Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 51
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883640

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to assess the odds ratio of hospitalization and mortality due to COVID-19 in people with obesity using data from residents of Espírito Santo, Brazil. An observational, quantitative, cross-sectional study was carried out from the database available on the official channel of the State Health Secretariat of Espírito Santo. Crude odds ratio estimates (ORs) referring to the association between variables were calculated, as well as adjusted odds ratios (adjusted odds ratios-OR adj.) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI 95%). The results indicate that men, non-white, no education or with lower education level and age over 40 years old were more likely to be hospitalized and died of COVID-19. People with obesity are at risk of hospitalization and death due to COVID-19 54% and 113% higher than people who do not have obesity. People with obesity had a higher chance of hospitalization when they were over 40 years old, had breathing difficulty, and the comorbidities diabetes (2.18 higher) and kidney disease (4.10 higher). The odds ratio of death for people with obesity over 60 years old was 12.51 higher, and those who were hospitalized was 17.9 higher compared to those who were not hospitalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/therapy , Risk Factors
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 624, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671557

ABSTRACT

Obesity and ethnicity are known risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes, but their combination has not been extensively examined. We investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and COVID-19 mortality across different ethnic groups using linked national Census, electronic health records and mortality data for adults in England from the start of pandemic (January 2020) to December 2020. There were 30,067 (0.27%), 1,208 (0.29%), 1,831 (0.29%), 845 (0.18%) COVID-19 deaths in white, Black, South Asian and other ethnic minority groups, respectively. Here we show that BMI was more strongly associated with COVID-19 mortality in ethnic minority groups, resulting in an ethnic risk of COVID-19 mortality that was dependant on BMI. The estimated risk of COVID-19 mortality at a BMI of 40 kg/m2 in white ethnicities was equivalent to the risk observed at a BMI of 30.1 kg/m2, 27.0 kg/m2, and 32.2 kg/m2 in Black, South Asian and other ethnic minority groups, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/ethnology , Obesity/mortality , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , England/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Risk Factors
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0259958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643239

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been widely spread and affected millions of people and caused hundreds of deaths worldwide, especially in patients with comorbilities and COVID-19. This manuscript aims to present models to predict, firstly, the number of coronavirus cases and secondly, the hospital care demand and mortality based on COVID-19 patients who have been diagnosed with other diseases. For the first part, I present a projection of the spread of coronavirus in Mexico, which is based on a contact tracing model using Bayesian inference. I investigate the health profile of individuals diagnosed with coronavirus to predict their type of patient care (inpatient or outpatient) and survival. Specifically, I analyze the comorbidity associated with coronavirus using Machine Learning. I have implemented two classifiers: I use the first classifier to predict the type of care procedure that a person diagnosed with coronavirus presenting chronic diseases will obtain (i.e. outpatient or hospitalised), in this way I estimate the hospital care demand; I use the second classifier to predict the survival or mortality of the patient (i.e. survived or deceased). I present two techniques to deal with these kinds of unbalanced datasets related to outpatient/hospitalised and survived/deceased cases (which occur in general for these types of coronavirus datasets) to obtain a better performance for the classification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Obesity/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Datasets as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Mexico/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis
4.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(1): 33-38, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine effect of body mass index (BMI) on safety and cancer-related outcomes of thermal ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 427 patients (287 men and 140 women; mean [SD] age, 72 [12] y) who were treated with thermal ablation for RCC between October 2006 and December 2017. Patients were stratified by BMI into 3 categories: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2). Of 427 patients, 71 (16%) were normal weight, 157 (37%) were overweight, and 199 (47%) were obese. Complication rates, local recurrence, and residual disease were compared in the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: No differences in technical success between normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were identified (P = .72). Primary technique efficacy rates for normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were 91%, 94%, and 93% (P = .71). There was no significant difference in RCC specific-free survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival between obese, overweight, and normal-weight groups (P = .72, P = .43, P = .99). Complication rates between the 3 cohorts were similar (normal weight 4%, overweight 2%, obese 3%; P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided renal ablation is safe, feasible, and effective regardless of BMI.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Cryosurgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Microwaves/therapeutic use , Obesity/diagnosis , Radiofrequency Ablation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Cryosurgery/adverse effects , Cryosurgery/mortality , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Microwaves/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/mortality , Patient Safety , Radiofrequency Ablation/adverse effects , Radiofrequency Ablation/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e698-e707, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The mechanistic underpinnings of this association are not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mediating role of systemic inflammation in obesity-associated COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This hospital-based, observational study included 3828 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients who were hospitalized February to May 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP). We use mediation analysis to evaluate whether peak inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], D-dimer, ferritin, white blood cell count and interleukin-6) are in the causal pathway between obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and mechanical ventilation or death within 28 days of presentation to care. RESULTS: In the MGH cohort (n = 1202), obesity was associated with greater likelihood of ventilation or death (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = [1.25, 2.41]; P = 0.001) and higher peak CRP (P < 0.001) compared with nonobese patients. The estimated proportion of the association between obesity and ventilation or death mediated by CRP was 0.49 (P < 0.001). Evidence of mediation was more pronounced in patients < 65 years (proportion mediated = 0.52 [P < 0.001] vs 0.44 [P = 0.180]). Findings were more moderate but consistent for peak ESR. Mediation by other inflammatory markers was not supported. Results were replicated in CUIMC/NYP cohort (n = 2626). CONCLUSION: Findings support systemic inflammatory pathways in obesity-associated severe COVID-19 disease, particularly in patients < 65 years, captured by CRP and ESR. Contextualized in clinical trial findings, these results reveal therapeutic opportunity to target systemic inflammatory pathways and monitor interventions in high-risk subgroups and particularly obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255811, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity has emerged as a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To inform treatment considerations the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 complications and the influence of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors deserves continued attention. OBJECTIVE: To determine if obesity is an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 complications and mortality and examine the relationship between BMI, race, ethnicity, distressed community index and COVID-19 complications and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1,019 SARS-CoV-2 positive adult admitted to an academic medical center (n = 928) and its affiliated community hospital (n-91) in New York City from March 1 to April 18, 2020. RESULTS: Median age was 64 years (IQR 52-75), 58.7% were men, 23.0% were Black, and 52.8% were Hispanic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 75.2%; median BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (25.1-33.0). Over the study period 23.7% patients died, 27.3% required invasive mechanical ventilation, 22.7% developed septic shock, and 9.1% required renal replacement therapy (RRT). In the multivariable logistic regression model, BMI was associated with complications including intubation (Odds Ratio [OR]1.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]1.01-1.05), septic shock (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.06), and RRT (OR1.07, CI 1.04-1.10), and mortality (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.06). The odds of death were highest among those with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 (OR 2.05, CI 1.04-4.04). Mortality did not differ by race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distress score, though Black and Asian patients were more likely to require RRT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Severe complications of COVID-19 and death are more likely in patients with obesity, independent of age and comorbidities. While race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status did not impact COVID-19 related mortality, Black and Asian patients were more likely to require RRT. The presence of obesity, and in some instances race, should inform resource allocation and risk stratification in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Shock, Septic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Obesity/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Shock, Septic/mortality , Survival Rate
9.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 130(2): 115-124, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While obesity is related to more severe outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), factors leading to poor prognosis still remain unclear. The present study evaluated the outcomes of COVID-19 patients who were overweight or obese and variables associated with severe disease in a large group of consecutive cases. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was performed using the Turkish National Healthcare Database. Demographic characteristics, laboratory tests, comorbidities, and medications of patients registered between March 11 and May 30, 2020, were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 14, 625 patients (median age:42, IQR:26 years; female 57.4%) with normal weight (34.7%), overweight (35.6%), and obesity (29.7%) were included. Hospitalization, ICU admission, intubation/mechanical ventilation, pulmonary involvement, and mortality were significantly higher in patients who were overweight or obese. In adjusted analyses, both overweight (OR, 95% CI: 1.82, 1.04-3.21; p=0.037) and obesity (OR, 95% CI: 2.69, 1.02-1.05; p<0.001) were associated with a higher intubation/mechanical ventilation rate but only obesity was associated with increased mortality (OR, 95% CI: 2.56, 1.40-4.67; p=0.002). Old age, male gender, chronic kidney disease, and high C reactive protein levels were independently associated with COVID-19 mortality in overweight or obese patients. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients who were overweight or obese were more likely to have adverse outcomes but only obesity was a predictor of mortality. Such patients should receive urgent medical attention and active management, especially the elderly, men, and people with chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Turkey/epidemiology
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295631

ABSTRACT

The finding that high-dose dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring critical care due to COVID-19 will mean much greater usage of glucocorticoids in the subsequent waves of coronavirus infection. Furthermore, the consistent finding of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in individuals with obesity, hypertension and diabetes has focussed attention on the metabolic dysfunction that may arise with critical illness. The SARS coronavirus itself may promote relative insulin deficiency, ketogenesis and hyperglycaemia in susceptible individuals. In conjunction with prolonged critical care, these components will promote a catabolic state. Insulin infusion is the mainstay of therapy for treatment of hyperglycaemia in acute illness but what is the effect of insulin on the admixture of glucocorticoids and COVID-19? This article reviews the evidence for the effect of insulin on clinical outcomes and intermediary metabolism in critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 144, 2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and more severe course of illness in Covid-19 positive patients amongst the British population, it is unclear if this translates into increased mortality. Furthermore, given that BMI is an insensitive indicator of adiposity, the effect of adipose volume on Covid-19 outcomes is also unknown. METHODS: We used the UK Biobank repository, which contains clinical and anthropometric data and is linked to Public Health England Covid-19 healthcare records, to address our research question. We performed age- and sex- adjusted logistic regression and Chi-squared test to compute the odds for Covid-19-related mortality as a consequence of increasing BMI, and other more sensitive indices of adiposity such as waist:hip ratio (WHR) and percent body fat, as well as concomitant cardiometabolic illness. RESULTS: 13,502 participants were tested for Covid-19 (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 48.9% male). 1582 tested positive (mean age 68 ± 9 years, 52.8% male), of which 305 died (mean age 75 ± 6 years, 65.5% male). Increasing adiposity was associated with higher odds for Covid-19-related mortality. For every unit increase in BMI, WHR and body fat, the odds of death amongst Covid19-positive participants increased by 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), 10.71 (95% CI 1.57-73.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively (all p < 0.05). Referenced to Covid-19 positive participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2), Covid-19 positive participants with BMI > 35 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of Covid-19-related death (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.74, p < 0.05). Covid-19-positive participants with metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia) or cardiovascular morbidity (atrial fibrillation, angina) also had higher odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indices that are more sensitive to adipose volume and its distribution than BMI, as well as concurrent cardiometabolic illness, are associated with higher odds of Covid-19-related mortality amongst the UK Biobank cohort that tested positive for the infection. These results suggest adipose volume may contribute to adverse Covid-19-related outcomes associated with obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Mortality , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(5): 1068-1074, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285624

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Introduction: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) encompasses a wide spectrum of symptoms, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, hematological, and dermatological manifestations. The virus interaction with cells located in the respiratory tract causes the release of inflammatory mediators, whose involvement could be exacerbated by co-existing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Objectives: the objective of this research was to analyze the clinically metabolic status in patients who have suffered COVID-19 disease in order to predict the outcome. Methods: this research is a retrospective study based on a cohort of 165 consecutively admitted patients with criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia according to WHO guidelines at the Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro between March and April 2020. Recorded variables included demographic and epidemiological data plus diagnoses as well as morbid complications during hospitalization. The Biochemistry Unit Laboratory carried out laboratory analyses according to validated operational procedures. The statistical tests included univariate and multivariate models adjusted for baseline characteristics and clinically relevant features. Results: the most frequent comorbidity in our cohort was arterial hypertension (44.0 %), followed by dyslipidemia (32.1 %), obesity (30.9 %), and diabetes mellitus (20.0 %). The association between admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) with body mass index (BMI) in a multivariate model was statistically significant, evidencing that obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) have a 19 % higher risk of requiring ICU care. The univariate model revealed a statistically significant association between obesity and ICU admission and length of hospital stay (p < 0.05). The relationship between baseline blood glucose and in-hospital mortality was also statistically significant (p = 0.03), as well as with total cholesterol and ICU admission (p = 0.007). Conclusions: obesity is related to a longer time of hospitalization and a higher rate of admissions to the ICU. Low total cholesterol levels and abnormal baseline blood glucose were risk factors for ICU requirement and in-hospital mortality. Patient categorization based on obesity could be valuable in the development of a precision medicine model within the COVID-19 pandemic.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: la enfermedad por COVID-19 engloba un amplio espectro de síntomas entre los que destacan los trastornos respiratorios, digestivos, hematológicos y dermatológicos. La interacción del virus con las células ubicadas en el tracto respiratorio provoca la liberación de mediadores inflamatorios cuya producción podría estar relacionada con la obesidad, la diabetes y los eventos cardiovasculares. Objetivos: analizar el estado metabólico al ingreso de los pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 y su capacidad para predecir el desenlace clínico. Métodos: este trabajo consiste en un estudio retrospectivo basado en una cohorte de 165 pacientes ingresados consecutivamente en el Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda entre marzo y abril de 2020 con criterios de neumonía COVID-19 según las pautas de la OMS. Las variables registradas incluyeron datos socio-demográficos y epidemiológicos, herramientas diagnósticas y complicaciones durante el ingreso hospitalario. El Servicio de Bioquímica del centro realizó los análisis de laboratorio empleando procedimientos validados. El estudio estadístico incluye modelos univariantes y multivariados, ajustados por las características basales clínicamente relevantes de la población. Resultados: la comorbilidad más frecuente en nuestra población fue la hipertensión arterial (44,0 %), seguida por la dislipemia (32,1 %), la obesidad (30,9 %) y la diabetes mellitus (20,0 %). En el análisis multivariante, la asociación del ingreso en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) resultó estadísticamente significativa, con un 19 % más de riesgo en aquellos pacientes con IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2. El modelo univariante reveló la asociación estadísticamente significativa de la obesidad y el ingreso en la UCI con la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (p < 0,05). La relación entre glucemia basal y mortalidad intrahospitalaria también resultó estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,03). Los niveles bajos de colesterol total se asociaron a una tasa mayor de ingresos en la UCI (p = 0,007). Conclusiones: la obesidad se asocia a una mayor estancia hospitalaria y necesidad de ingreso en la UCI en los pacientes infectados por el SARS-CoV-2. El descenso en las cifras de colesterol total y una glucemia basal alterada son factores de riesgo del ingreso en la UCI y la mortalidad intrahospitalaria. La categorización en función del grado de obesidad de los pacientes podría ser de utilidad en el desarrollo de un modelo de medicina de precisión en el contexto de la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Pericardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse has adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B, ADH1B), rs1260326 (Glucokinase Regulator, GCKR), and rs13107325 (Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 8, SLC39A8)) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participants with and without obesity. RESULTS: Of the 12,937 participants, 4496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8441 were frequent drinkers. Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with or without obesity (All q > 0.10). However, frequent drinking, especially heavy drinking (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.24-3.47; q = 0.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (All q < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associated with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alcohol Dehydrogenase/genetics , Alcohol Drinking , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Obesity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS Virus , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/mortality , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Br J Nutr ; 125(6): 628-632, 2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221095

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, severe disease and mortality have been observed in obese patients. We discuss how obesity and obesity-associated factors such as 'meta-flammation', dietary fat intake and paradoxical suppression of the innate immune response within the pulmonary compartment may be crucial determinants in the host response to a novel viral pathogen. Modulation of immune cell bioenergetics and metabolic potential plays a central role in the innate immune response to infection, and as we strive to combat this new global health threat, immunometabolism of the innate immune system warrants attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/virology , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Fats/immunology , Eating/immunology , Energy Metabolism/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation , Obesity/mortality , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology
16.
Circulation ; 143(2): 135-144, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity may contribute to adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies of large, broadly generalizable patient populations are lacking, and the effect of body mass index (BMI) on COVID-19 outcomes- particularly in younger adults-remains uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at 88 US hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry with data collection through July 22, 2020. BMI was stratified by World Health Organization obesity class, with normal weight prespecified as the reference group. RESULTS: Obesity, and, in particular, class III obesity, was overrepresented in the registry in comparison with the US population, with the largest differences among adults ≤50 years. Among 7606 patients, in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation occurred in 2109 (27.7%), in-hospital death in 1302 (17.1%), and mechanical ventilation in 1602 (21.1%). After multivariable adjustment, classes I to III obesity were associated with higher risks of in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.09-1.51], 1.57 [1.29-1.91], 1.80 [1.47-2.20], respectively), and class III obesity was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.00-1.58]). Overweight and class I to III obese individuals were at higher risk for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.09-1.51], 1.54 [1.29-1.84], 1.88 [1.52-2.32], and 2.08 [1.68-2.58], respectively). Significant BMI by age interactions were seen for all primary end points (P-interaction<0.05 for each), such that the association of BMI with death or mechanical ventilation was strongest in adults ≤50 years, intermediate in adults 51 to 70 years, and weakest in adults >70 years. Severe obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death only in those ≤50 years (hazard ratio, 1.36 [1.01-1.84]). In adjusted analyses, higher BMI was associated with dialysis initiation and with venous thromboembolism but not with major adverse cardiac events. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients are more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19, and are at higher risk of in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation, in particular, if young (age ≤50 years). Obese patients are also at higher risk for venous thromboembolism and dialysis. These observations support clear public health messaging and rigorous adherence to COVID-19 prevention strategies in all obese individuals regardless of age.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Obesity , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Aged , American Heart Association , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/classification , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/therapy , United States/epidemiology
17.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(1): 13-21, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166652

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the clinical syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently a global health pandemic with substantial morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 has cast a shadow on nearly every aspect of society, straining health systems and economies across the world. Although it is widely accepted that a close relationship exists between obesity, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders on infection, we are only beginning to understand ways in which the immunological sequelae of obesity functions as a predisposing factor related to poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. As both the innate and adaptive immune systems are each primed by obesity, the alteration of key pathways results in both an immunosuppressed and hyperinflammatory state. The present review will discuss the cellular and molecular immunology of obesity in the context of its role as a risk factor for severe COVID-19, discuss the role of cytokine storm, and draw parallels to prior viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and 2009 H1N1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Survival Rate
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(3): 540-544, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154970

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Background: nutritional risk has been associated with worse outcomes at the critical care unit. The aim of this study was to describe the association between nutritional risk and length of stay, days on mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: a retrospective cohort of ventilated, critically ill patients. We assessed nutrition risk at baseline using NUTRIC-score. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between NUTRIC-score and clinical outcomes (days on mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality). A survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: a total of 112 patients were included, 39.3 % were overweight and 47.3 % were obese. Based on NUTRIC-Score, 66 % and 34 % of patients were at high and low nutritional risk, respectively. High nutritional risk was associated with increased mortality risk (OR: 2.4, 95 % CI, 1.06-5.47, p = 0.036) and higher 28-day mortality (HR: 2.05, 95 % CI, 1.01-4.23, p = 0.04) in comparison with low risk. Conclusion: high nutritional risk is related to mortality in SARS-CoV-2 critically ill patients. Overweight and obesity are common in this sample. More studies are needed to elucidate the impact of nutritional therapy on infection course and outcomes.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Introducción: el riesgo nutricional se asocia a peores desenlaces en los pacientes en estado crítico. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la asociación entre el riesgo nutricional y los días de estancia hospitalaria, los días de ventilación mecánica y la mortalidad en pacientes infectados por el SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes en estado crítico bajo ventilación mecánica invasiva. Se evaluó el riesgo nutricional utilizando la herramienta NUTRIC-Score. Se utilizaron regresiones lineares y logísticas para evaluar la asociación entre el riesgo nutricional y los desenlaces clínicos (días de ventilación mecánica, días de estancia hospitalaria y mortalidad hospitalaria). Se utilizaron curvas de Kaplan-Meier para analizar la sobrevivencia. Resultados: se incluyeron 112 pacientes, el 39,3 % con diagnóstico de sobrepeso y el 47,3 % con obesidad de acuerdo con el IMC. Utilizando la herramienta NUTRIC-Score, el 66 % tenían riesgo nutricional alto y el 34 % riesgo nutricional bajo. El riesgo nutricional alto se asoció a un mayor riesgo de mortalidad (OR: 2,4; IC 95 %: 1,06-5,47; p = 0,036) y mayor mortalidad a 28 días (HR: 2,05; IC 95 %: 1,01-4,23; p = 0,04) en comparación con los individuos con riesgo nutricional bajo. Conclusión: el riesgo nutricional alto se asocia con mortalidad en los pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 en estado crítico. El sobrepeso y la obesidad son comunes en este grupo de pacientes. Se necesitan más estudios que evalúen el impacto de la terapia nutricional sobre el curso de la infección y los desenlaces clínicos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Nutrition Disorders/mortality , Nutritional Status , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Confidence Intervals , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Odds Ratio , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
20.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(3): 275-280, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been described as a protective factor in cardiovascular and other diseases being expressed as 'obesity paradox'. However, the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes including mortality in COVID-19 has been poorly systematically investigated until now. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients divided into three groups according to the body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data up to May 31st, 2020. 3635 patients were divided into three groups of BMI (<25 kg/m2; n = 1110, 25-30 kg/m2; n = 1464, and >30 kg/m2; n = 1061). Demographic, in-hospital complications, and predictors for mortality, respiratory insufficiency, and sepsis were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of respiratory insufficiency was more recorded in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2 (22.8% vs. 41.8%; p < 0.001), and in BMI > 30 kg/m2 than BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (22.8% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). Sepsis was more observed in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (25.1% vs. 42.5%; p = 0.02) and (25.1% vs. 32.5%; p = 0.006). The mortality rate was higher in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (27.2% vs. 39.2%; p = 0.31) (27.2% vs. 33.5%; p = 0.004). In the Cox multivariate analysis for mortality, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 did not impact the mortality rate (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.889-1.508; p = 0.27) (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.893-1.479; p = 0.27). In multivariate logistic regression analyses for respiratory insufficiency and sepsis, BMI < 25 kg/m2 is determined as an independent predictor for reduction of respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.538-1.004; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HOPE COVID-19-Registry revealed no evidence of obesity paradox in patients with COVID-19. However, Obesity was associated with a higher rate of respiratory insufficiency and sepsis but was not determined as an independent predictor for a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Obesity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Protective Factors , Registries , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL