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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2577-2584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionally affected communities of color. We aimed to determine what factors are associated with COVID-19 testing and test positivity in an underrepresented, understudied, and underreported (U3) population of mothers. METHODS: This study included 2996 middle-aged mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort (a sample of predominantly urban, low-income, Black and Hispanic mothers) who were enrolled shortly after they gave birth and followed onward at the Boston Medical Center. COVID-19 testing and test positivity were defined by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Two-probit Heckman selection models were performed to identify factors associated with test positivity while accounting for potential selection associated with COVID testing. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study mothers was 41.9 (±7.7) years. In the sample, 1741 (58.1%) and 667 (22.3%) mothers were self-identified as Black and Hispanic, respectively. A total of 396 mothers had COVID-19 testing and of those, 95 mothers tested positive from March 2020 to February 2021. Among a multitude of factors examined, factors associated with the probability of being tested were obesity (RR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.49); and presence of preexisting chronic medical conditions including hypertension, asthma, stroke, and other comorbidities (coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease) with a corresponding RR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.23-1.60); 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.50); 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23-1.68); and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.67), respectively. Factors associated with higher incident risk of a positive COVID-19 test were body mass index, birthplace outside of the USA, and being without a college-level education. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the intersectionality of obesity and social factors in modulating incident risk of COVID-19 in this sample of US Black and Hispanic middle-aged mothers. Methodologically, our findings underscore the importance of accounting for potential selection bias in COVID-19 testing in order to obtain unbiased estimates of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Social Factors , Adult , African Americans , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Mothers , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty , Risk Factors
2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2577-2584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionally affected communities of color. We aimed to determine what factors are associated with COVID-19 testing and test positivity in an underrepresented, understudied, and underreported (U3) population of mothers. METHODS: This study included 2996 middle-aged mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort (a sample of predominantly urban, low-income, Black and Hispanic mothers) who were enrolled shortly after they gave birth and followed onward at the Boston Medical Center. COVID-19 testing and test positivity were defined by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Two-probit Heckman selection models were performed to identify factors associated with test positivity while accounting for potential selection associated with COVID testing. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study mothers was 41.9 (±7.7) years. In the sample, 1741 (58.1%) and 667 (22.3%) mothers were self-identified as Black and Hispanic, respectively. A total of 396 mothers had COVID-19 testing and of those, 95 mothers tested positive from March 2020 to February 2021. Among a multitude of factors examined, factors associated with the probability of being tested were obesity (RR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.49); and presence of preexisting chronic medical conditions including hypertension, asthma, stroke, and other comorbidities (coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease) with a corresponding RR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.23-1.60); 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.50); 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23-1.68); and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.67), respectively. Factors associated with higher incident risk of a positive COVID-19 test were body mass index, birthplace outside of the USA, and being without a college-level education. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the intersectionality of obesity and social factors in modulating incident risk of COVID-19 in this sample of US Black and Hispanic middle-aged mothers. Methodologically, our findings underscore the importance of accounting for potential selection bias in COVID-19 testing in order to obtain unbiased estimates of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Social Factors , Adult , African Americans , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Mothers , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty , Risk Factors
3.
Cell Metab ; 33(2): 234-241, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198672

ABSTRACT

Long-standing systemic inequalities-fueling unequal access to critical resources such as healthcare, housing, education, and employment opportunities-are largely responsible for the significant race disparities in obesity and COVID-19. Because of this legacy, public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately impact communities of color, exacerbated by high rates of pre-existing chronic diseases like obesity. Learning from this history is instructive for understanding our present situation and for crafting effective solutions that promote health equity. Critical action is needed now to meaningfully address the disproportionate impact of these major public health problems on Black and Brown populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Policy , Obesity/pathology , African Americans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/virology , Health Equity , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/ethnology , Politics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Clin Obes ; 11(4): e12453, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186146

