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2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586178

ABSTRACT

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Management , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/therapy
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581734

ABSTRACT

The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to describe pre-treatment characteristics, treatment patterns, health resource use, and clinical outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 in the United States (US) who initiated common treatments for COVID-19. The Optum® COVID-19 electronic health records database was used to identify patients >18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, who were admitted to an inpatient setting and received treatments of interest for COVID-19 between September 2020 and January 2021. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on index treatment use. Patient demographics, medical history, care setting, medical procedures, subsequent treatment use, patient disposition, clinical improvement, and outcomes were summarized descriptively. Among a total of 26,192 patients identified, the most prevalent treatments initiated were dexamethasone (35.4%) and dexamethasone + remdesivir (14.9%), and dexamethasone was the most common subsequent treatment. At day 14 post-index, <10% of patients received any treatments of interest. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) patient age was 65.6 (15.6) years, and the most prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (44.8%), obesity (35.4%), and diabetes (25.7%). At the end of follow-up, patients had a mean (SD) 8.1 (6.6) inpatient days and 1.4 (4.1) days with ICU care. Oxygen supplementation, non-invasive, or invasive ventilation was required by 4.5%, 3.0%, and 3.1% of patients, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 84.2% of patients had evidence of clinical improvement, 3.1% remained hospitalized, 83.8% were discharged, 4% died in hospital, and 9.1% died after discharge. Although the majority of patients were discharged alive, no treatments appeared to alleviate the inpatient morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. This highlights an unmet need for effective treatment options for patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155 Suppl 1: 123-134, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575902

ABSTRACT

Despite the evidence supporting the relevance of obesity and obesity-associated disorders in the development, management, and prognosis of various cancers, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. Growing evidence supports the involvement of obesity in the development of gynecologic malignancies. This article explores the molecular basis governing the alteration of hallmarks of cancer in the development of obesity-related gynecologic malignancies encompassing cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. We highlight specific examples of how development, management, and prognosis are affected for each cancer, incorporate current knowledge on complementary approaches including lifestyle interventions to improve patient outcomes, and highlight how new technologies are helping us better understand the biology underlying this neglected pandemic.


Subject(s)
Endometrial Neoplasms , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Ovarian Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/epidemiology , Ovarian Neoplasms/etiology
5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2617-2622, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of obesity on outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not well understood and remains controversial. Recent studies suggest that obesity might be associated with higher morbidity and mortality in respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 disease). Our objective was to evaluate the association between obesity and hospital mortality in critical COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a tertiary academic center located in Montréal between March and August 2020. We included all consecutive adult patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19-confirmed respiratory disease. Our main outcome was hospital mortality. We estimated the association between obesity, using the body mass index as a continuous variable, and hospital survival by fitting a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: We included 94 patients. Median [q1, q3] body mass index (BMI) was 29 [26-32] kg/m2 and 37% of patients were obese (defined as BMI > 30 kg/m2). Hospital mortality for the entire cohort was 33%. BMI was significantly associated with hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.49 per 10 units BMI; 95% CI, from 1.69 to 3.70; p < 0.001) even after adjustment for sex, age and obesity-related comorbidities (adjusted HR = 3.50; 95% CI from 2.03 to 6.02; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was prevalent in hospitalized patients with critical illness secondary to COVID-19 disease and a higher BMI was associated with higher hospital mortality. Further studies are needed to validate this association and to better understand its underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
6.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 544-549, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526211

