Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 56
Filter
1.
Trials ; 23(1): 582, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, mobility problems and some cancers, and its prevalence is rising. Men engage less than women in existing weight loss interventions. Game of Stones builds on a successful feasibility study and aims to find out if automated text messages with or without endowment incentives are effective and cost-effective for weight loss at 12 months compared to a waiting list comparator arm in men with obesity. METHODS: A 3-arm, parallel group, assessor-blind superiority randomised controlled trial with process evaluation will recruit 585 adult men with body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more living in and around three UK centres (Belfast, Bristol, Glasgow), purposively targeting disadvantaged areas. Intervention groups: (i) automated, theory-informed text messages daily for 12 months plus endowment incentives linked to verified weight loss targets at 3, 6 and 12 months; (ii) the same text messages and weight loss assessment protocol; (iii) comparator group: 12 month waiting list, then text messages for 3 months. The primary outcome is percentage weight change at 12 months from baseline. Secondary outcomes at 12 months are as follows: quality of life, wellbeing, mental health, weight stigma, behaviours, satisfaction and confidence. Follow-up includes weight at 24 months. A health economic evaluation will measure cost-effectiveness over the trial and over modelled lifetime: including health service resource-use and quality-adjusted life years. The cost-utility analysis will report incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years gained. Participant and service provider perspectives will be explored via telephone interviews, and exploratory mixed methods process evaluation analyses will focus on mental health, multiple long-term conditions, health inequalities and implementation strategies. DISCUSSION: The trial will report whether text messages (with and without cash incentives) can help men to lose weight over 1 year and maintain this for another year compared to a comparator group; the costs and benefits to the health service; and men's experiences of the interventions. Process analyses with public involvement and service commissioner input will ensure that this open-source digital self-care intervention could be sustainable and scalable by a range of NHS or public services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 91974895 . Registered on 14/04/2021.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Financial Management , Text Messaging , Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Male , Motivation , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/therapy , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Weight Loss
2.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 78: 17-26, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312794

ABSTRACT

Social determinants of health (SDoH), or the socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial conditions in which individuals spend their daily lives, substantially influence obesity as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the converging epidemics of obesity, CVD, and social inequities globally. Obesity and CVD serve as independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and lower-resourced populations most impacted by adverse SDoH have the highest COVID-19 mortality rates. Better understanding the interplay between social and biologic factors that contribute to obesity-related CVD disparities are important to equitably address obesity across populations. Despite efforts to investigate SDoH and their biologic effects as drivers of health disparities, the connections between SDoH and obesity remain incompletely understood. This review aims to highlight the relationships between socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial factors and obesity. We also present potential biologic factors that may play a role in the biology of adversity, or link SDoH to adiposity and poor adipo-cardiology outcomes. Finally, we provide evidence for multi-level obesity interventions targeting multiple aspects of SDoH. Throughout, we emphasize areas for future research to tailor health equity-promoting interventions across populations to reduce obesity and obesity-related CVD disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Adiposity , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 185, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the differential diagnosis of girls aged 6 to 8 years with idiopathic premature thelarche (IPT) and central precocious puberty (CPP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored predicted adult height (PAH) discrepancy to guide appropriate diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: From January 2020 to December 2021, Chinese girls aged 6 to 8 years with precocious puberty were recruited. They were divided into IPT and CPP groups. Clinical characteristics, including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), basal luteinizing hormone (LH), oestradiol, uterine length and volume, follicle numbers (d > 4 mm) and bone age (BA) were recorded. We analysed differential diagnosis and PAH discrepancy in both groups. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore risk factors for CPP, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the diagnostic value of related indexes. RESULTS: Sixty patients, including 40 girls with IPT and 20 girls with CPP, were recruited. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the entire cohort was 25% (15/60) and was significantly higher in IPT than CPP, 32.5% (13/40) vs. 10% (2/20), respectively (P=0.045). There were significant differences in LH, uterine volume, follicle numbers and BA (P<0.05). The impaired PAH of IPT and CPP was 0.01 ± 1.19 SD and 0.62 ± 0.94 SD with significant differences (P=0.047). Logistic regression analysis showed that LH and follicle numbers were independent risk factors for CPP. The ROC curve showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of LH and follicle numbers were 0.823 and 0.697. The sensitivity and specificity of LH with a cut off of 0.285 IU/L were 78.9% and 77.8%. The sensitivity and specificity of follicle numbers with a cut off of 3.5 were 89.5% and 52.8%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old girls with precocious puberty was high. Auxological data should not be used in the differential diagnosis of IPT and CPP. Basal LH above 0.285 IU/L and follicle numbers greater than 4 were important features suggestive of CPP. PAH was impaired in individuals with CPP, but it was not impaired in individuals with IPT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Puberty, Precocious , Female , Adult , Humans , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pilot Projects , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Luteinizing Hormone , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
4.
JAMA ; 328(22): 2230-2241, 2022 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263015