ABSTRACT

The study aims to examine the impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown on weight, overweight and obesity, and identify factors associated with weight gain. At a safety net health system in Massachusetts, 11 534 adults were retrospectively followed within 3 months of the COVID-19 lockdown. Chi-square and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported for categorical and continues variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with weight gain (≥0.01 kg and 5%). During the lockdown period, greater proportion of women gained weight compared to men (46.1% vs 40.6%, P < .01). The obesity rate after the lockdown increased among women (40.7%-41.7, P < .01) but decreased among men (39.6%-38.6, P < .01) compared to before the lockdown. Post-lockdown obesity rates increased among Haitian (51.2%-55.0%, P < .01) and Hispanic women (50.7%-51.8%, P < .01). More than 5% weight gain was associated with 18 to 39 vs ≥60 years of age (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.97), food and housing insecurity (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.97) and tobacco use (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.78) among men; and 18 to 39 vs ≥60 years of age (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.25, 1.91), Hispanics (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.54), Brazilians (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.45), and tobacco use (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.69) among women. During the COVID-19 lockdown, significant proportion of participants gained weight, but subgroup variations existed. Our study can inform healthcare professionals about the impact of the lockdown on unhealthy weight gain and identify vulnerable populations. Strategies are needed to combat unhealthy weight gain during and beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Obesity/etiology , Pandemics , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/ethnology , Odds Ratio , Overweight , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , Young Adult
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1223-1230, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of obesity with in-hospital coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in different ethnic groups. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in the United Kingdom through the Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) developed by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) were included from February 6 to October 12, 2020. Ethnicity was classified as White, South Asian, Black, and other minority ethnic groups. Outcomes were admission to critical care, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality, adjusted for age, sex, and chronic diseases. RESULTS: Of the participants included, 54,254 (age = 76 years; 45.0% women) were White, 3,728 (57 years; 41.1% women) were South Asian, 2,523 (58 years; 44.9% women) were Black, and 5,427 (61 years; 40.8% women) were other ethnicities. Obesity was associated with all outcomes in all ethnic groups, with associations strongest for black ethnicities. When stratified by ethnicity and obesity status, the odds ratios for admission to critical care, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in black ethnicities with obesity were 3.91 (3.13-4.88), 5.03 (3.94-6.63), and 1.93 (1.49-2.51), respectively, compared with White ethnicities without obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was associated with an elevated risk of in-hospital COVID-19 outcomes in all ethnic groups, with associations strongest in Black ethnicities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/ethnology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , United Kingdom , Young Adult
6.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(2): 172-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have shown an association between obesity and adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patient outcomes, there is a paucity in large studies focusing on hospitalized patients. We aimed to analyze outcomes associated with obesity in a large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study at a tertiary care health system of adult patients with COVID-19 who were admitted between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Patients were stratified by body mass index (BMI) into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2) and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m 2) cohorts. Primary outcomes were mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, and 30-day readmission. RESULTS: A total of 1983 patients were included of whom 1031 (51.9%) had obesity and 952 (48.9%) did not have obesity. Patients with obesity were younger (P < 0.001), more likely to be female (P < 0.001) and African American (P < 0.001) compared to patients without obesity. Multivariable logistic models adjusting for differences in age, sex, race, medical comorbidities, and treatment modalities revealed no difference in 60-day mortality and 30-day readmission between obese and non-obese groups. In these models, patients with obesity had increased odds of ICU admission (adjusted OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76; P = 0.012) and intubation (adjusted OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04-1.80; P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in patients with COVID-19 is independently associated with increased risk for ICU admission and intubation. Recognizing that obesity impacts morbidity in this manner is crucial for appropriate management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/ethnology , Odds Ratio , Patient Readmission , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21613, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972258

ABSTRACT

Evidence regarding the relation between SARS-CoV-2 mortality and the underlying medical condition is scarce. We conducted an observational, retrospective study based on Romanian official data about location, age, gender and comorbidities for COVID-19 fatalities. Our findings indicate that males, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease were most frequent in the COVID-19 fatalities, that the burden of disease was low, and that the prognosis for 1-year survival probability was high in the sample. Evidence shows that age-dependent pairs of comorbidities could be a negative prognosis factor for the severity of disease for the SARS-CoV 2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/ethnology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/ethnology , Obesity/mortality , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , Romania/ethnology
8.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 16(8): 1096-1099, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 13, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Shortly after that, it was reported that mortality rates in New York City (NYC), the epicenter of the pandemic in the United States, were found to be significantly higher in black and Hispanic populations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to evaluate the mortality rates in NYC among the different ethnic groups and the different boroughs as they relate to the obesity rates to see whether this issue merits further evaluation. SETTING: NYC. METHODS: COVID-19 data were obtained from the official New York authorities in relation to total number of cases in the different boroughs of NYC. Age-adjusted COVID-19-related mortality rates of the different ethnic groups were also obtained. These data were cross-compared with historic community health data on obesity rates previously published and also obesity rates among the different ethnic groups in NYC. RESULTS: The 2 NYC boroughs that have the highest mortality rates are the Bronx (6%) and Brooklyn (5.4%). Both the Bronx and Brooklyn were also found to have the highest obesity rates at 32% and 27%, respectively. The 2 ethnic groups with the highest obesity rates (Hispanic and black) were also found to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 compared with the other ethnic groups (22.8% and 19.8%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The Hispanic and black populations in NYC seem to be disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic because of the higher incidence of mortality rates. Obesity may have played a role in the high incidence of mortality in those ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Obesity/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
10.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1184-1186, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638210

ABSTRACT

Health inequities exist throughout the life course, resulting in racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in obesity and obesity-related health complications. Obesity and its comorbidities appear to be linked to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. Approaches to reduce obesity in the time of COVID-19 closures are urgently needed and should start early in life. In New York City, a telehealth pediatric weight-management collaborative spanning NewYork-Presbyterian, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Weill Cornell Medicine was developed during COVID-19 with show rates from 76% to 89%. To stave off the impending exacerbation of health disparities related to obesity risk factors in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective interventions that can be delivered remotely are urgently needed among vulnerable children with obesity. Challenges in digital technology access, social and linguistic differences, privacy security, and reimbursement must be overcome to realize the full potential of telehealth for pediatric weight management among low-income and racial/ethnic-minority children.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Obesity Management/methods , Obesity/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Health , New York City/epidemiology , Obesity/ethnology , Obesity/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poverty/ethnology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
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