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2.
J Endocrinol ; 258(2)2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243273

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with a higher risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and increased mortality. In the current study, we have investigated the expression of ACE2, NRP1, and HMGB1, known to facilitate severe acute respiratory symptom coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry, in adipose tissue from non-COVID-19 control patients with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. All factors were expressed, but no significant differences between the groups were observed. Furthermore, diabetes status and medications did not affect the expression of ACE2. Only in obese men, the expression of ACE2 in adipose tissue was higher than in obese women. In the adipose tissue from patients who died from COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the adipocytes even though the patients died more than 3 weeks after the acute infection. This suggests that adipocytes may act as reservoirs for the virus. In COVID-19 patients, the expression of NRP1 was increased in COVID-19 patients with overweight and obesity. Furthermore, we observed an increased infiltration with macrophages in the COVID-19 adipose tissues compared to control adipose tissue. In addition, crown-like structures of dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages were observed in the adipose tissue from COVID-19 patients. These data suggest that in obese individuals, in addition to an increased mass of adipose tissue that could potentially be infected, increased macrophage infiltration due to direct infection with SARS-CoV-2 and sustained viral shedding, rather than preinfection ACE2 receptor expression, may be responsible for the increased severity and mortality of COVID-19 in patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Overweight/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Adipocytes/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
3.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(2): 52-59, 2023 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242804

ABSTRACT

Homocysteine is a possible risk marker in hematological complications of COVID-19 infection. This study aimed to elucidate the significance of homocysteine as a biomarker for COVID-19 infection, and the relation of homocysteine with COVID-19 severity in obese people and diabetic patients.  The study groups were 1- COVID-19 patients + Diabetic + Obese (CDO), 2- COVID-19 patients + Diabetic (CD), 3- COVID-19 patients + Obese (CO), 4- Healthy Group (HG). Serum levels of homocysteine, IL-6, D-dimer, vitamin B12, and folate were measured by a fully automated biochemistry device Cobas 6000 analyzer series. The mean serum concentration of homocysteine in the COD, CD, CO and H groups were 32.0114, 23.604, 19.4154, and 9.3206 umol/l respectively. The mean concentration of homocysteine levels between every two groups was statistically significant differences (P<0.05) except for the CD and the CO group (P=0.957). In the CDO group, the males have higher mean concentrations than females (P<0.05). The means of homocysteine concentrations in the CDO group among different age groups were different (P <0.001). The serum homocysteine level in the CDO group has a strong positive correlation (R=0.748) with D-dimer and a strong negative correlation (R= - 0.788) with serum folate, while its correlation with serum vitamin B12 is moderate negative (-0.499) and its correlation with serum IL-6 is weakly positive (R=0.376). The AUC value for homocysteine in predicting COVID-19 in the CDO group was 0.843, while 0.714 for the CD group, and 0.728 for the CO group. The serum homocysteine concentration test for all study groups was compared to the serum IL-6 test and the sensitivity was equal to 95% and its specificity was 67.5%. Serum homocysteine has potential predictive power in COVID-19 patients, and the severity of COVID-19 infection and the type of comorbidity is associated with higher sensitivity and specificity of homocysteine serological tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Male , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Obesity/complications , Biomarkers , Folic Acid , Homocysteine , Vitamin B 12
4.
Respir Med ; 216: 107308, 2023 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Asthma control is of importance when assessing the risk of severe outcomes of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to explore associations of clinical characteristics and the effect of multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma with severe COVID-19. METHODS: In 2014-2020, adult patients with uncontrolled asthma, defined as Asthma Control Test (ACT) ≤19 were identified in the Swedish National Airway Register (SNAR) (n = 24533). The SNAR database, including clinical data, was linked with national registers to identify patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 221). The effect of multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma was based on: 1) ACT ≤15, 2) frequent exacerbations and 3) previous asthma inpatient/secondary care and evaluated stepwise. Poisson regression analyses were conducted with severe COVID-19 as the dependent variable. RESULTS: In this cohort with uncontrolled asthma, obesity was the strongest independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 in both sexes, but even greater in men. Multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma were more common among those with severe COVID-19 vs. without: one, 45.7 vs. 42.3%, two, 18.1 vs. 9.1% and three, 5.0 vs. 2.1%. The risk ratio (RR) of severe COVID-19 increased with an increasing number of manifestations of uncontrolled asthma: one, RR 1.49 (95% CI 1.09-2.02), two, RR 2.42 (95% CI 1.64-3.57) and three, RR 2.96 (95% CI 1.57-5.60), when adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to consider the effect of multiple manifestations of uncontrolled asthma and obesity when assessing patients with COVID-19, as this increases the risk of severe outcomes substantially.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/drug therapy , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(1): 9-23, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone. DESIGN: Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass. RESULTS: Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123-292), P < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124-1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2-293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1-105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5-125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41-286), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estradiol/pharmacology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Australia , Body Composition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(22): e2300155120, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323651