ABSTRACT

Importance: The effectiveness of remotely delivered, self-directed, weight loss programs in routine clinical practice is largely unknown. Objective: To test whether a self-directed, remotely administered behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight and self-reported general health status compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, 511 adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more and less than 45 (based on electronic health record [EHR] weight and height), were enrolled from 30 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) sites between February 15, 2018, and December 18, 2018 (final follow-up February 18, 2021). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 254) or the control group (n = 257). Both received usual care. Participants randomized to the intervention received Diabetes Prevention Program-based self-directed videos, handouts, and coaching messages via an online platform or US mail for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coprimary outcomes were weight measured in primary care and recorded in the EHR and self-reported general health status using the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component score (PCS; higher scores are better [range, 0-100]) at the 12-month follow-up. The between-group minimal clinically important differences are 3 kg for weight and 5 points for the SF-12 PCS. Linear mixed models used weights and SF-12 PCS measured at either time point, with participants analyzed according to randomization assignment. Statistical significance for each coprimary outcome was based on a 2-sided α level of .025. Results: Among 511 participants randomized (mean age, 57.4 [SD, 13.9] years; 231 female [45%]), 429 (84.0%) had EHR-based weights and 410 (80.2%) had SF-12 PCS data at 12 months. The unadjusted mean weight at 12 months declined from 102.7 kg to 99.8 kg in the intervention group compared with 101.9 kg to 101.0 kg in the control group (adjusted between-group mean difference, -1.93 [97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.61]; P = .001). At 12 months, the unadjusted mean SF-12 PCS scores declined from 44.8 to 44.3 among intervention participants compared with 44.5 to 43.2 among control participants (adjusted between-group mean difference, intervention minus control, 0.69 [97.5% CI, -1.11 to 2.49]; P = .39). Cardiovascular events represented the highest percentage of serious adverse events, accounting for 25% of events in the intervention group and 35% in the control group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with obesity, a remotely delivered self-directed, behavioral lifestyle intervention, compared with usual care, resulted in statistically significantly greater weight loss at 12 months, although the difference was not clinically important. There was no significant difference in self-reported general physical health status at 12 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03260140.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy , Obesity , Weight Reduction Programs , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Behavior Therapy/methods , Health Status , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/therapy , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs/methods , Body Weight , Telemedicine/methods , Self Care , Healthy Lifestyle , Male , Aged
5.
Fertil Steril ; 119(5): 847-857, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a higher incidence of testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than those without PCOS and evaluate whether PCOS diagnosis independently increased the risk of moderate or severe disease in those with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). SETTING: National COVID Cohort Collaborative. PATIENT(S): Adult nonpregnant women (age, 18-65 years) enrolled in the N3C with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 testing for any indication. Sensitivity analyses were conducted in women aged 18-49 years and who were obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2). INTERVENTION(S): The exposure was PCOS as identified by the N3C clinical diagnosis codes and concept sets, which are a compilation of terms, laboratory values, and International Classification of Diseases codes for the diagnosis of PCOS. To further capture patients with the symptoms of PCOS, we also included those who had concept sets for both hirsutism and irregular menses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and odds of moderate or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the PCOS cohort compared with those in the non-PCOS cohort. RESULT(S): Of the 2,089,913 women included in our study, 39,459 had PCOS. In the overall cohort, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of SARS-CoV-2 positivity was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.98) in women with PCOS compared to women without PCOS. The aORs of disease severity were as follows: mild disease, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03); moderate disease, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00); and severe disease, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00). There was no difference in COVID-19-related mortality (aOR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00). These findings were similar in the reproductive-age and obese reproductive-age cohorts. CONCLUSION(S): Women with PCOS had a similar likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among those who tested positive, they were no more likely to have moderate or severe COVID-19 than the non-PCOS cohort. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a chronic condition associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and mental health issues. Although these comorbidities are also associated with COVID-19 morbidity, our findings suggest that the comorbidities themselves, rather than PCOS, drive the risk of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Adult , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnosis , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/complications
6.
Ann Fam Med ; (20 Suppl 1)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214700

