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Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593561


Obesity is a health problem with increasing impacts on public health, economy and even social life. In order to reestablish the energy balance, obesity management focuses mainly on two pillars; exercise and diet. Beyond the contribution to the caloric intake, the diet nutrients and composition govern a variety of properties. This includes the energy balance-independent properties and the indirect metabolic effects. Whereas the energy balance-independent properties are close to "pharmacological" effects and include effects such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, the indirect metabolic effects represent the contribution a diet can have on energy metabolism beyond the caloric contribution itself, which include the food intake control and metabolic changes. As an illustration, we also described the metabolic implication and hypothetical pathways of the high-fat diet-induced gene Trefoil Factor Family 2. The properties the diet has can have a variety of applications mainly in pharmacology and nutrition and further explore the "pharmacologically" active food towards potential therapeutic applications.

Caloric Restriction/methods , Obesity/diet therapy , Trefoil Factor-2/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Humans , Obesity/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 63-72, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358360


Obesity is considered a pandemic responsible for millions of deaths worldwide for many years. At the end of 2019, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared, causing the death of more than a million people in less than a year. Numerous studies suggest that obesity could be defined as key to the onset of severe forms of this emerging disease. Indeed, SARS-CoV2 infects the host by binding to ACE2 receptors present on the surface of the cells and causes excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, which lead to developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It therefore seems essential to make up effective preventive strategies to protect this part of the population from the risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. The ketogenic diet, which is low in sugars and high in fat, has interesting properties, both in the fight against obesity but also against severe infections. This article focuses on the latest scientific advances that make it possible to consider the ketogenic diet as a preventive strategy that simultaneously reduces the development of obesity while strengthening the immune system, two key actions in the fight against SARS-CoV2 infections and severe forms of COVID-19.

TITLE: Obésité, inflammation et COVID-19 : intérêt préventif de l'alimentation cétogène ? ABSTRACT: L'obésité est considérée comme une pandémie responsable de plusieurs millions de morts dans le monde depuis de nombreuses années. Fin 2019 est apparue la maladie à Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) qui a provoqué la mort de plus d'un million de personnes en moins d'un an. De nombreuses études suggèrent que l'obésité pourrait être un paramètre clé dans l'apparition des formes graves de cette maladie émergente. En effet, le SARS-CoV2 infecte l'hôte en se fixant aux récepteurs ACE2 présents à la surface des cellules et entraîne une sécrétion excessive de cytokines pro-inflammatoires notamment l'IL-1, l'IL-6 et le TNF-α qui conduisent au développement d'un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigu (SDRA). Il paraît essentiel d'élaborer des stratégies préventives efficaces pour protéger cette partie de la population du risque de développer une forme grave de COVID-19. L'alimentation cétogène, pauvre en sucres et riche en lipides, présente d'intéressantes propriétés, à la fois pour la lutte contre l'obésité mais également contre les infections sévères. Cet article fait le point sur les dernières avancées scientifiques qui permettent d'envisager l'alimentation cétogène comme une stratégie préventive visant à diminuer le développement de l'obésité et à renforcer le système immunitaire, deux actions clés dans la lutte contre l'infection au SARS-CoV2 et le développement de formes graves de COVID-19.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet, Ketogenic , Inflammation/etiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adipocytes/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Diet, Ketogenic/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Leptin/physiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(5): 1655-1665, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349771


BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) serves protective functions in metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, and pulmonary diseases and is linked to COVID-19 pathology. The correlates of temporal changes in soluble ACE2 (sACE2) remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We explored the associations of sACE2 with metabolic health and proteome dynamics during a weight loss diet intervention. METHODS: We analyzed 457 healthy individuals (mean ± SD age: 39.8 ± 6.6 y) with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 in the DIETFITS (Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) study. Biochemical markers of metabolic health and 236 proteins were measured by Olink CVDII, CVDIII, and Inflammation I arrays at baseline and at 6 mo during the dietary intervention. We determined clinical and routine biochemical correlates of the diet-induced change in sACE2 (ΔsACE2) using stepwise linear regression. We combined feature selection models and multivariable-adjusted linear regression to identify protein dynamics associated with ΔsACE2. RESULTS: sACE2 decreased on average at 6 mo during the diet intervention. Stronger decline in sACE2 during the diet intervention was independently associated with female sex, lower HOMA-IR and LDL cholesterol at baseline, and a stronger decline in HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and fat mass. Participants with decreasing HOMA-IR (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.03) and triglycerides (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.72, 4.26) had significantly higher odds for a decrease in sACE2 during the diet intervention than those without (P ≤ 0.0073). Feature selection models linked ΔsACE2 to changes in α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor, E-selectin, hydroxyacid oxidase 1, kidney injury molecule 1, tyrosine-protein kinase Mer, placental growth factor, thrombomodulin, and TNF receptor superfamily member 10B. ΔsACE2 remained associated with these protein changes in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in sACE2 during a weight loss diet intervention was associated with improvements in metabolic health, fat mass, and markers of angiotensin peptide metabolism, hepatic and vascular injury, renal function, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our findings may improve the risk stratification, prevention, and management of cardiometabolic complications.This trial was registered at as NCT01826591.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Body Composition , COVID-19/metabolism , Diet, Reducing , Obesity/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Weight Loss/physiology , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidative Stress , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides/blood , Weight Reduction Programs
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(9): 706-720, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284569


Obesity is strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of severe illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathophysiological changes that result from elevated body weight lead to metabolic dysfunction, chronic inflammation, impaired immunological responses, and multisystem disorders, which increase vulnerability to severe illness from COVID-19. While vaccination strategies are under way across the world, the second and third waves of the pandemic, along with the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains, continue to threaten the stability of medical systems worldwide. Furthermore, evidence from previous pandemics suggests that vaccines are less effective in obese individuals than in their healthy-weight counterparts over the long term. Therefore, a consideration of lifestyle changes that can boost metabolic health and immunity is critical to reduce the risk of complications and severe illness from viral infection. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms linking excess body weight with COVID-19 morbidity. We also present evidence that intermittent fasting (IF), a dietary program that has gained popularity in recent years, may be an effective strategy to improve metabolic health and immunity and thus reduce the impact of obesity on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.

COVID-19 , Fasting , Obesity , COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diet therapy
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 344-355, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159771


The objectives are to present an updated synopsis on osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome and evaluate the roles of selected micronutrients in its prevention and management. OSA refers to the concurrent deterioration of bone (osteopenia/osteoporosis), muscle (sarcopenia) and adipose tissue expansion. It portrays the most advanced stage in a continuum of body composition disorders. Although OSA has been widely studied involving the populations of different backgrounds, its prevalence is hard to collate because different methodologies and criteria were used for its diagnosis. Another critical health aspect is the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) which contributes to OSA and vice versa. Nutrition is important in the prevention and management of both OSA and LGCI. Although micronutrients act in numerous metabolic and physiological processes, their roles here are presented in relation to OSA (and its components) and LGCI in general and relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. These include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and vitamins D and K; their interactions, physiological ratios and synergism/antagonism are discussed as well. In conclusion, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D have a profound impact on OSA and its components, and the latter two also on LGCI. Potassium and vitamin K are vital in bone, muscle functioning and possibly adipose tissue modification. Both, but particularly vitamin D, surfaced as important modulators of immune system with application in COVID-19 infections. While both phosphorus and sodium have important roles in bone, muscle and can impact adiposity, due to their abundance in food, their intake should be curbed to prevent possible damaging effects.

Adiposity , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diet therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/diet therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Syndrome , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/physiology
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111701, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728551


Obesity and its related metabolic disorders, as well as infectious diseases like covid-19, are important health risks nowadays. It was recently documented that long-term fasting improves metabolic health and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity. The present study investigated the influence of a 10-day fasting on markers of the redox status in 109 subjects. Reducing power, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation(ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity increased significantly, and indicated an increase of circulating antioxidant levels. No differences were detected in superoxide scavenging capacity, protein carbonyls, and superoxide dismutase when measured at baseline and after 10 days of fasting. These findings were concomitant to a decrease in blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as an increase in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. In addition, the well-being index as well as the subjective energy levels increased, documenting a good tolerability. There was an interplay between redox and metabolic parameters since lipid peroxidation baseline levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) affected the ability of long-term fasting to normalize lipid levels. A machine learning model showed that a combination of antioxidant parameters measured at baseline predicted the efficiency of the fasting regimen to decrease LDL levels. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that long-term fasting enhanced the endogenous production of antioxidant molecules, that act protectively against free radicals, and in parallel improved the metabolic health status. Our results suggest that the outcome of long-term fasting strategies could be depending on the baseline values of the antioxidative and metabolic status of subjects.

Fasting/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Obesity/diet therapy , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Young Adult