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1.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 53(4): 293-298, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613221

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the management of severely ill patients with COVID-19 has been reported in more than 5,827 cases worldwide according to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO). Several pre-existing conditions have been linked to an increase in COVID-19 mortality risk including obesity. The purpose of this research is to review the clinical experience from a cohort of 342 COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO in which 61.7% (211/342) are confirmed obese. Following institutional review board approval, we reviewed all 342 COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO between March 17, 2020 and March 18, 2021, at 40 American institutions from a multi-institutional database. Descriptive statistics comparing survivors to non-survivors were calculated using chi-square, Welch's ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the odds of survival while adjusting for age, gender, chronic renal failure, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, and pre-ECMO P/F ratio. Descriptive analysis showed that obese patients were more likely to be hypertensive (58.1% vs. 32%, p < .001), diabetic (42% vs. 30%, p < .05), and female (35% vs. 21%, p < .05), and had longer median days from intubation to cannulation (4.0 vs. 2.0, p < .05). Obese patients appeared to also have a slightly lower median age (47.9 vs. 50.5, p = .07), higher incidence of asthma (17.8% vs. 10.2%, p = .09), and a slightly lower pre-ECMO PaO2/FiO2 ratio (67.5 vs. 77.5, p = .08) though these differences were slightly less statistically reliable. Results from the logistic regression model suggest no statistically reliable association between BMI and odds of survival. Age had a moderately large and statistically reliable negative association with survival; the relative odds of survival for a 59-year-old patient were approximately half those of a 41-year-old patient (OR = .53, 95% CI: .36-.77, p < .001). Obesity does not seem to be a major risk factor for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO; however, age was moderately negatively associated with survival. The potential influence of other comorbidities on odds of survival among these patients warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 747732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between overweight and obesity on the clinical course and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Design: Retrospective, observational cohort study. Methods: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to evaluate the associations between overweight and obesity on the clinical course and outcomes. Results: Out of 1634 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 473 (28.9%) had normal weight, 669 (40.9%) were overweight, and 492 (30.1%) were obese. Patients who were overweight or had obesity were younger, and there were more women in the obese group. Normal-weight patients more often had pre-existing conditions such as malignancy, or were organ recipients. During admission, patients who were overweight or had obesity had an increased probability of acute respiratory distress syndrome [OR 1.70 (1.26-2.30) and 1.40 (1.01-1.96)], respectively and acute kidney failure [OR 2.29 (1.28-3.76) and 1.92 (1.06-3.48)], respectively. Length of hospital stay was similar between groups. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 27.7%, and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that overweight and obesity were not associated with increased mortality compared to normal-weight patients. Conclusion: In this study, overweight and obesity were associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury, but not with in-hospital mortality nor length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155 Suppl 1: 123-134, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575902

ABSTRACT

Despite the evidence supporting the relevance of obesity and obesity-associated disorders in the development, management, and prognosis of various cancers, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. Growing evidence supports the involvement of obesity in the development of gynecologic malignancies. This article explores the molecular basis governing the alteration of hallmarks of cancer in the development of obesity-related gynecologic malignancies encompassing cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. We highlight specific examples of how development, management, and prognosis are affected for each cancer, incorporate current knowledge on complementary approaches including lifestyle interventions to improve patient outcomes, and highlight how new technologies are helping us better understand the biology underlying this neglected pandemic.


Subject(s)
Endometrial Neoplasms , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Ovarian Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/etiology
4.
Physiol Rev ; 102(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554572
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6660-6670, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544317