ABSTRACT

Standard biomarkers have been widely used for COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis. We hypothesize that thrombogenicity metrics measured by thromboelastography will provide better diagnostic and prognostic utility versus standard biomarkers in COVID-19 positive patients. In this observational prospective study, we included 119 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients and 15 COVID-19 negative patients. On admission, we measured standard biomarkers and thrombogenicity using a novel thromboelastography assay (TEG-6s). In-hospital all-cause death and thrombotic occurrences (thromboembolism, myocardial infarction and stroke) were recorded. Most COVID-19 patients were African--Americans (68%). COVID-19 patients versus COVID-19 negative patients had higher platelet-fibrin clot strength (P-FCS), fibrin clot strength (FCS) and functional fibrinogen level (FLEV) (P ≤ 0.003 for all). The presence of high TEG-6 s metrics better discriminated COVID-19 positive from negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients with sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at least 3 had higher P-FCS, FCS and FLEV than patients with scores less than 3 (P ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons). By multivariate analysis, the in-hospital composite endpoint occurrence of death and thrombotic events was independently associated with SOFA score more than 3 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, P = 0.03], diabetes (OR = 3.3, P = 0.02) and FCS > 40 mm (OR = 3.4, P = 0.02). This largest observational study suggested the early diagnostic and prognostic utility of thromboelastography to identify COVID-19 and should be considered hypothesis generating. Our results also support the recent FDA guidance regarding the importance of measurement of whole blood viscoelastic properties in COVID-19 patients. Our findings are consistent with the observation of higher hospitalization rates and poorer outcomes for African--Americans with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Clot Lysis Time , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Treatment Outcome , /statistics & numerical data
7.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2577-2584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionally affected communities of color. We aimed to determine what factors are associated with COVID-19 testing and test positivity in an underrepresented, understudied, and underreported (U3) population of mothers. METHODS: This study included 2996 middle-aged mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort (a sample of predominantly urban, low-income, Black and Hispanic mothers) who were enrolled shortly after they gave birth and followed onward at the Boston Medical Center. COVID-19 testing and test positivity were defined by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Two-probit Heckman selection models were performed to identify factors associated with test positivity while accounting for potential selection associated with COVID testing. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study mothers was 41.9 (±7.7) years. In the sample, 1741 (58.1%) and 667 (22.3%) mothers were self-identified as Black and Hispanic, respectively. A total of 396 mothers had COVID-19 testing and of those, 95 mothers tested positive from March 2020 to February 2021. Among a multitude of factors examined, factors associated with the probability of being tested were obesity (RR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.49); and presence of preexisting chronic medical conditions including hypertension, asthma, stroke, and other comorbidities (coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease) with a corresponding RR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.23-1.60); 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.50); 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23-1.68); and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.67), respectively. Factors associated with higher incident risk of a positive COVID-19 test were body mass index, birthplace outside of the USA, and being without a college-level education. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the intersectionality of obesity and social factors in modulating incident risk of COVID-19 in this sample of US Black and Hispanic middle-aged mothers. Methodologically, our findings underscore the importance of accounting for potential selection bias in COVID-19 testing in order to obtain unbiased estimates of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Social Factors , Adult , African Americans , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Mothers , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty , Risk Factors
8.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 29(6): 826-841, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine: the pooled prevalence of symptomatic behaviours and mental health deterioration amongst individuals with eating disorders (EDs) and obesity during the COVID-19 confinement. Moreover, we examined changes in EDs and distress before and during the confinement, and the association between psychosocial factors and EDs symptoms. METHOD: A systematic search was carried out in biomedical databases from January 2020 to January 2021. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that used quantitative measures of ED symptoms and psychological distress during and after the COVID-19 confinement were included. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies met inclusion criteria (n = 3399, 85.7% female). The pooled prevalence of symptomatic deterioration in EDs was 65% (95% CI[48,81], k = 10). The pooled prevalence of increased weight in obesity was 52% (95% CI[25,78], k = 4). More than half of the participants experienced depression and anxiety. Moreover, at least 75% of the individuals with EDs reported shape and eating concerns, and increased thinking about exercising. However, the pooled analyses of longitudinal studies showed no significant differences from pre-pandemic levels to the first lockdown phase in Body Mass Index and ED symptoms, whereas only few studies suggested increased distress, particularly among individuals with anorexia nervosa. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of individuals with EDs and obesity reported symptomatic worsening during the lockdown. However, further longitudinal studies are needed to identify vulnerable groups, as well as the long-term consequences of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1396-1403, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates associated with COVID-19 vary widely between countries and, within countries, between regions. These differences might be explained by population susceptibility, environmental factors, transmission dynamics, containment strategies, and diagnostic approaches. We aimed to analyze if obesity and diabetes prevalence are associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates in Mexico. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the mortality rate for each of the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico, one of the countries with highest COVID-19 mortality rate, during the first seven months of the pandemic to identify factors associated with higher mortality, including demographic, health-related characteristics (prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in adults older than 20 years old), and altitude. RESULTS: During the first seven months of the COVID-19 pandemic there were 85,666 deaths reported in Mexico, with a cumulative mortality rate of 67 per 100,000 population. The mean mortality rate for the 2,457 municipalities in Mexico was 33.9 per 100,000 population. At a municipal level, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity, as well as high human development index, and location at < 500 or > 2000 above sea level were associated with higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated obesity and diabetes prevalence explain, in part, high COVID-19 mortality rates registered in certain municipalities in Mexico. These results suggest that a regionalized approach should be considered to successfully limit the impact of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Ecology , Obesity/epidemiology , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Prevalence , Young Adult
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2693, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513540
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e055003, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of physical activity level with COVID-19 mortality risk across body mass index (BMI) categories, and to determine whether any protective association of a higher physical activity level in individuals with obesity may be explained by favourable levels of cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (baseline data collected between 2006 and 2010). Physical activity level was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (high: ≥3000 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-min/week, moderate: ≥600 MET-min/week, low: not meeting either criteria), and biochemical assays were conducted on blood samples to provide biomarker data. SETTING: UK Biobank. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regressions adjusted for potential confounders were performed to determine the associations of exposure variables with COVID-19 mortality risk. Mortality from COVID-19 was ascertained by death certificates through linkage with National Health Service (NHS) Digital. RESULTS: Within the 259 397 included participants, 397 COVID-19 deaths occurred between 16 March 2020 and 27 February 2021. Compared with highly active individuals with a normal BMI (reference group), the ORs (95% CIs) for COVID-19 mortality were 1.61 (0.98 to 2.64) for highly active individuals with obesity, 2.85 (1.78 to 4.57) for lowly active individuals with obesity and 1.94 (1.04 to 3.61) for lowly active individuals with a normal BMI. Of the included biomarkers, neutrophil count and monocyte count were significantly positively associated with COVID-19 mortality risk. In a subanalysis restricted to individuals with obesity, adjusting for these biomarkers attenuated the higher COVID-19 mortality risk in lowly versus highly active individuals with obesity by 10%. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence suggesting that a high physical activity level may attenuate the COVID-19 mortality risk associated with obesity. Although the protective association may be partly explained by lower neutrophil and monocyte counts, it still remains largely unexplained by the biomarkers included in this analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Biological Specimen Banks , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Inflammation , Obesity/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 23(12): 26, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499511

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to those with advanced age and co-morbidities such as heart disease or cancer, obese individuals have also had very high rates of hospitalization, critical illness, need for ventilator support, as well as mortality. A number of factors associated with obesity have led to devastating consequences as these two pandemics have interacted. RECENT FINDINGS: Obese individuals through a combination of structural and cellular level changes have greater risk of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease, which are themselves risk-factors for acquiring COVID-19 disease. These structural changes also result in increased intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressure as well as a restrictive lung physiology that leads to reduction in total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and increase in airway hyper-reactivity. Adipose tissue is also impacted in obese individuals leading to local as well as systemic inflammation, which can contribute to increased release of free fatty acids and systemic insulin resistance. Additionally, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, which act as receptors for SARS-CoV-2 are also significantly increased in obese individuals. The present manuscript reviews these structural, immune, and molecular changes associated with obesity that make obese individuals more vulnerable to acquiring severe COVID-19 and more challenging to manage associated complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Inflammation , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480749

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity already reached epidemic proportions many years ago and more people may die from this pandemic than from COVID-19. However, the figures depend on which measure of fat mass is used. The determination of the associated health risk also depends on the applied measure. Therefore, we will examine the most common measures for their significance, their contribution to risk assessment and their applicability. The following categories are reported: indices of increased accumulation of body fat; weight indices and mortality; weight indices and risk of disease; normal weight obesity and normal weight abdominal obesity; metabolically healthy obesity; the obesity paradox. It appears that BMI is still the most common measure for determining weight categories, followed by measures of abdominal fat distribution. Newer measures, unlike BMI, take fat distribution into account but often lack validated cut-off values or have limited applicability. Given the high prevalence of obesity and the associated risk of disease and mortality, it is important for a targeted approach to identify risk groups and determine individual risk. Therefore, in addition to BMI, a measure of fat distribution should always be used to ensure that less obvious but risky manifestations such as normal weight obesity are identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Mass Index , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477944

ABSTRACT

Food addiction is currently not an official diagnosis (as a standalone disorder substance-related and addictive disorder) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research on differences between addictive-like eating behavior regarding its associations with psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity among individuals with obesity. The objective of the present study was to distinguish psychological and behavioral patterns of individuals with obesity concerning food addiction using a cluster analysis. We determined the profiles of the participants in terms of psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity and evaluated their association with food addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2020, during the lockdown period imposed by the government for the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 507 individuals with obesity aged between 18 and 65 years participated in the present study by filling in the online questionnaire, including the validated Arabic version of the modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale, the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A cluster analysis was performed using the K-mean method to identify and group participants according to their patterns/profiles. A stepwise linear regression was conducted, taking the food addiction score as the dependent variable. Higher levels of uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and stress were significantly associated with higher food addiction score. Belonging to cluster 2 (psychological well-being and cognitive restraint) (B = 14.49) or cluster 3 (moderate psychological distress and cognitive restraint) (B = 6.67) compared to cluster 1 (psychological well-being, appropriate physical activity levels and eating behaviors) was significantly associated with higher food addiction score. The present research revealed that food addiction is significantly associated with higher psychological distress and maladaptive eating behaviors. Higher levels of uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and stress as well as belonging to clusters 2 and 3 were found to be predictors of food addiction in individuals with obesity in the present study. This knowledge could be useful in regard to psychological treatment of obesity and addictive-like eating behavior.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Food Addiction , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Food Addiction/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1505, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global research to predict those who are at greatest risk of developing severe disease and mortality. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the associations between obesity and the severity of and mortality due to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases for studies evaluating the associations of obesity with COVID-19. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to estimate regression coefficients. RESULTS: Forty-six studies involving 625,153 patients were included. Compared with nonobese patients, obese patients had a significantly increased risk of infection. (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.53-4.87; I2 = 96.8%), hospitalization (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.55-1.92; I2 = 47.4%), clinically severe disease (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.97-7.35; I2 = 57.4%), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.42-1.94; I2 = 41.3%), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.55-3.27; I2 = 71.5%), and mortality (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.29-2.01; I2 = 83.1%). CONCLUSION: Patients with obesity may have a greater risk of infection, hospitalization, clinically severe disease, mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and mortality due to COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of these associations with obesity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470863