ABSTRACT

Context: The Hispanics make up the largest ethnic minority in the United States (US). Hispanics have lower all-cause mortality and many chronic disease morbidities, despite lower socioeconomic status (SES), and barriers to health care. Whether this phenomenon, termed as the "Hispanic Paradox", holds during an infectious disease pandemic, warrants investigation. Objective: To examine the ethnic disparities in COVID-19 infection among general patients tested using PCR and understand risk factors of viral positivity other than Hispanic ethnicity. Study Design: Observational study design using retrospective electronic medical records (EMR). Setting or Dataset: All patients analyzed were ≥ 18 years old with at least one diagnostic Coronavirus molecular test in a community healthcare system in Washington State. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, and race/ethnicity), date of testing, viral positivity, reasons for testing, body mass index (BMI), key comorbidities, and health insurance status were extracted from the EMR. Derived variables included Hispanic or non-Hispanic, no insurance, age groups, and obesity. Population Studied: Our analytical focus was on adult Hispanics. The study included both females and males and investigated non-Hispanics. All data were from community healthcare clinical patients. Outcome Measures: Viral positivity of COVID-19 infection. Results: Of 108,973 patients, Hispanics had a much higher overall viral positivity (16.9%) than non-Hispanics (8.5%, p = 0.000). Symptomatic Hispanic patients had 40.7% positivity at the peak point, compared to 21.0% for symptomatic non-Hispanics. The ethnic disparity also existed for asymptomatic patients (6.6% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.000). Symptomatic male Hispanics showed 29.5% positivity, 9.5 times that of non-Hispanic asymptomatic females (3.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that older age, male sex (OR = 1.42, p = 0.000), being symptomatic (OR = 6.03, 95% CI: 5.31-6.85), having no insurance (OR = 1.34, p = 0.041), obesity (OR = 1.18, p = 0.002), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.16-1.82) were associated with higher likelihood of viral positivity, whilst being White (OR = 0.68, p = 0.000), having cancer (OR = 0.69, p = 0.005) or COPD (OR = 0.69, p = 0.000) were associated with lower test positivity. Conclusion: We found ethnic and racial disparities in COVID-19 viral positivity rates. The diminishing Hispanic Paradox warrants further investigation into SES, cultural, and behavioral factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , White People , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Minority Groups , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology
7.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 294, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2-diabetes mellitus (T2D), are characterized by visceral and ectopic adipose tissue expansion, leading to systemic chronic low-grade inflammation. As visceral adiposity is associated with severe COVID-19 irrespective of obesity, we aimed to evaluate and compare the predictive value for early intensive care or death of three fat depots (cardiac, visceral and subcutaneous) using computed tomography (CT) at admission for COVID-19 in consecutive patients with and without T2D. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients admitted for COVID-19 were retrospectively included between February and June 2020 and distributed in two groups: T2D or non-diabetic controls. Chest CT with cardiac (CATi), visceral (VATi) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATi) volume measurements were performed at admission. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome criteria including death or ICU admission at day 21 after admission. Threshold values of adipose tissue components predicting adverse outcome were determined. RESULTS: One hundred and eight controls [median age: 76(IQR:59-83), 61% male, median BMI: 24(22-27)] and ninety-four T2D patients [median age: 70(IQR:61-77), 70% male, median BMI: 27(24-31)], were enrolled in this study. At day 21 after admission, 42 patients (21%) had died from COVID-19, 48 (24%) required intensive care and 112 (55%) were admitted to a conventional care unit (CMU). In T2D, CATi was associated with early death or ICU independently from age, sex, BMI, dyslipidemia, CRP and coronary calcium (CAC). (p = 0.005). Concerning T2D patients, the cut-point for CATi was > 100 mL/m2 with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.50 (AUC = 0.67, p = 0.004) and an OR of 4.71 for early ICU admission or mortality (p = 0.002) in the fully adjusted model. Other adipose tissues SATi or VATi were not significantly associated with early adverse outcomes. In control patients, age and male sex (OR = 1.03, p = 0.04) were the only predictors of ICU or death. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac adipose tissue volume measured in CT at admission was independently predictive of early intensive care or death in T2D patients with COVID-19 but not in non-diabetics. Such automated CT measurement could be used in routine in diabetic patients presenting with moderate to severe COVID-19 illness to optimize individual management and prevent critical evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis
8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(1): 12-18, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150390