ABSTRACT

With the wide spread of Coronavirus, most people who infected with the COVID-19, will recover without requiring special treatment. Whereas, elders and those with underlying medical problems are more likely to have serious illnesses, even be threatened with death. Many more disciplines try to find solutions and drive master plan to this global trouble. Consequently, by taking one particular population, Hungary, this study aims to explore a pattern of COVID-19 victims, who suffered from some underlying conditions. Age, gender, and underlying medical problems form the structure of the clustering. K-Means and two step clustering methods were applied for age-based and age-independent analysis. Grouping of the deaths in the form of two different scenarios may highlight some concepts of this deadly disease for public health professionals. Our result for clustering can forecast similar cases which are assigned to any cluster that it will be a serious cautious for the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia/complications , Sex Factors , Young Adult
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 887-888, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526988
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 887, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518757
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1396-1403, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates associated with COVID-19 vary widely between countries and, within countries, between regions. These differences might be explained by population susceptibility, environmental factors, transmission dynamics, containment strategies, and diagnostic approaches. We aimed to analyze if obesity and diabetes prevalence are associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the mortality rate for each of the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico, one of the countries with highest COVID-19 mortality rate, during the first seven months of the pandemic to identify factors associated with higher mortality, including demographic, health-related characteristics (prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in adults older than 20 years old), and altitude. RESULTS: During the first seven months of the COVID-19 pandemic there were 85,666 deaths reported in Mexico, with a cumulative mortality rate of 67 per 100,000 population. The mean mortality rate for the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico was 33.9 per 100,000 population. At a municipal level, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, as well as high human development index, and location at < 500 or > 2000 above sea level were associated with higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated obesity and diabetes prevalence explain, in part, high COVID-19 mortality rates registered in certain municipalities in Mexico. These results suggest that a regionalized approach should be considered to successfully limit the impact of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Ecology , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732913, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504188

ABSTRACT

Obesity prevails worldwide to an increasing effect. For example, up to 42% of American adults are considered obese. Obese individuals are prone to a variety of complications of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Recent meta-analyses of clinical studies in patient cohorts in the ongoing coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic indicate that the presence of obesity and relevant disorders is linked to a more severe prognosis of COVID-19. Given the significance of obesity in COVID-19 progression, we provide a review of host metabolic and immune responses in the immunometabolic dysregulation exaggerated by obesity and the viral infection that develops into a severe course of COVID-19. Moreover, sequela studies of individuals 6 months after having COVID-19 show a higher risk of metabolic comorbidities including obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease. These collectively implicate an inter-systemic dimension to understanding the association between obesity and COVID-19 and suggest an interdisciplinary intervention for relief of obesity-COVID-19 complications beyond the phase of acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity , Metabolic Diseases/immunology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 23(12): 26, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499511

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to those with advanced age and co-morbidities such as heart disease or cancer, obese individuals have also had very high rates of hospitalization, critical illness, need for ventilator support, as well as mortality. A number of factors associated with obesity have led to devastating consequences as these two pandemics have interacted. RECENT FINDINGS: Obese individuals through a combination of structural and cellular level changes have greater risk of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease, which are themselves risk-factors for acquiring COVID-19 disease. These structural changes also result in increased intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressure as well as a restrictive lung physiology that leads to reduction in total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and increase in airway hyper-reactivity. Adipose tissue is also impacted in obese individuals leading to local as well as systemic inflammation, which can contribute to increased release of free fatty acids and systemic insulin resistance. Additionally, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, which act as receptors for SARS-CoV-2 are also significantly increased in obese individuals. The present manuscript reviews these structural, immune, and molecular changes associated with obesity that make obese individuals more vulnerable to acquiring severe COVID-19 and more challenging to manage associated complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Inflammation , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452919

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with increased disease severity, elevated viral titers in exhaled breath, and significantly prolonged viral shed during influenza A virus infection. Due to the mutable nature of RNA viruses, we questioned whether obesity could also influence influenza virus population diversity. Here, we show that minor variants rapidly emerge in obese mice. The variants exhibit increased viral replication, resulting in enhanced virulence in wild-type mice. The increased diversity of the viral population correlated with decreased type I interferon responses, and treatment of obese mice with recombinant interferon reduced viral diversity, suggesting that the delayed antiviral response exhibited in obesity permits the emergence of a more virulent influenza virus population. This is not unique to obese mice. Obesity-derived normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells also showed decreased interferon responses and increased viral replication, suggesting that viral diversity also was impacted in this increasing population.IMPORTANCE Currently, 50% of the adult population worldwide is overweight or obese. In these studies, we demonstrate that obesity not only enhances the severity of influenza infection but also impacts viral diversity. The altered microenvironment associated with obesity supports a more diverse viral quasispecies and affords the emergence of potentially pathogenic variants capable of inducing greater disease severity in lean hosts. This is likely due to the impaired interferon response, which is seen in both obese mice and obesity-derived human bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting that obesity, aside from its impact on influenza virus pathogenesis, permits the stochastic accumulation of potentially pathogenic viral variants, raising concerns about its public health impact as the prevalence of obesity continues to rise.