ABSTRACT

Obesity has been recognized as one of the most significant risk factors for the deterioration and mortality associated with COVID-19, but the significance of obesity itself differs among ethnicity. Multifactored analysis of our single institute-based retrospective cohort revealed that high visceral adipose tissue (VAT) burden, but not other obesity-associated markers, was related to accelerated inflammatory responses and the mortality of Japanese COVID-19 patients. To elucidate the mechanisms how VAT-dominant obesity induces severe inflammation after severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we infected two different strains of obese mice, C57BL/6JHamSlc-ob/ob (ob/ob), C57BLKS/J-db/db (db/db), genetically impaired in the leptin ligand and receptor, respectively, and control C57BL/6 mice with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2. Here, we revealed that VAT-dominant ob/ob mice were extremely more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 due to excessive inflammatory responses when compared to SAT-dominant db/db mice. In fact, SARS-CoV-2 genome and proteins were more abundant in the lungs of ob/ob mice, engulfed in macrophages, resulting in increased cytokine production including interleukin (IL)-6. Both an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody treatment and the prevention of obesity by leptin replenishment improved the survival of SARS-CoV-2-infected ob/ob mice by reducing the viral protein burden and excessive immune responses. Our results have proposed unique insights and clues on how obesity increases the risk of cytokine storm and death in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, earlier administration of antiinflammatory therapeutics including anti-IL-6R antibody to VAT-dominant patients might improve clinical outcome and stratification of the treatment for COVID-19, at least in Japanese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malus , Mice , Animals , Leptin/genetics , Cytokines , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Interleukin-6 , Mice, Obese
8.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 149(4): 334-343, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318728

ABSTRACT

Importance: Obesity has traditionally been described as a relative contraindication to percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT). Increased familiarity with the technique and use of bronchoscopy or real-time ultrasonography to enhance visualization have led many practitioners to expand the indication for PDT to patients historically deemed to have high risk of perioperative complications. Objective: To assess the reported complication rate of PDT in critically ill adults with obesity and compare it with that of open surgical tracheostomies (OSTs) in this patient population and with that of PDT in their counterparts without obesity. Data Sources: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from January 1, 2000, to March 1, 2022. Key terms related to percutaneous tracheostomy and obesity were included. Study Selection: Original investigations of critically ill adult patients (age ≥18 years) with obesity who underwent PDT that reported at least 1 complication of interest were included. Case reports or series with fewer than 5 patients were excluded, as were studies in a language other than English or French. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) were used, with independent extraction by multiple observers. Frequencies were reported for all dichotomous variables. Relative risks for complications were calculated using both fixed-effects and random-effects models in the meta-analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes included mortality directly associated with the procedure, conversion to OST, and complications associated with the procedure (subclassified into life-threatening or non-life-threatening adverse events). Results: Eighteen studies were included in the systematic review, comprising 1355 patients with obesity who underwent PDT. The PDT-related complication rate was 16.6% among patients with obesity overall (791 patients, 17 studies), most of which were non-life-threatening. Only 0.6% of cases (8 of 1314 patients, 17 studies) were aborted or converted to an OST. A meta-analysis of 12 studies (N = 4212; 1078 with obesity and 3134 without obesity) showed that patients with obesity had a higher rate of complications associated with PDT compared with their counterparts without obesity (risk ratio, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.38-2.28). A single study compared PDT with OST directly for critically ill adults with obesity; thus, the intended meta-analysis could not be performed in this subgroup. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that the rate of complications of PDT is low in critically ill individuals with obesity, although the risk of complications may be higher than in individuals without obesity.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Tracheostomy , Humans , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Obesity/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods
9.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 6(3): e418, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317791

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the common chronic metabolic disorders in Africa and elsewhere. Accumulation of lipids in the body may be due to an imbalance in the metabolism of lipids, glucose and proteins. Ceramides are a sphingolipid class of lipids that are biologically active and vital in the production of more complex lipids. Circulating ceramides are thought to have a role in the development of obesity-related IR, although the precise involvement remains unclear. AIM: To investigate the impact of circulating ceramide on IR and body adiposity in people with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODOLOGY: The study was observational and cross-sectional. There were a total of 84 volunteers with T2DM and 75 nondiabetics (control). The participants' ages, body mass indexes (BMI), waist circumferences, and blood pressure (BP) were among the clinical parameters assessed. Ceramide levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipids, basal insulin levels and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were also measured. Additionally, the homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-ß) were computed. RESULTS: T2DM and control participants had different mean values for anthropometric parameters, BP, FPG, HbA1c, lipids, insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß and ceramide levels (p < .05 for all). HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß and cardiovascular risk were significant correlates with ceramide levels in the T2DM group (r = 0.24; -0.34; 0.24, p < .05, respectively). Further, FPG (OR = 1.83, p = .01) and ceramide (OR = 1.05, p = .01) levels were significant predictors of IR in the case group. CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM exhibited high ceramide concentrations, which, when combined with high FPG, were associated with IR. The consequences of circulating ceramides in health and disease; however, merit further research.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Humans , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Adiposity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ceramides , Glycated Hemoglobin , Obesity/complications , Insulin/metabolism
10.
Mol Genet Metab ; 139(2): 107607, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Old age, obesity, and certain chronic conditions are among the risk factors for severe COVID-19. More information is needed on whether inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) confer risk of more severe COVID-19. We aimed to establish COVID-19 severity and associated risk factors in patients with IMD currently followed at a single metabolic center. METHODS: Among all IMD patients followed at a single metabolic referral center who had at least one clinic visit since 2018, those with accessible medical records were reviewed for SARS-CoV-2 tests. COVID-19 severity was classified according to the WHO recommendations, and IMD as per the international classification of IMD. RESULTS: Among the 1841 patients with IMD, 248 (13.5%) had tested positive for COVID-19, 223 of whom gave consent for inclusion in the study (131 children and 92 adults). Phenylalanine hydroxylase (48.4%) and biotinidase (12.1%) deficiencies were the most common diagnoses, followed by mucopolysaccharidoses (7.2%). 38.1% had comorbidities, such as neurologic disabilities (22%) or obesity (9.4%). The majority of COVID-19 episodes were asymptomatic (16.1%) or mild (77.6%), but 6 patients (2.7%) each had moderate and severe COVID-19, and two (0.9%) had critical COVID-19, both of whom died. 3 patients had an acute metabolic decompensation during the infection. Two children developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Long COVID symptoms were present in 25.2%. Presence of comorbidities was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 in adults with IMD (p < 0.01), but not in children (p = 0.45). Compared to other categories of IMD, complex molecule degradation disorders were significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 in children (p < 0.01); such a significant IMD category distinction was not found in adults. DISCUSSION: This is the largest study on COVID-19 in IMD patients relying on real-word data and objective definitions, and not on merely expert opinions or physician surveys. COVID-19 severity and long COVID incidence in IMD are probably similar to the general population, and the risk of acute metabolic decompensation is not likely to be greater than that in other acute infections. Disease category (complex molecule degradation) in children, and comorbidities in adults may be associated with COVID-19 severity in IMD. Additionally, the first documented accounts of COVID-19 in 27 different IMD are recorded. The high occurrence of MIS-C may be coincidental, but warrants further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metabolic Diseases , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Risk Factors , Patient Acuity , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
11.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 52(2): 393-402, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315666

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) triggered a rapidly expanding global pandemic. The presence of obesity in patients with COVID-19 has been established as a risk factor for disease severity, hospital admission, and mortality. Thus, it is imperative those living with obesity be vaccinated against COVID-19. Although there is a timeframe COVID-19 vaccines are efficacious in those living with obesity, more studies need to be conducted to ensure that those long-lasting protection is maintained, as obesity has implications on the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2023(61): 12-29, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314792

