotensive patients showed a significant increase in Nt antibodies. These results show an early and robust immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection during severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Chile , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Vero Cells
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050618

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to highlight the influence of the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Gestational Weight Gain (GWG) during the COVID-19 pandemic era and the specific role of interleukin (IL)-6 in diabesity. It is known that diabetes, high body mass index, high glycated hemoglobin and raised serum IL-6 levels are predictive of poor outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The immunopathological mechanisms of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection include rising levels of several cytokines and in particular IL-6. The latter is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and could be useful for predicting the development of GDM. Rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals, MedDiet improves the immune system and could modulate IL-6, C reactive protein and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB. Moreover, polyphenols could modulate microbiota composition, inhibit the NF-κB pathway, lower IL-6, and upregulate antioxidant enzymes. Finally, adhering to the MedDiet prior to and during pregnancy could have a protective effect, reducing GWG and the risk of GDM, as well as improving the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet, Mediterranean , Interleukin-6/blood , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/blood , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Weight Gain , Humans , Life Style , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Pregnancy
9.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(1): 96-99, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988981

ABSTRACT

Obesity has emerged as a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 worldwide. Given both COVID-19 infection and obesity have been associated with increased systemic inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital. We hypothesized that obese patients would have a more exuberant inflammatory response as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers along with worse clinical outcomes. Of the 781 patients, 349 were obese (45%). Obese individuals had higher initial and peak levels of CRP and ESR as well as higher peak d-dimer (P < 0.01 for all) in comparison to non-obese individuals, while. IL-6 and ferritin were similar. In addition, obese individuals had a higher odds of requiring vasopressor use (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38, P = 0.05), developing hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03) and death (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.31-3.70, P = 0.003) within 28 days of presentation to care. Finally, higher baseline levels of CRP and D-dimer were associated with worse clinical outcomes even after adjustment for BMI. Our findings suggest greater disease severity in obese individuals is characterized by more exuberant inflammation.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Obesity/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0238552, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992676

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the trajectory of respiratory failure in COVID-19 and explore factors associated with risk of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational cohort study of 112 inpatient adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 12 and April 16, 2020. Data were manually extracted from electronic medical records. Multivariable and Univariable regression were used to evaluate association between baseline characteristics, initial serum markers and the outcome of IMV. RESULTS: Our cohort had median age of 61 (IQR 45-74) and was 66% male. In-hospital mortality was 6% (7/112). ICU mortality was 12.8% (6/47), and 18% (5/28) for those requiring IMV. Obesity (OR 5.82, CI 1.74-19.48), former (OR 8.06, CI 1.51-43.06) and current smoking status (OR 10.33, CI 1.43-74.67) were associated with IMV after adjusting for age, sex, and high prevalence comorbidities by multivariable analysis. Initial absolute lymphocyte count (OR 0.33, CI 0.11-0.96), procalcitonin (OR 1.27, CI 1.02-1.57), IL-6 (OR 1.17, CI 1.03-1.33), ferritin (OR 1.05, CI 1.005-1.11), LDH (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.17) and CRP (OR 1.13, CI 1.06-1.21), were associated with IMV by univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity, smoking history, and elevated inflammatory markers were associated with increased need for IMV in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Aged , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Smoking/adverse effects
11.
Nutr Rev ; 79(2): 227-234, 2021 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797305

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to > 10 000 000 individuals in a short time. With no pharmacological agents successfully implemented to control the outbreak, the use of less invasive nonpharmacological agents, such as vitamin D, are increasingly being studied. This purpose of this article is to determine the current knowledge about the risk of COVID-19 development for populations at risk for vitamin D deficiency, including individuals living with overweight and obesity, those of older age, and racial or ethnic minorities. Despite the documented impact of vitamin D on viral disease prevention, many subgroups at risk for contracting COVID-19 are also known to have increased rates of vitamin D deficiency. Because vitamin D is most commonly obtained from sunlight, when interpreted alongside the stay-at-home orders, the importance of identifying safe approaches to obtain sufficient vitamin D is apparent. Furthermore, elucidating the cause-and-effect relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19, including optimal dosing for COVID-19 outcomes, is also warranted for immediate investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Vitamin D/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Risk Factors , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
12.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(12): 2479-2485, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pneumonia (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. COVID-19 patients demonstrated significantly different outcomes in clinic. We aimed to figure out whether obesity is a risk factor influencing the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS: 95 patients with COVID-19 were divided into obesity group and non-obesity group according to their body mass index (BMI). The demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory examination, and chest computed tomography (CT) were collected, analyzed and compared between two groups. RESULTS: Our data showed that COVID-19 patients with obesity had more underlying diseases and higher mortality rate compared to those without obesity. Furthermore, patients with obesity also demonstrated more severe pathological change in lung and higher blood lymphocytes, triglycerides, IL-6, CRP, cystatin C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which may greatly influence disease progression and poor prognosis of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It suggest that obesity contributes to clinical manifestations and may influence the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 and it is considered as a potential risk factor of the prognosis of COVID-19. Special medical care and appropriate intervention should be performed in obesity patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization and later clinical follow-up, especially for those with additional other comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Obesity/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111701, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728551

ABSTRACT

Obesity and its related metabolic disorders, as well as infectious diseases like covid-19, are important health risks nowadays. It was recently documented that long-term fasting improves metabolic health and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity. The present study investigated the influence of a 10-day fasting on markers of the redox status in 109 subjects. Reducing power, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation(ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity increased significantly, and indicated an increase of circulating antioxidant levels. No differences were detected in superoxide scavenging capacity, protein carbonyls, and superoxide dismutase when measured at baseline and after 10 days of fasting. These findings were concomitant to a decrease in blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as an increase in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. In addition, the well-being index as well as the subjective energy levels increased, documenting a good tolerability. There was an interplay between redox and metabolic parameters since lipid peroxidation baseline levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) affected the ability of long-term fasting to normalize lipid levels. A machine learning model showed that a combination of antioxidant parameters measured at baseline predicted the efficiency of the fasting regimen to decrease LDL levels. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that long-term fasting enhanced the endogenous production of antioxidant molecules, that act protectively against free radicals, and in parallel improved the metabolic health status. Our results suggest that the outcome of long-term fasting strategies could be depending on the baseline values of the antioxidative and metabolic status of subjects.


Subject(s)
Fasting/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Young Adult
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(11): 2038-2039, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720340

ABSTRACT

Evidence has emerged regarding an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with worse prognosis in elderly male patients with obesity, and blunted growth hormone (GH) secretion represents a feature of this population subgroup. Here, a comprehensive review of the possible links between GH-insulinlike growth factor 1 axis impairment and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is offered. First, unequivocal evidence suggests that immune system dysregulation represents a key element in determining SARS-CoV-2 severity, as well as the association with adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD); notably, if GH is physiologically involved in the development and maintenance of the immune system, its pharmacological replacement in GHD patients seems to positively influence their inflammatory status. In addition, the impaired fibrinolysis associated with GHD may represent a further link between GH-insulin-like growth factor 1 axis impairment and COVID-19 severity, as it has been associated with both conditions. In conclusion, several sources of evidence have supported a relationship between GHD and COVID-19, and they also shed light upon potential beneficial effects of recombinant GH treatment on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Obesity/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 1914-1919, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite anticoagulation, usually with heparin, mortality for thromboembolic events in COVID-19 remains high. Clinical efficacy of heparin is due to its interaction with antithrombin (AT) that may be decreased in COVID-19. Therefore, we correlated AT levels with outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 49 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19. AT levels were significantly lower in 16 non-survivors than in 33 survivors (72.2 ± 23.4 versus 94.6 ± 19.5%; p = 0.0010). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low AT (levels below 80%) was a predictor of mortality (HR:3.97; 95%CI:1.38 to 11.43; p = 0.0103). BMI was the only variable that showed a significant difference between patients with low and those with normal AT levels (32.9 ± 7.9 versus 27.5 ± 5.9%; p = 0.0104). AT levels were significantly lower in obese patients than in subjects with normal weight or overweight (77.9 ± 26.9 versus 91.4 ± 26.9 versus 91.4 ± 17.1%; p = 0.025). An inverse correlation between AT levels and BMI was documented (r:-0.33; p = 0.0179). CONCLUSIONS: Our data first suggest that AT is strongly associated with mortality in COVID-19. In addition, AT may be the link between obesity and a poorer prognosis in patients with COVID-19. Other studies should confirm whether AT may become a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Obesity/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood
16.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 782-792, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651329

ABSTRACT

Since the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, much attention has focused on people with diabetes because of poor prognosis in those with the infection. Initial reports were mainly on people with type 2 diabetes, although recent surveys have shown that individuals with type 1 diabetes are also at risk of severe COVID-19. The reason for worse prognosis in people with diabetes is likely to be multifactorial, thus reflecting the syndromic nature of diabetes. Age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease, obesity, and a pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulative state all probably contribute to the risk of worse outcomes. Glucose-lowering agents and anti-viral treatments can modulate the risk, but limitations to their use and potential interactions with COVID-19 treatments should be carefully assessed. Finally, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection itself might represent a worsening factor for people with diabetes, as it can precipitate acute metabolic complications through direct negative effects on ß-cell function. These effects on ß-cell function might also cause diabetic ketoacidosis in individuals with diabetes, hyperglycaemia at hospital admission in individuals with unknown history of diabetes, and potentially new-onset diabetes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1176-1177, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636319

ABSTRACT

As the biomedical community races to disentangle the unknowns associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus responsible for causing coronavirus disease, the link between diminished immune function and individuals with obesity raises important questions about the possibility for greater viral pathogenicity in this population. Increased adiposity may undermine the pulmonary microenvironment wherein viral pathogenesis and immune cell trafficking could contribute to a maladaptive cycle of local inflammation and secondary injury. A further challenge to those with obesity during the current pandemic may involve vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. In the interest of personal and public health, we caution decision- and policy makers alike not to pin all hope on a proverbial "silver bullet." Until further breakthroughs emerge, we should remember that modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity should not be marginalized. Decades of empirical evidence support both as key factors promoting health and wellness.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exercise , Obesity/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , COVID-19 , Diet/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation , Life Style , Nutritional Status , Obesity/blood , Obesity/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/blood
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1815-1825, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the indicators for severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in young patients between the ages of 18 and 40 years. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 65 consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 who were between 18 and 40 years old in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China. Among them, 53 were moderate cases, and 12 were severe or critical cases. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment data were collected. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was implemented to explore risk factors. RESULTS: The patients with severe/critical cases had obviously higher BMI (average 29.23 vs. 22.79 kg/m2 ) and lower liver computed tomography value (average 50.00 vs. 65.00 mU) than the group of moderate cases. The patients with severe/critical cases had higher fasting glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine compared with patients with moderate cases (all P < 0.01). More severe/critical cases (58.33% vs. 1.92%) had positive urine protein levels. The severe/critical cases also experienced a significant process of serum albumin decline. Logistic regression analysis showed that male sex, high BMI (especially obesity), elevated fasting blood glucose, and urinary protein positivity were all risk factors for young patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is an important predictor of COVID-19 severity in young patients. The main mechanism is related to damage of the liver and kidney.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Obesity/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/analysis , Young Adult
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