Subject(s)
Disease Susceptibility , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/etiology , Obesity/complications , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Mice , Mutation , Phenotype , RNA, Viral , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Virulence , Virus Replication
16.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493512

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257891, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that a high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a high BMI affects the risk of death or prolonged length of stay (LOS) in patients with COVID-19 during intensive care in Sweden. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational, register-based study, we included patients with COVID-19 from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in Sweden. Outcomes assessed were death during intensive care and ICU LOS ≥14 days. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) between BMI and the outcomes. Valid weight and height information could be retrieved in 1,649 patients (1,227 (74.4%) males) with COVID-19. We found a significant association between BMI and the risk of the composite outcome death or LOS ≥14 days in survivors (OR per standard deviation [SD] increase 1.30, 95%CI 1.16-1.44, adjusted for sex, age and comorbidities), and this association remained after further adjustment for severity of illness (simplified acute physiology score; SAPS3) at ICU admission (OR 1.30 per SD, 95%CI 1.17-1.45). Individuals with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 had a doubled risk of the composite outcome. A high BMI was also associated with death during intensive care and a prolonged LOS in survivors assessed as separate outcomes. The main limitations were the restriction to the first wave of the pandemic, and the lack of information on socioeconomic status as well as smoking. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of Swedish ICU patients with COVID-19, a high BMI was associated with increasing risk of death and prolonged length of stay in the ICU. Based on our findings, we suggest that individuals with obesity should be more closely monitored when hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Obesity/pathology , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Odds Ratio , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sweden
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444282

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered the increased susceptibility of individuals with obesity to infection and severe disease leading to hospitalization and death. Studies in New York City demonstrated that after advanced age, obesity was the most common risk factor leading to severe disease and death from COVID-19. While the connection has been recognized, there has not been a general recognition of the potential mechanisms for this link between excess body fat and mortality from this viral pandemic including respiratory complications and sequelae of increased activation of the immune system. Despite plans for vaccination of the global population, the risk community spread of COVID-19 and future pandemics will be linked in part to obesity and immunity. This review will detail a number of potential mechanisms through which obesity may contribute to the lethality of this viral infection. These insights will hopefully lead to a greater emphasis on obesity prevention and treatment as part of the global response to this and future pandemic threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Obesity/physiopathology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444281

ABSTRACT

Binge watching is becoming increasingly common and may impact energy balance and body weight. The COVID-19 pandemic has created conditions conducive to binge watching and increased stress. We investigated relationships between COVID-related stress and binge watching behaviors, and potential variation in this relationship by body weight. Adults (n = 466) completed a cross-sectional online survey assessing binge watching behaviors during and before the pandemic, COVID-related stress, and body weight. Participants reported an increase in binge watching frequency from before to during the pandemic (F1,401 = 99.970, p < 0.001), with rates of high binge watching ("3-4 times per week" to "3 or more times per day") increasing from 14.6% to 33.0%. Binge watching episode duration increased from 3.26 ± 1.89 h to 3.92 ± 2.08 h (p < 0.001). The increase in binge watching frequency was greatest in individuals with obesity and high stress (F 4,401 = 4.098, p = 0.003). Participants reporting high stress reported higher frequency of eating while binge watching, as well as higher levels of negative emotional triggers, consequences to binge watching, and lack of control over binge watching (all p < 0.001). Our results show that binge watching increased during the pandemic, with greater increases among individuals reporting higher COVID-related stress, especially those with obesity, and concomitant effects on eating, and highlight a need for interventions to minimize the obesogenic impact of binge watching during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19/psychology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/psychology , Screen Time , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
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