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study investigates the impact of obesity surgery on mental health (i.e., eating behavior and distress) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Two hundred fifty-four participants were recruited via social media. One hundred fourteen (44.53%) of them were surgery candidates (waiting for obesity surgery), while 142 (55.46%) had already undergone surgery. Participants who underwent surgery were compared to participants that did not yet undergo surgery in terms of mental burden (depression and anxiety), as well as safety and eating behavior. Further moderation analyses attempted to identify risk factors for increased COVID-19-related dysfunctional eating behavior after surgery. Results: Participants who underwent surgery showed generally lower levels of depression and general anxiety on a trend level. Moderation analyses suggested that people with high levels of generalized anxiety actually show more dysfunctional COVID-19-specific eating behavior after obesity surgery. Conclusion: On a trend level, obesity surgery appears to attenuate symptoms of generalized anxiety and depression. Yet, surgery patients with high levels of generalized anxiety exhibit even higher levels of dysfunctional eating during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is therefore particularly important to support people at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700921, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430693

ABSTRACT

Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors present different expression profiles related to the prognosis of COVID-19. We analyzed clinical parameters and assessed the expression of these biomarkers in patients with different disease severity in a hospitalized Peruvian cohort to determine those associated with worse prognosis. We measured anti-spike IgG antibodies by ELISA and 30 cytokines by quantitative suspension array technology in 123 sera samples. We analyzed differences between patients with moderate, severe and fatal COVID-19 by logistic regression at baseline and in longitudinal samples. Significant differences were found among the clinical parameters: hemoglobin, neutrophils, lymphocytes and C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine and D-dimer levels. Higher anti-spike IgG antibody concentrations were associated to fatal patient outcomes. At hospitalization, IL-10, IL-6, MIP-1α, GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, IL-5, IL1RA, TNFα and IL-8 levels were already increased in fatal patients´ group. Meanwhile, multivariable analysis revealed that increased GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, and IL-8 values were associated with fatal outcomes. Moreover, longitudinal analysis identified IL-6 and MCP-1 as the main risk factors related to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this Peruvian cohort we identified and validated biomarkers related to COVID-19 outcomes. Further studies are needed to identify novel criteria for stratification of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at hospital entry. Background: In the most severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, large numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells become activated and begin to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing an exacerbated feedback loop of inflammation. Methods: A total of 55 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen in Lima, Peru were enrolled during August-October 2020. Of these, 21 had moderate disease, 24 severe diseases and 10 died. We measured 30 cytokines and chemokines by quantitative suspension array technology and anti-spike IgG antibodies using a commercial ELISA. We evaluated these parameters in peripheral blood every 2-5 days until patient discharge or death. Patient information and clinical parameters related were obtained from the respective clinical histories. Results: The frequency of obesity differed among the 3 groups, being most frequent in patients who died. There were also significant differences in clinical parameters: hemoglobin, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes,C-reactive protein, creatinine and D-dimer levels. Greater anti-spike IgG antibody concentrations were associated to fatal outcomes. In univariate analyses, higher baseline concentrations of IL-6, MIP-1α, GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, IL-5, IL1RA, TNFα, IL-8 and IL-12p70 correlated with severity, while multivariable analysis showed that increased concentrations in 4 biomarkers (GM-CSF, MCP-1, IL-15, IL-8) were associated with fatal outcomes. Longitudinal analysis showed IL-6 (hazard ratio [HR] 6.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-28.7) and MCP-1 (HR 4.61, 95%CI 1.1-19.1) to be related to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Cytokine, chemokine and growth factor profiles were identified and validated related to severity and outcomes of COVID-19. Our findings may be useful to identify novel criteria for COVID-19 patient stratification at hospital entry.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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