ABSTRACT

The obesity pandemic currently affects more than 70 million Americans and more than 650 million individuals worldwide. In addition to increasing susceptibility to pathogenic infections (eg, SARS-CoV-2), obesity promotes the development of many cancer subtypes and increases mortality rates in most cases. We and others have demonstrated that, in the context of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), adipocytes promote multidrug chemoresistance. Furthermore, others have demonstrated that B-ALL cells exposed to the adipocyte secretome alter their metabolic states to circumvent chemotherapy-mediated cytotoxicity. To better understand how adipocytes impact the function of human B-ALL cells, we used a multi-omic RNA-sequencing (single-cell and bulk transcriptomic) and mass spectroscopy (metabolomic and proteomic) approaches to define adipocyte-induced changes in normal and malignant B cells. These analyses revealed that the adipocyte secretome directly modulates programs in human B-ALL cells associated with metabolism, protection from oxidative stress, increased survival, B-cell development, and drivers of chemoresistance. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of mice on low- and high-fat diets revealed that obesity suppresses an immunologically active B-cell subpopulation and that the loss of this transcriptomic signature in patients with B-ALL is associated with poor survival outcomes. Analyses of sera and plasma samples from healthy donors and those with B-ALL revealed that obesity is associated with higher circulating levels of immunoglobulin-associated proteins, which support observations in obese mice of altered immunological homeostasis. In all, our multi-omics approach increases our understanding of pathways that may promote chemoresistance in human B-ALL and highlight a novel B-cell-specific signature in patients associated with survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Humans , Animals , Mice , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism
13.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 100, 2023 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) was reported to contribute to severe and worse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hereby, we evaluated the association of MetS and its components with susceptibility to COVID-19. METHODS: Here, 1000 subjects with MetS were recruited that were diagnosed via the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. Real-time PCR was exerted to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: Among the MetS patients, 206 (20.6%) cases were detected to have COVID-19. Smoking (OR = 5.04, 95%CI = 3.53-7.21, P < 0.0001) and CVD (OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 1.09-2.40, P = 0.015) were associated with increased chance of COVID-19 infection in the MetS patients. BMI was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) in MetS cases with COVID-19 than those without COVID-19. Obesity was associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 in MetS patients (OR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.47-2.74, P < 0.0001). Total cholesterol, TG, LDL were significantly higher in the MetS cases with COVID-19 than those without COVID-19. Dyslipidemia was associated with increased chance of COVID-19 (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.10-2.05, P = 0.0104). FBS level was significantly higher in the MetS cases with COVID-19. T2DM was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 in MetS patients (OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.01-2.00, P = 0.0384). Hypertension was associated with increased chance of COVID-19 in the MetS patients (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.05-1.98, P = 0.0234). CONCLUSIONS: MetS and its components, like obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular complications were associated with increased chance of COVID-19 infection development and probably with aggravated symptoms in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/complications
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295406

ABSTRACT

Obesity is known to increase the complications of the COVID-19 coronavirus disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the exact mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in obese patients have not been clearly elucidated. This study aims to better understand the effect of obesity on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify candidate molecular pathways involved in the progression of the disease, using an in vitro live infection model and RNA sequencing. Results from this study revealed the enhancement of viral load and replication in bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) from obese subjects at 24 h of infection (MOI = 0.5) as compared to non-obese subjects. Transcriptomic profiling via RNA-Seq highlighted the enrichment of lipid metabolism-related pathways along with LPIN2, an inflammasome regulator, as a unique differentially expressed gene (DEG) in infected bronchial epithelial cells from obese subjects. Such findings correlated with altered cytokine and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) expression during infection of bronchial cells. These findings provide a novel insight on the molecular interplay between obesity and SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the increased SARS-CoV-2 infection of bronchial epithelial cells from obese subjects and highlights the impaired immunity which may explain the increased severity among obese COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism
15.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06012, 2023 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295336

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there is little evidence on whether prior bariatric surgery benefits the outcomes of patients with COVID-19. We aimed to summarize this relationship by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of current case-control studies. Methods: We searched several electronic databases for case-control studies conducted between January 2020 and March 2022. We compared the rates of mortality, mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, dialysis, hospitalization, and length of hospital stay between COVID-19 patients with and without a history of bariatric surgery. Results: We included six studies with 137 903 patients; 5270 (3.8%) had prior bariatric surgery, while 132 633 (96.2%) did not. COVID-19 patients with a history of bariatric surgery had significantly lower mortality (odds ratio (OR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23-0.74), ICU admission (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.36-0.65), and mechanical ventilation rates than those with a history of non-bariatric surgery (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75). Conclusions: Prior bariatric surgery was associated with a reduced risk of mortality and reduced severity of COVID-19 in patients with obesity compared to those with no prior bariatric surgery. Further large-sample prospective studies are needed to support these results. Registration: CRD42022323745.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Humans , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Hospitalization , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies
16.
Endocrine ; 80(3): 477-490, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291939

ABSTRACT

Evidence has shown that cardiometabolic disorders (CMDs) are amongst the top contributors to COVID-19 infection morbidity and mortality. The reciprocal impact of COVID-19 infection and the most common CMDs, the risk factors for poor composite outcome among patients with one or several underlying diseases, the effect of common medical management on CMDs and their safety in the context of acute COVID-19 infection are reviewed. Later on, the changes brought by the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine on the general population's lifestyle (diet, exercise patterns) and metabolic health, acute cardiac complications of different COVID-19 vaccines and the effect of CMDs on the vaccine efficacy are discussed. Our review identified that the incidence of COVID-19 infection is higher among patients with underlying CMDs such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Also, CMDs increase the risk of COVID-19 infection progression to severe disease phenotypes (e.g. hospital and/or ICU admission, use of mechanical ventilation). Lifestyle modification during COVID-19 era had a great impact on inducing and worsening of CMDs. Finally, the lower efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines was found in patients with metabolic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 69(4): e20221271, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease pandemic has become a major global health crisis since 2019. Recent data show the association of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity with poor related outcomes in coronavirus disease infection. This descriptive study aimed to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with acute respiratory syndrome and confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data of 409 patients admitted to a referral hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with coronavirus disease infection confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records using a template with the variables of interest. RESULTS: The average age was 64 years (52-73), and the body mass index was 27 kg/m² (22.1-31.2). Hypertension, diabetes, and obesity were observed in 58, 33, and 32% of the patients, respectively. Patients admitted to an intensive care unit were older [66 years (53-74) vs. 59 years (42.2-71.7)], with significantly higher impairment on chest computed tomography [75% (50-75) vs. 50% (25-60)] and received higher doses of corticosteroid therapy [39.4 mg (14.3-70.3) vs. 6 mg (6-14.7)]. Hematological parameters were lower in critically ill patients, with greater differences observed on the fifth day of hospitalization [hemoglobin 11.5 g/dL (9.5-13.1) vs. 12.8 g/dL (11.5-14.2), platelets 235,000 µL (143,000-357,000) vs. 270,000 µL (192,000-377,000), and lymphocytes 900 µL (555-1,500) vs. 1,629 µL (1,141-2,329)]. C-reactive protein levels and kidney function were also worse in intensive care unit patients. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the intensive care unit compared to the basic care unit (62.8 vs. 12.2%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities, as well as abnormal hematological parameters, are common findings among patients with severe respiratory syndrome related to coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 185, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the differential diagnosis of girls aged 6 to 8 years with idiopathic premature thelarche (IPT) and central precocious puberty (CPP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored predicted adult height (PAH) discrepancy to guide appropriate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: From January 2020 to December 2021, Chinese girls aged 6 to 8 years with precocious puberty were recruited. They were divided into IPT and CPP groups. Clinical characteristics, including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), basal luteinizing hormone (LH), oestradiol, uterine length and volume, follicle numbers (d > 4 mm) and bone age (BA) were recorded. We analysed differential diagnosis and PAH discrepancy in both groups. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore risk factors for CPP, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the diagnostic value of related indexes. RESULTS: Sixty patients, including 40 girls with IPT and 20 girls with CPP, were recruited. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the entire cohort was 25% (15/60) and was significantly higher in IPT than CPP, 32.5% (13/40) vs. 10% (2/20), respectively (P=0.045). There were significant differences in LH, uterine volume, follicle numbers and BA (P<0.05). The impaired PAH of IPT and CPP was 0.01 ± 1.19 SD and 0.62 ± 0.94 SD with significant differences (P=0.047). Logistic regression analysis showed that LH and follicle numbers were independent risk factors for CPP. The ROC curve showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of LH and follicle numbers were 0.823 and 0.697. The sensitivity and specificity of LH with a cut off of 0.285 IU/L were 78.9% and 77.8%. The sensitivity and specificity of follicle numbers with a cut off of 3.5 were 89.5% and 52.8%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old girls with precocious puberty was high. Auxological data should not be used in the differential diagnosis of IPT and CPP. Basal LH above 0.285 IU/L and follicle numbers greater than 4 were important features suggestive of CPP. PAH was impaired in individuals with CPP, but it was not impaired in individuals with IPT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Puberty, Precocious , Female , Adult , Humans , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pilot Projects , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Luteinizing Hormone , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 120(4): e20220277, 2023 03.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) increase the expression of ACE2, which is a receptor for entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Though evidence suggests that ARB/ACEI are safe among the general population with COVID-19, their safety in patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension deserves further evaluation. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between ARB/ACEI use and COVID-19 severity in patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension. METHODS: This study included 439 adult patients with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) and hypertension, diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic from March 1 to December 7, 2020. Mortality and severity of COVID-19 were evaluated based on length of stay in hospital, intensive care unit admission, use of supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations of ARB/ACEI use with mortality and other markers of COVID-19 severity, with a two-sided alpha set at 0.05. RESULTS: Exposure to ARB (n = 91) and ACEI (n = 149) before hospitalization was significantly associated with lower mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 0.362, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.149 to 0.880, p = 0.025) and a shorter length of stay (95% CI -0.217 to -0.025, p = 0.015). Additionally, patients using ARB/ACEI showed a non-significant trend toward lower intensive care unit admission (OR = 0.727, 95% CI 0.485 to 1.090, p = 0.123), use of supplemental oxygen (OR = 0.929, 95% CI 0.608 to 1.421, p = 0.734), mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.728, 95% CI 0.457 to 1.161, p = 0.182), and vasopressors (OR = 0.677, 95% CI 0.430 to 1.067, p = 0.093). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and overweight/obesity-related hypertension who were prescribed ARB/ACEI before admission to the hospital exhibit lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 than those who were not taking ARB/ACEI. The results also suggest that exposure to ARB/ACEI may protect patients with overweight/obesity-related hypertension from severe COVID-19 and death.


FUNDAMENTO: Os bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina (BRA) e os inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina (IECA) aumentam a expressão de ACE2, que é um receptor para entrada de SARS-CoV-2 nas células. Embora as evidências sugiram que os IECA/BRA são seguros entre a população geral com COVID-19, sua segurança em pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade merece uma avaliação mais aprofundada. OBJETIVO: Avaliamos a associação entre o uso de IECA/BRA e a gravidade da COVID-19 em pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo incluiu 439 pacientes adultos com sobrepeso/obesidade (índice de massa corporal ≥ 25 kg/m2) e hipertensão, diagnosticados com COVID-19 e internados no University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic entre 1º de março e 7 de dezembro de 2020. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade e a gravidade da COVID-19 com base no tempo de internação hospitalar, internação em unidade de terapia intensiva, uso de oxigênio suplementar, ventilação mecânica e uso de vasopressores. A regressão logística multivariável foi usada para examinar as associações do uso de IECA/BRA com a mortalidade e outros marcadores de gravidade de COVID-19, com um alfa bilateral definido em 0,05. RESULTADOS: A exposição aos BRA (n = 91) e IECA (n = 149) antes da hospitalização foi significativamente associada a menor mortalidade ( odds ratio [OR] = 0,362, intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95% 0,149 a 0,880, p = 0,025) e menor tempo de internação hospitalar (IC 95% −0,217 a −0,025, p = 0,015). Adicionalmente, os pacientes em uso de IECA/BRA apresentaram uma tendência não significativa de menor internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (OR = 0,727, IC 95% 0,485 a 1,090, p = 0,123), uso de oxigênio suplementar (OR = 0,929, IC 95% 0,608 a 1,421,p = 0,734), ventilação mecânica (OR = 0,728, IC 95% 0,457 a 1,161, p = 0,182) e vasopressores (OR = 0,677, IC 95% 0,430 a 1,067, p = 0,093). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que pacientes internados com COVID-19 e hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade que receberam IECA/BRA antes da internação apresentam menor mortalidade e COVID-19 menos grave do que aqueles que não estavam tomando IECA/BRA. Os resultados também sugerem que a exposição aos IECA/BRA pode proteger pacientes com hipertensão relacionada ao sobrepeso/obesidade de COVID-19 grave e morte.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Overweight/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/complications , Obesity/complications , Oxygen
20.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 29(Suppl): s86-s102, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299507

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease characterized by excess fat accumulation in the liver. It is closely associated with metabolic syndrome, and patients with NAFLD often have comorbidities such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. In addition to liver-related complications, NAFLD has been associated with a range of non-liver comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and sleep apnea. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD, and patients with NAFLD have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than the general population. Chronic kidney disease is also more common in patients with NAFLD, and the severity of NAFLD is associated with a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Sleep apnea, a disorder characterized by breathing interruptions during sleep, is also more common in patients with NAFLD and is associated with the severity of NAFLD. The presence of non-liver comorbidities in patients with NAFLD has important implications for the management of this disease. Treatment of comorbidities such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia may improve liver-related outcomes in patients with NAFLD. Moreover, treatment of non-liver comorbidities may also improve overall health outcomes in patients with NAFLD. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the potential for non-liver comorbidities in patients with NAFLD and should consider the management of these comorbidities as part of the overall management of this disease.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications
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