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1.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(1): 33-38, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine effect of body mass index (BMI) on safety and cancer-related outcomes of thermal ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 427 patients (287 men and 140 women; mean [SD] age, 72 [12] y) who were treated with thermal ablation for RCC between October 2006 and December 2017. Patients were stratified by BMI into 3 categories: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2). Of 427 patients, 71 (16%) were normal weight, 157 (37%) were overweight, and 199 (47%) were obese. Complication rates, local recurrence, and residual disease were compared in the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: No differences in technical success between normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were identified (P = .72). Primary technique efficacy rates for normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were 91%, 94%, and 93% (P = .71). There was no significant difference in RCC specific-free survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival between obese, overweight, and normal-weight groups (P = .72, P = .43, P = .99). Complication rates between the 3 cohorts were similar (normal weight 4%, overweight 2%, obese 3%; P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided renal ablation is safe, feasible, and effective regardless of BMI.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Cryosurgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Microwaves/therapeutic use , Obesity/diagnosis , Radiofrequency Ablation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/secondary , Cryosurgery/adverse effects , Cryosurgery/mortality , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Microwaves/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/mortality , Patient Safety , Radiofrequency Ablation/adverse effects , Radiofrequency Ablation/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105092, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of patients infected with nine different SARS-CoV-2 variants, during three phases of the COVID-19 epidemic in Marseille. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1760 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of Nextstrain clades 20A, 20B, and 20C (first phase, February-May 2020), Pangolin lineages B.1.177 (we named Marseille-2) and B.1.160 (Marseille-4) variants (second phase, June-December 2020), and B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), P.1 (gamma) and A.27 (Marseille-501) variants (third phase, January 2021-today). Outcomes were the occurrence of clinical failures, including hospitalisation, transfer to the intensive-care unit, and death. RESULTS: During each phase, no major differences were observed with regards to age and gender distribution, the prevalence of chronic diseases, and clinical symptoms between variants circulating in a given phase. The B.1.177 and B.1.160 variants were associated with more severe outcomes. Infections occurring during the second phase were associated with a higher rate of death as compared to infections during the first and third phases. Patients in the second phase were more likely to be hospitalised than those in the third phase. Patients infected during the third phase were more frequently obese than others. CONCLUSION: A large cohort study is recommended to evaluate the transmissibility and to better characterise the clinical severity of emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Genome, Viral , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Genotype , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Heart Diseases/pathology , Heart Diseases/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255811, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity has emerged as a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To inform treatment considerations the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 complications and the influence of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors deserves continued attention. OBJECTIVE: To determine if obesity is an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 complications and mortality and examine the relationship between BMI, race, ethnicity, distressed community index and COVID-19 complications and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1,019 SARS-CoV-2 positive adult admitted to an academic medical center (n = 928) and its affiliated community hospital (n-91) in New York City from March 1 to April 18, 2020. RESULTS: Median age was 64 years (IQR 52-75), 58.7% were men, 23.0% were Black, and 52.8% were Hispanic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 75.2%; median BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (25.1-33.0). Over the study period 23.7% patients died, 27.3% required invasive mechanical ventilation, 22.7% developed septic shock, and 9.1% required renal replacement therapy (RRT). In the multivariable logistic regression model, BMI was associated with complications including intubation (Odds Ratio [OR]1.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]1.01-1.05), septic shock (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.06), and RRT (OR1.07, CI 1.04-1.10), and mortality (OR 1.04, CI 1.01-1.06). The odds of death were highest among those with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 (OR 2.05, CI 1.04-4.04). Mortality did not differ by race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distress score, though Black and Asian patients were more likely to require RRT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Severe complications of COVID-19 and death are more likely in patients with obesity, independent of age and comorbidities. While race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status did not impact COVID-19 related mortality, Black and Asian patients were more likely to require RRT. The presence of obesity, and in some instances race, should inform resource allocation and risk stratification in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Shock, Septic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Obesity/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Shock, Septic/mortality , Survival Rate
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295631

ABSTRACT

The finding that high-dose dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring critical care due to COVID-19 will mean much greater usage of glucocorticoids in the subsequent waves of coronavirus infection. Furthermore, the consistent finding of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in individuals with obesity, hypertension and diabetes has focussed attention on the metabolic dysfunction that may arise with critical illness. The SARS coronavirus itself may promote relative insulin deficiency, ketogenesis and hyperglycaemia in susceptible individuals. In conjunction with prolonged critical care, these components will promote a catabolic state. Insulin infusion is the mainstay of therapy for treatment of hyperglycaemia in acute illness but what is the effect of insulin on the admixture of glucocorticoids and COVID-19? This article reviews the evidence for the effect of insulin on clinical outcomes and intermediary metabolism in critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
6.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 144, 2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and more severe course of illness in Covid-19 positive patients amongst the British population, it is unclear if this translates into increased mortality. Furthermore, given that BMI is an insensitive indicator of adiposity, the effect of adipose volume on Covid-19 outcomes is also unknown. METHODS: We used the UK Biobank repository, which contains clinical and anthropometric data and is linked to Public Health England Covid-19 healthcare records, to address our research question. We performed age- and sex- adjusted logistic regression and Chi-squared test to compute the odds for Covid-19-related mortality as a consequence of increasing BMI, and other more sensitive indices of adiposity such as waist:hip ratio (WHR) and percent body fat, as well as concomitant cardiometabolic illness. RESULTS: 13,502 participants were tested for Covid-19 (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 48.9% male). 1582 tested positive (mean age 68 ± 9 years, 52.8% male), of which 305 died (mean age 75 ± 6 years, 65.5% male). Increasing adiposity was associated with higher odds for Covid-19-related mortality. For every unit increase in BMI, WHR and body fat, the odds of death amongst Covid19-positive participants increased by 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), 10.71 (95% CI 1.57-73.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively (all p < 0.05). Referenced to Covid-19 positive participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2), Covid-19 positive participants with BMI > 35 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of Covid-19-related death (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.74, p < 0.05). Covid-19-positive participants with metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia) or cardiovascular morbidity (atrial fibrillation, angina) also had higher odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indices that are more sensitive to adipose volume and its distribution than BMI, as well as concurrent cardiometabolic illness, are associated with higher odds of Covid-19-related mortality amongst the UK Biobank cohort that tested positive for the infection. These results suggest adipose volume may contribute to adverse Covid-19-related outcomes associated with obesity.


Subject(s)
Adiposity/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Mortality , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(5): 1068-1074, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285624

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Introduction: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) encompasses a wide spectrum of symptoms, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, hematological, and dermatological manifestations. The virus interaction with cells located in the respiratory tract causes the release of inflammatory mediators, whose involvement could be exacerbated by co-existing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Objectives: the objective of this research was to analyze the clinically metabolic status in patients who have suffered COVID-19 disease in order to predict the outcome. Methods: this research is a retrospective study based on a cohort of 165 consecutively admitted patients with criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia according to WHO guidelines at the Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro between March and April 2020. Recorded variables included demographic and epidemiological data plus diagnoses as well as morbid complications during hospitalization. The Biochemistry Unit Laboratory carried out laboratory analyses according to validated operational procedures. The statistical tests included univariate and multivariate models adjusted for baseline characteristics and clinically relevant features. Results: the most frequent comorbidity in our cohort was arterial hypertension (44.0 %), followed by dyslipidemia (32.1 %), obesity (30.9 %), and diabetes mellitus (20.0 %). The association between admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) with body mass index (BMI) in a multivariate model was statistically significant, evidencing that obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) have a 19 % higher risk of requiring ICU care. The univariate model revealed a statistically significant association between obesity and ICU admission and length of hospital stay (p < 0.05). The relationship between baseline blood glucose and in-hospital mortality was also statistically significant (p = 0.03), as well as with total cholesterol and ICU admission (p = 0.007). Conclusions: obesity is related to a longer time of hospitalization and a higher rate of admissions to the ICU. Low total cholesterol levels and abnormal baseline blood glucose were risk factors for ICU requirement and in-hospital mortality. Patient categorization based on obesity could be valuable in the development of a precision medicine model within the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Analysis of Variance , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/mortality , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Obesity/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/physiopathology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Pericardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse has adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B, ADH1B), rs1260326 (Glucokinase Regulator, GCKR), and rs13107325 (Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 8, SLC39A8)) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participants with and without obesity. RESULTS: Of the 12,937 participants, 4496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8441 were frequent drinkers. Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with or without obesity (All q > 0.10). However, frequent drinking, especially heavy drinking (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.24-3.47; q = 0.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (All q < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associated with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alcohol Dehydrogenase/genetics , Alcohol Drinking , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Obesity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS Virus , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/mortality , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
Br J Nutr ; 125(6): 628-632, 2021 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221095

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide, severe disease and mortality have been observed in obese patients. We discuss how obesity and obesity-associated factors such as 'meta-flammation', dietary fat intake and paradoxical suppression of the innate immune response within the pulmonary compartment may be crucial determinants in the host response to a novel viral pathogen. Modulation of immune cell bioenergetics and metabolic potential plays a central role in the innate immune response to infection, and as we strive to combat this new global health threat, immunometabolism of the innate immune system warrants attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/virology , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Fats/immunology , Eating/immunology , Energy Metabolism/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation , Obesity/mortality , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology
11.
Circulation ; 143(2): 135-144, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity may contribute to adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies of large, broadly generalizable patient populations are lacking, and the effect of body mass index (BMI) on COVID-19 outcomes- particularly in younger adults-remains uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at 88 US hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry with data collection through July 22, 2020. BMI was stratified by World Health Organization obesity class, with normal weight prespecified as the reference group. RESULTS: Obesity, and, in particular, class III obesity, was overrepresented in the registry in comparison with the US population, with the largest differences among adults ≤50 years. Among 7606 patients, in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation occurred in 2109 (27.7%), in-hospital death in 1302 (17.1%), and mechanical ventilation in 1602 (21.1%). After multivariable adjustment, classes I to III obesity were associated with higher risks of in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.09-1.51], 1.57 [1.29-1.91], 1.80 [1.47-2.20], respectively), and class III obesity was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.00-1.58]). Overweight and class I to III obese individuals were at higher risk for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.09-1.51], 1.54 [1.29-1.84], 1.88 [1.52-2.32], and 2.08 [1.68-2.58], respectively). Significant BMI by age interactions were seen for all primary end points (P-interaction<0.05 for each), such that the association of BMI with death or mechanical ventilation was strongest in adults ≤50 years, intermediate in adults 51 to 70 years, and weakest in adults >70 years. Severe obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death only in those ≤50 years (hazard ratio, 1.36 [1.01-1.84]). In adjusted analyses, higher BMI was associated with dialysis initiation and with venous thromboembolism but not with major adverse cardiac events. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients are more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19, and are at higher risk of in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation, in particular, if young (age ≤50 years). Obese patients are also at higher risk for venous thromboembolism and dialysis. These observations support clear public health messaging and rigorous adherence to COVID-19 prevention strategies in all obese individuals regardless of age.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Obesity , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Factors , Aged , American Heart Association , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/classification , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/therapy , United States/epidemiology
12.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 65(1): 13-21, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166652

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the clinical syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently a global health pandemic with substantial morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 has cast a shadow on nearly every aspect of society, straining health systems and economies across the world. Although it is widely accepted that a close relationship exists between obesity, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders on infection, we are only beginning to understand ways in which the immunological sequelae of obesity functions as a predisposing factor related to poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. As both the innate and adaptive immune systems are each primed by obesity, the alteration of key pathways results in both an immunosuppressed and hyperinflammatory state. The present review will discuss the cellular and molecular immunology of obesity in the context of its role as a risk factor for severe COVID-19, discuss the role of cytokine storm, and draw parallels to prior viral epidemics such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and 2009 H1N1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Survival Rate
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(3): 540-544, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154970

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Background: nutritional risk has been associated with worse outcomes at the critical care unit. The aim of this study was to describe the association between nutritional risk and length of stay, days on mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: a retrospective cohort of ventilated, critically ill patients. We assessed nutrition risk at baseline using NUTRIC-score. Logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between NUTRIC-score and clinical outcomes (days on mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality). A survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: a total of 112 patients were included, 39.3 % were overweight and 47.3 % were obese. Based on NUTRIC-Score, 66 % and 34 % of patients were at high and low nutritional risk, respectively. High nutritional risk was associated with increased mortality risk (OR: 2.4, 95 % CI, 1.06-5.47, p = 0.036) and higher 28-day mortality (HR: 2.05, 95 % CI, 1.01-4.23, p = 0.04) in comparison with low risk. Conclusion: high nutritional risk is related to mortality in SARS-CoV-2 critically ill patients. Overweight and obesity are common in this sample. More studies are needed to elucidate the impact of nutritional therapy on infection course and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Nutrition Disorders/mortality , Nutritional Status , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Body Mass Index , Confidence Intervals , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Odds Ratio , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
15.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(3): 275-280, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been described as a protective factor in cardiovascular and other diseases being expressed as 'obesity paradox'. However, the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes including mortality in COVID-19 has been poorly systematically investigated until now. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients divided into three groups according to the body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data up to May 31st, 2020. 3635 patients were divided into three groups of BMI (<25 kg/m2; n = 1110, 25-30 kg/m2; n = 1464, and >30 kg/m2; n = 1061). Demographic, in-hospital complications, and predictors for mortality, respiratory insufficiency, and sepsis were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of respiratory insufficiency was more recorded in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2 (22.8% vs. 41.8%; p < 0.001), and in BMI > 30 kg/m2 than BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (22.8% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). Sepsis was more observed in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (25.1% vs. 42.5%; p = 0.02) and (25.1% vs. 32.5%; p = 0.006). The mortality rate was higher in BMI 25-30 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 as compared to BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively (27.2% vs. 39.2%; p = 0.31) (27.2% vs. 33.5%; p = 0.004). In the Cox multivariate analysis for mortality, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and BMI > 30 kg/m2 did not impact the mortality rate (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.889-1.508; p = 0.27) (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.893-1.479; p = 0.27). In multivariate logistic regression analyses for respiratory insufficiency and sepsis, BMI < 25 kg/m2 is determined as an independent predictor for reduction of respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.538-1.004; p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HOPE COVID-19-Registry revealed no evidence of obesity paradox in patients with COVID-19. However, Obesity was associated with a higher rate of respiratory insufficiency and sepsis but was not determined as an independent predictor for a high mortality.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Obesity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Protective Factors , Registries , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/etiology
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the wide spread of SARS-CoV2 around the world, the risk of death in individuals with metabolic comorbidities has dangerously increased. Mexico has a high number of infected individuals and deaths by COVID-19 as well as an important burden of metabolic diseases; nevertheless, reports about features of Mexican individuals with COVID-19 are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic features, clinical characteristics and the pharmacological treatment of individuals who died by COVID-19 in the south of Mexico. METHODS: We performed an observational study including the information of 185 deceased individuals with confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19. Data were retrieved from medical records. Categorical data were expressed as proportions (%) and numerical data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Comorbidities and overlapping symptoms were plotted as Venn diagrams. Drug clusters were plotted as dendrograms. RESULTS: The mean age was 59.53 years. There was a male predominance (60.1%). The mean hospital stay was 4.75 ± 4.43 days. The most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (88.77%), fever (71.42%) and dry cough (64.28%). Present comorbidities included diabetes (60.63%), hypertension (59.57%) and obesity (43.61%). The main drugs used for treating COVID-19 were azithromycin (60.6%), hydroxychloroquine (53.0%) and oseltamivir (27.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Mexican individuals who died of COVID-19 had shorter hospital stays, higher frequency of shortness of breath, and higher prevalence of diabetes than individuals from other countries. Also, there was a high frequency of off-label use of drugs for their treatment.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hospital Mortality , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Obesity , Oseltamivir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 762-768, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies show that obesity is a risk factor for hospital admission and for critical care need in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim was to determine whether obesity is a risk factor for unfavourable health outcomes in patients affected by COVID-19 admitted to ICU. METHODS AND RESULTS: 95 consecutive patients with COVID-19 (78 males and 18 females) were admitted to ICU and included in the study. Height, weight, BMI, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, CRP, CPK, ICU and hospital length of stay and comorbidities were evaluated. Participants with obesity had a lower 28 day survival rate from ICU admission than normal weight subjects. Cox proportional hazard model-derived estimates, adjusted for age, gender and comorbidity, confirmed the results of the survival analysis (HR:5.30,95%C.I.1.26-22.34). Obese subjects showed longer hospital and ICU stay as compared with normal weight counterpart.Subjects with obesity showed significantly higher CRP and CPK levels than normal weight subjects. CONCLUSION: In individuals with obesity, careful management and prompt intervention in case of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is necessary to prevent the progression of the disease towards severe outcomes and the increase of hospital treatment costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 595109, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013337

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has aroused global attention. Studies show the link between obesity and severe outcome of influenza and COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to compare the impacts of obesity on the severity and mortality of influenza and COVID-19 by performing a meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science from January 2009 to July 2020. The protocol was registered onto PROSPERO (CRD42020201461). After selection, 46 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. We found obesity was a risk factor for the severity and mortality of influenza (ORsevere outcome = 1.56, CI: 1.28-1.90; ORmortality = 1.99, CI: 1.15-3.46). For COVID-19, obesity was a significant risk factor only for severe outcome (OR = 2.07, CI: 1.53-2.81) but not for mortality (OR = 1.57, CI: 0.85-2.90). Compared with obesity, morbid obesity was linked with a higher risk for the severity and mortality of both influenza (OR = 1.40, CI: 1.10-1.79) and COVID-19 (OR = 3.76, CI: 2.67-5.28). Thus, obesity should be recommended as a risk factor for the prognosis assessment of COVID-19. Special monitoring and earlier treatment should be implemented in patients with obesity and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Obesity/mortality , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): e1097-e1101, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of obesity on disease severity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study designed to evaluate the association between body mass index and risk of severe disease in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Data were abstracted from the electronic health record. The primary endpoint was a composite of intubation or death. SETTING: Two hospitals in Massachusetts (one quaternary referral center and one affiliated community hospital). PATIENTS: Consecutive patients hospitalized with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 admitted between March 13, 2020, and April 3, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 305 patients were included in this study. We stratified patients by body mass index category: < 25 kg/m (54 patients, 18%), ≥ 25 kg/m to < 30 kg/m (124 patients, 41%), ≥ 30 kg/m to < 35 kg/m (58 patients, 19%), and ≥ 35 kg/m (69 patients, 23%). In total, 128 patients (42%) had a primary endpoint (119 patients [39%] were intubated and nine died [3%] without intubation). Sixty-five patients (51%) with body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m were intubated or died. Adjusted Cox models demonstrated that body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m was associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk of intubation or death (95% CI, 1.2-4.3) compared with individuals with body mass index less than 25 kg/m. Diabetes was also independently associated with risk of intubation or death (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7). Fifty-six out of 127 patients (44%) with body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m had diabetes, and the combination of both diabetes and body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m was associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of intubation or death (95% CI, 2.0-10.2) compared with patients without diabetes and body mass index less than 25 kg/m. CONCLUSIONS: Among consecutive patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019, obesity was an independent risk factor for intubation or death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/mortality , Obesity/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244171, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999833

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Peru is among the top ten countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical features of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 and to determine the prognostic factors associated with in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to Hospital Cayetano Heredia; a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients (median age 59 years [IQR:49-68]; 241 (65.31%) male) were included. Most patients (68.56%) reported at least one comorbidity; more frequently: obesity (42.55%), diabetes mellitus (21.95%), and hypertension (21.68%). The median duration of symptoms prior to hospital admission was 7 days (IQR: 5-10). Reported in-hospital mortality was 49.59%. By multiple Cox regression, oxygen saturation (SaO2) values of less than 90% on admission correlated with mortality, presenting 1.86 (95%CI: 1.02-3.39), 4.44 (95%CI: 2.46-8.02) and 7.74 (95%CI: 4.54-13.19) times greater risk of death for SaO2 of 89-85%, 84-80% and <80%, respectively, when compared to patients with SaO2 >90%. Additionally, age >60 years was associated with 1.88 times greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen saturation below 90% on admission is a strong predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. In settings with limited resources, efforts to reduce mortality in COVID-19 should focus on early identification of hypoxemia and timely access to hospital care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Oxygen/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public/methods , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/mortality , Peru , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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