ABSTRACT

AIM: We estimate the incidence and risk factors for fatal and non-fatal events among the COVID-19 infected subjects based on the presence of obesity or diabetes during the initial three epidemiological waves in our region. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. A primary care database was used to identify persons with COVID-19. We stratified for subjects who either had diabetes mellitus or obesity. The follow-up period for study events was up to 90 days from inclusion. RESULTS: In total, 1238,710 subjects were analysed. Subjects with diabetes mellitus or obesity were older and had a worse comorbidity profile compared with groups without these conditions. Fatal events were more frequent among people with diabetes and during the first wave. In the second and third waves, the number of study events decreased. Diabetes was a risk factor for fatal events in all models, while obesity was only in the model adjusted for age, sex, diabetes and COVID-19 waves. HIV, cancer, or autoimmune diseases were risk factors for mortality among subjects with COVID-19 in the fully-adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was an independent risk factor for mortality among people with COVID-19. The number of fatal events decreased during the second and third waves in our region, both in those with diabetes or obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Primary Health Care
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18934, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113253

ABSTRACT

Body mass index (BMI) distribution and its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary between Asian and western populations. The study aimed to reveal time-related trends in the prevalence of obesity and underweight and safe ranges of BMI in Japanese patients with CVD. We analyzed 5,020,464 records from the national Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Diseases-Diagnosis Procedure Combination dataset over time (2012-2019) and evaluated BMI trends and the impact on in-hospital mortality for six acute CVDs: acute heart failure (AHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute aortic dissection (AAD), ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Patients were categorized into five groups using the WHO Asian-BMI criteria: underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight at risk (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), obese I (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese II (≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Age was significantly and inversely related to high BMI for all diseases (P < 0.001). The proportion of BMI categories significantly altered over time; annual BMI trends showed a significant and gradual increase, except AAD. In adjusted mixed models, underweight was significantly associated with a high risk of in-hospital mortality in all CVD patients (AHF, OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.35-1.48, P < 0.001; AMI, OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20-1.35, P < 0.001; AAD, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.32, P < 0.001; IS, OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.41-1.50, P < 0.001; ICH, OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.22, P < 0.001; SAH, OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.26, P < 0.001). Moreover, obese I and II groups were significantly associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality, except AHF and IS. Age was associated with in-hospital mortality for all BMI categories in six CVD patients. BMI increased annually in patients with six types of CVDs. Although underweight BMI was associated with high mortality rates, the impact of obesity on in-hospital mortality differs among CVD types.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Body Mass Index , Thinness/complications , Thinness/epidemiology , Thinness/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Heart Failure/epidemiology
10.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023957

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased over the last four decades worldwide [...].


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Obesity , Adolescent , Humans , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 32(7): 1635-1641, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Remdesivir (GS-5734), an inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase was early identified as a promising therapeutic candidate against COVID-19. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of several metabolic parameters on Remdesivir effectiveness among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted an observational study on patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia admitted between May 2020 and September 2021 to the COVID-19 Units of Internal Medicine, Pneumology and Intensive Care of Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy, and treated with Remdesivir. The "Ordinal Scale For Clinical Improvement" was used to assess patients' clinical improvement within 28 days of hospitalization. Short-term mortality rate was also evaluated. A total of 142 patients with SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia were studied. The prevalence of obesity (20.7% vs. 41.9%, p = 0.03), the average BMI (27.1 ± 4.4 vs. 31.1 ± 6.1, p < 0.01) and the mean LDL-C levels (78 ± 19 mg/dl vs. 103 ± 18 mg/dl, p = 0.03) were significantly lower in early-improved (EI) compared to not-improved (NI) individuals. Obesity was negatively associated to clinical improvement after Remdesivir (OR 0.48, 95%CI 0.17-0.97, p = 0.04). Both obesity (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.05-7.71, p = 0.04) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.78, 95%CI 1.17-7.16, p = 0.03) were significantly related to patients' mortality. Dyslipidemic subjects experienced a slower clinical improvement than non-dyslipidemic ones (Long-Rank p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that unfavorable metabolic conditions such as obesity and dyslipidemia could predict a worse clinical response to Remdesivir as well as the mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Further prospective and larger-scale studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Dyslipidemias , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7158, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890244

ABSTRACT

A major obstacle to tackling the growing burden of chronic disease in South Africa is lack of testing, particularly where individuals face multiple barriers to accessing health services. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate a cardiometabolic self-measurement kit, including assessment of blood pressure, obesity and urine analysis, amongst adults in Soweto, South Africa. Participants (N = 94) were recruited by researchers during community health screening and were provided with a home test kit including a tablet with self-measurement instructions. The participants entered their results on the tablet and, on completion, the researcher immediately repeated the measurements. We interviewed 10% of participants to understand their experience and views of the kits. Concordance correlation coefficients ranged from 0.78 for waist circumference to 0.93 for height, while the overall percentage agreement ranged from 80.5% for both urine protein and urine glucose testing to 91.4% for the identification of central obesity (ratio of waist circumference to height of ≥ 0.5). Participants saw the need for self-testing and found the process for the most part simple, though urine testing and height self-assessment presented some challenges. This pilot study suggests that self-assessment at home has the potential to facilitate the identification of individuals at risk for cardiometabolic disease in low-income settings, adding to a growing body of evidence on the use of self-testing in disease prevention and detection. However, we would not recommend self-testing for urine glucose and protein without further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Glucose , Humans , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Self-Assessment , South Africa/epidemiology
13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 40, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distinguishable sex differences exist in fat mass and muscle mass. High fat mass and low muscle mass are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in people living with type 2 diabetes; however, it is unknown if the association between fat mass and CVD risk is modified by muscle mass, or vice versa. This study examined the sex-specific interplay between fat mass and muscle mass on CVD risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes living with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures were used to compute fat mass index (FMI) and appendicular muscle mass index (ASMI), and participants were separated into high-fat mass vs. low-fat mass and high-muscle mass vs. low-muscle mass. A two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA: high-FMI vs. low-FMI by high-ASMI vs. low-ASMI) was performed on CVD risk factors (i.e., hemoglobin A1C [A1C]; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness, depression and health related-quality of life [HR-QoL]) at baseline and following a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for females and males separately, with a primary focus on the fat mass by muscle mass interaction effects. RESULTS: Data from 1,369 participants (62.7% females) who completed baseline DXA were analyzed. In females, there was a fat mass by muscle mass interaction effect on A1C (p = 0.016) at baseline. Post-hoc analysis showed that, in the low-FMI group, A1C was significantly higher in low-ASMI when compared to high-ASMI (60.3 ± 14.1 vs. 55.5 ± 13.5 mmol/mol, p = 0.023). In the high-FMI group, there was no difference between high-ASMI and low-ASMI (56.4 ± 12.5 vs. 56.5 ± 12.8 mmol/mol, p = 0.610). In males, only high-FMI was associated with higher A1C when compared to low-FMI (57.1 ± 14.4 vs. 54.2 ± 12.0 mmol/mol, p = 0.008) at baseline. Following ILI, there were significant fat mass by muscle mass interaction effects on changes in the mental component of HR-QoL in males. CONCLUSION: Considering that A1C predicts future CVD, strategies to lower A1C may be especially important in females with low fat and low muscle mass living with type 2 diabetes. Our results highlight the complicated and sex-specific contribution of fat mass and muscle mass to CVD risk factors.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Muscles , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/complications , Overweight/diagnosis , Overweight/epidemiology , Quality of Life
17.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(1): 33-38, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine effect of body mass index (BMI) on safety and cancer-related outcomes of thermal ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 427 patients (287 men and 140 women; mean [SD] age, 72 [12] y) who were treated with thermal ablation for RCC between October 2006 and December 2017. Patients were stratified by BMI into 3 categories: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2). Of 427 patients, 71 (16%) were normal weight, 157 (37%) were overweight, and 199 (47%) were obese. Complication rates, local recurrence, and residual disease were compared in the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: No differences in technical success between normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were identified (P = .72). Primary technique efficacy rates for normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were 91%, 94%, and 93% (P = .71). There was no significant difference in RCC specific-free survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival between obese, overweight, and normal-weight groups (P = .72, P = .43, P = .99). Complication rates between the 3 cohorts were similar (normal weight 4%, overweight 2%, obese 3%; P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided renal ablation is safe, feasible, and effective regardless of BMI.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Cryosurgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Microwaves/therapeutic use , Obesity/diagnosis , Radiofrequency Ablation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Cryosurgery/adverse effects , Cryosurgery/mortality , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Microwaves/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/mortality , Patient Safety , Radiofrequency Ablation/adverse effects , Radiofrequency Ablation/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Metabolism ; 128: 154894, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the relative and independent contributions of impaired metabolic health and obesity to critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We analyzed 4069 COVID-19 patients between January and June 2020 in South Korea, classified into four groups according to metabolic health status and body mass index (BMI): metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO). The primary outcome was a composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the outcome. RESULTS: The incidence rate (per 100 person-months) of critical COVID-19 was the lowest in the MHNW group (0.90), followed by the MHO (1.64), MUNW (3.37), and MUO (3.37) groups. Compared with MHNW, a significantly increased risk of critical COVID-19 was observed in MUNW (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.98) and MUO (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.39-2.44) but not in MHO (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.98-2.23). The risk of ICU admission or IMV/ECMO was increased only in MUO; however, the risk of death was significantly higher in MUNW and MUO. The risk of critical COVID-19 increased insignificantly by 2% per 1 kg/m2 BMI increase but significantly by 13% per 1 metabolically unhealthy component increase, even after mutually adjusting for BMI and metabolic health status. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic health is more important to COVID-19 outcomes than obesity itself, suggesting that metabolic health status should be considered for a precise and tailored management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Female , Health Status , Humans , Incidence , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 332, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344072

ABSTRACT

Recently, we face a surge in the fast-forward Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with nearly 170 million confirmed cases and almost 3.5 million confirmed deaths at the end of May 2021. Obesity, also known as the pandemic of the 21st century, has been evolving as an adverse prognostic marker. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of being SARS-CoV-2-positive (46%), as well as hospitalization (113%) and death (48%) due to COVID-19. It is especially true for subjects with morbid obesity. Also, observational studies suggest that in the case of COVID-19, no favorable "obesity paradox" is observed. Therefore, it is postulated to introduce a new entity, i.e., coronavirus disease-related cardiometabolic syndrome (CIRCS). In theory, it applies to all stages of COVID-19, i.e., prevention, acute proceedings (from COVID-19 diagnosis to resolution or three months), and long-term outcomes. Consequently, lifestyle changes, glycemic control, and regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway have crucial implications for preventing and managing subjects with COVID-19. Finally, it is crucial to use cardioprotective drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and statins. Nevertheless, there is the need to conduct prospective studies and registries better to evaluate the issue of obesity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Hospitalization , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/therapy , Physical Distancing , Preventive Health Services , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Sedentary Behavior
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/therapy , Risk Reduction Behavior , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Female , France/epidemiology , Habits , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation , Time Factors , Weight Gain
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL