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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 256-261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100755

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the psychological health of individuals and societies. A theoretical framework is required in order to understand this impact and strategies to mitigate it. In this paper, individual and community responses to COVID-19 are discussed from the point of view of attachment theory, a psychological theory which examines the formation and disruption of attachment bonds across the life-span from an evolutionary perspective. The contributions of this perspective to individual psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress, as well as to social responses such as interpersonal violence and stigmatization, are discussed in the light of findings from attachment research. Proposals for incorporating the knowledge derived from attachment theory into therapeutic strategies, as well as in developing community resilience in the face of COVID-19, are discussed based on the available evidence. It is hoped that this information will be of value to clinicians and researchers, as well as to those involved in planning health services and social policy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Theory , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19 , Humans
2.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066794

ABSTRACT

Objective: The conditions created by the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, and mother-infant bonding among women seeking treatment for postpartum depression (PPD).Methods: Baseline data collected in two separate randomized controlled trials of a psychoeducational intervention for PPD in the same geographic region, one prior to COVID-19 (March 2019-March 2020) and one during the COVID-19 pandemic (April-October 2020), were compared. Eligible participants had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥ 10, were ≥ 18 years of age, had an infant < 12 months old, and were fluent in English. Outcomes included PPD (EPDS), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]), and mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ]). All were measured continuously and dichotomized at accepted clinical cutoffs.Results: Of the 603 participants (305 pre-COVID-19; 298 during COVID-19), mothers enrolled during the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher levels of symptoms of PPD (B = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.64 to 2.06; Cohen d = 0.31) and anxiety (B = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.32; Cohen d = 0.30). During COVID-19, women had 65% higher odds of clinically significant levels of depression symptoms (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.31) and 46% higher odds of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in mother-infant bonding.Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that rates and severity of PPD and anxiety symptoms among women seeking treatment for PPD have worsened in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, treatment-seeking mothers have consistently maintained good relationships with their infants. Considering the difficulties women with PPD face when accessing treatment, it is important that strategies are developed and disseminated to safely identify and manage PPD to mitigate potential long-term adverse consequences for mothers and their families.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT03654261 and NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 227, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment scores were examined in uninfected women during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kutahya, a rural province in Turkey's North Aegean region. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in the Kutahya Health Sciences University Hospital obstetrics unit between April 2021 and August 2021. 178 low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBQ) 6 weeks after birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was used to determine postpartum depression and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale was used to determine maternal attachment. RESULTS: In this study, the postpartum depression rate was calculated as 17.4%. When depressed and non-depressed patients were compared, education level, maternal age, BMI, MIBQ score, history of previous pregnancies, route of delivery, previous operation history, economic status, employment status and pregnancy follow-up information were found to be similar (p > 0.05). The ratings on the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale were found to be similar in depressed and non-depressed patients (p > 0.05). The odds of maternal depression for patients who received guests at home was 3.068 (95%CI [1.149-8.191]) times the odds of patients who did not receive guests at home. CONCLUSIONS: Although a relationship has been found between accepting guests in the postpartum period and postpartum depression, it is necessary to investigate in further studies whether there is a causal relationship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Object Attachment , Pregnancy , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Rural Population , Social Determinants of Health , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(11): 2221-2227, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990718

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 stress and anxiety on prenatal attachment during the second trimester of gestation. Pregnancy is an important stage for mothers-to-be in creating representations of themselves as a "mother", with the developing attachment relationship to the unborn child considered as a milestone in the future parent's developmental trajectory. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the national health measures installed can hence have consequences on these representations and on prenatal attachment. Our sample consisted of 95 mothers that were recruited from a prenatal ultrasound screening center. Results suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected prenatal attachment (PAI) with significant correlations between PAI total score and age, anxiety (DASS) and stress (IES-R). When entered in one model looking for predictors of PAI total score, age and COVID-19 stress were the only variables found to significantly predict prenatal attachment. We argue for a cultural component in explaining these results, hypothesizing that stress could trigger defensive strategies, leading to more investment in the attachment relationship, potentially playing the role of a protective factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , Pregnancy , Infant , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Object Attachment , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
5.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 1384-1392, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, parents whose sick babies are undergoing three days of cooling therapy for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are not permitted to cuddle their cooled babies, due to concerns of warming the baby or dislodging breathing tubes or vascular catheters. Parents want to stay and care for their cooled babies and have reported that bonding is adversely affected when they are not permitted to hold them. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Qualitative interviews with 21 parents of cooled babies in NICU (11 mothers and 10 fathers) and 10 neonatal staff (4 consultants and 6 nurses) explored their views and experiences of an intervention to enable parents to cuddle their cooled babies (CoolCuddle). Thematic analysis methods were used to develop the themes and compare them between parents and staff. RESULTS: Five themes were produced. Three themes were comparable between parents and staff: Closeness, a sense of normality and reassurance and support. An additional parent theme reflected their mixed feelings about initial participation as they were apprehensive, but felt that it was an amazing opportunity. Parents and staff described the closeness between parents and babies as important for bonding and breastfeeding. Fathers particularly appreciated the opportunity to hold and bond with their infants. Parents valued the reassurance and support received from staff, and the cuddles helped them feel more normal and more like a family at a very stressful time. In a final staff theme, they discussed the skills, number of staff and training needed to undertake CoolCuddle in NICU. CONCLUSIONS: Parents cuddling their babies during cooling therapy enhanced parent-infant bonding and family-centred care in NICU and was positively received. Adverse perinatal mental health, impaired mother-infant bonding and their effects on the establishment of breastfeeding may be ameliorated by introducing CoolCuddle. PATIENT CONTRIBUTION: Our parent advisors contributed to the interview topic guides and endorsed the themes from the analysis.


Subject(s)
Hypothermia, Induced , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Intensive Care, Neonatal/psychology , Object Attachment , Parents/psychology
6.
Attach Hum Dev ; 24(3): 384-391, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900894
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841375

ABSTRACT

Adolescents' depressive social withdrawal is a relevant concern for mental health professionals, and it is widespread among community teenagers in form of subclinical symptoms. Different studies suggest that insecure attachment representations increase the adolescents' likelihood to show symptoms of withdrawal (e.g., loneliness). This study explored the effect of the general attachment internal working model (IWM) and the independent and cumulative effects of the specific attachment representations of parents-in terms of secure base/safe haven-and peers on adolescents' withdrawal. Additionally, the mediation of peer attachment on the effect of parental attachment on symptoms was explored. All analyses were conducted controlling for the difference between teenagers living with parents together or divorced/separated, as children of divorcees are considered more exposed to stressors. Ninety-one adolescents aged 12-17 years old were assessed online during the COVID pandemic period, employing the Youth Self-Report to assess withdrawal and the Friends and Family Interview to assess attachment-general IWM and attachment-specific representations. Results show no influence of parents together/separated or of the general IWM on withdrawal, but higher parent secure base/safe haven and peer attachment cumulatively predicted 10-21% less withdrawal. Moreover, more positive peer attachment mediated 61% of the effect of the parental secure attachment on withdrawal, revealing an indirect effect of parental attachment on withdrawal through peer attachment. In conclusion, both parents and peers are influential on adolescent mental health, and fostering positive peer relationships can buffer the effect of dysfunctional family relationships on teenagers' withdrawal.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antisocial Personality Disorder , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Object Attachment , Parent-Child Relations , Peer Group
8.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 62, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An insecure attachment style is an important risk factor for psychological problems. The aim of this study was to use Bartholomew and Horowitz's model (Bartholomew and Horowitz in J Pers Soc Psychol 61(2): 226, 2019) to test a sample of Italian individuals to determine the mediation role of loneliness and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms in the relationship between attachment styles and mental health issues in the context of the pandemic. METHOD: A cross-sectional research study was conducted using a sample of 330 Italian participants (82.1% women; mean age = 34.3 years; SD = 13.16) who completed online self-reported measures of attachment styles (RQ), loneliness (RULS), COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms (C-19ASS) and mental health problems (GHQ-12). Serial mediation analyses were performed, and bootstrap tests were included. RESULTS: Our results supported the hypothesized model with respect to each attachment style (p < 0.001). In particular, insecure attachment styles predict mental health problems both directly and indirectly, through loneliness and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms. In addition, loneliness directly influences mental health problems and also mediates the relationship between insecure attachment styles and COVID-19-related anxiety symptoms which, in turn, positively predict mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the importance of attachment in people's processes of adapting to experiences during the coronavirus pandemic. The study makes an important contribution to developing effective prevention and intervention strategies to support people's wellbeing in the context of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health , Object Attachment , Pandemics
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 75-79, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719340

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 is severely affecting mental health worldwide, although individual response may vary. This study aims to investigate the psychological distress perceived by the Italian general population during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to analyze affective temperament and adult attachment styles as potential mediators. Through an online survey, we collected sociodemographic and lockdown-related information and evaluated distress, temperament, and attachment using the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire short version (TEMPS-A) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). In our sample (n = 500), 62% of the individuals reported no likelihood of psychological distress, whereas 19.4% and 18.6% displayed mild and moderate-to-severe likelihood. Cyclothymic (OR: 1.24; p < 0.001), depressive (OR: 1.52; p < 0.001) and anxious (OR: 1.58; p = 0.002) temperaments, and the ASQ "Need for approval" (OR: 1.08; p = 0.01) were risk factors for moderate-to-severe psychological distress compared to no distress, while the ASQ "Confidence" (OR: 0.89; p = 0.002) and "Discomfort with closeness" were protective (OR: 0.92; p = 0.001). Cyclothymic (OR: 1.17; p = 0.008) and depressive (OR: 1.32; p = 0.003) temperaments resulted as risk factors in subjects with moderate-to-severe psychological distress compared to mild distress, while the ASQ "Confidence" (OR: 0.92; p = 0.039) and "Discomfort with closeness" (OR: 0.94; p = 0.023) were protective. Our data indicated that a relevant rate of individuals may have experienced psychological distress following the COVID-19 outbreak. Specific affective temperament and attachment features predict the extent of mental health burden. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first data available on the psychological impact of the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on a sizeable sample of the Italian population. Moreover, our study is the first to investigate temperament and attachment characteristics in the psychological response to the ongoing pandemic. Our results provide further insight into developing targeted intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Affect , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cyclothymic Disorder/psychology , Depression/psychology , Object Attachment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Temperament , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
10.
Pediatr Res ; 91(4): 853-861, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between mental health symptoms, along with psychological experiences and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related concerns, and self-reported maternal-infant bonding experiences of postpartum women. METHODS: Using data collected from May 19 to August 17, 2020, this cross-sectional online study assessed 429 women to better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women during the postpartum period. Enrolled respondents were asked to participate in a 30-45-min online survey about COVID-19-related experiences, pregnancy, stress, and well-being. RESULTS: Postpartum women's depressive symptoms were related to lower quality maternal-infant bonding, but the anxiety symptoms were not associated with bonding. Maternal self-efficacy, but not social support, was associated with mothers' higher quality of maternal-infant bonding. COVID-19-related grief was significantly associated with lower quality bonding. On the other hand, COVID-19-related health worries were associated with higher quality of maternal-infant bonding. CONCLUSIONS: We describe potential psychological risk factors to maternal-infant bonding among postpartum women during the pandemic period. To best support the medical and psychological well-being of the mothers and infants, enhanced interdisciplinary partnerships among perinatal healthcare professionals involved in primary and/or specialty care is needed. IMPACT: Unique COVID-19-related health and grief concerns exist, with implications for maternal-infant bonding. Depression but not anxiety is associated with lower maternal-infant bonding. Caregiving confidence, but not social support, is associated with higher maternal-infant bonding. It is critical to screen for postpartum depression and COVID-19-related grief during maternal follow-up and pediatric visits. Study findings inform and prioritize pediatric interventions toward enhancing maternal-infant bonding during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mothers/psychology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy
11.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(7): 532-539, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how sociodemographic characteristics and various aspects of parent well-being, family functioning, parent-child relationship, and child characteristics are related to psychological functioning in children aged 9 to 12 years during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHOD: Participants included 144 children aged 9 to 12 years and their parents who lived in the province of Quebec, Canada, during the COVID-19 mandatory lockdown. Parents and children were administered a phone-based survey in which various child, parent, parent-child, and family characteristics were assessed. RESULTS: Results showed that higher internalizing problems in children were related to greater depressive symptoms in parents, lower attachment security to parents, and greater aversion to aloneness in children. Results on externalizing behavior problems showed that more problems were associated with more family dysfunction and chaos and lower attachment security to parents. Finally, results on children's anxiety toward COVID-19 showed that more anxiety was associated with greater parental anxiety toward COVID-19 and more child aversion to aloneness. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that even during an unusual and stressful context such as a pandemic, proximal variables such as the attachment relationship that have been known to be closely associated with adaptation are significantly related to child psychological functioning. Such observations are important because they highlight factors that may accentuate child vulnerability in times of a pandemic and shed light on potential intervention targets.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms/psychology , COVID-19 , Child Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Psychosocial Functioning , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Object Attachment , Quebec
13.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(11): 1200-1207, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396818

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects as many as 20% of mothers, yet just 1 in 10 of these women receives evidence-based treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased PPD risk, reduced treatment access, and shifted preferences toward virtual care. Objective: To determine whether an online 1-day cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based workshop added to treatment as usual improves PPD, anxiety, social support, mother-infant relationship quality, and infant temperament more than treatment as usual alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 403 women with PPD who were recruited across Ontario, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic (April 20 to October 4, 2020). Women with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores of at least 10 who were 18 years or older and had an infant younger than 12 months were eligible. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive a live, interactive online 1-day CBT-based workshop delivered by a registered psychotherapist, psychiatrist, or clinical psychology graduate student in addition to treatment as usual (n = 202) or to receive treatment as usual and wait-listed to receive the workshop 12 weeks later (n = 201). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in PPD (EPDS scores) in experimental and wait list control groups 12 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes included maternal anxiety (7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire [GAD-7]), social support (Social Provisions Scale), quality of the mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire), and infant temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form). Results: Participants all identified as women with a mean (SD) age of 31.8 (4.4) years. The workshop led to significant mean (SD) reductions in EPDS scores (from 16.47 [4.41] to 11.65 [4.83]; B = -4.82; P < .001) and was associated with a higher odds of exhibiting a clinically significant decrease in EPDS scores (odds ratio, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.66-6.46). The mean (SD) GAD-7 scores decreased from 12.41 (5.12) to 7.97 (5.54) after the workshop (B = -4.44; 95% CI, -5.47 to -3.38; P < .001) and participants were more likely to experience a clinically significant change (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.99-4.81). Mothers also reported improvements in bonding (B = -3.22; 95% CI, -4.72 to -1.71; P < .001), infant-focused anxiety (B = -1.64; 95% CI, -2.25 to 1.00; P < .001), social support (B = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.57; P < .001), and positive affectivity/surgency in infants (B = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.56; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, an online 1-day CBT-based workshop for PPD provides an effective, brief option for mothers, reducing PPD and anxiety as well as improving social support, the mother-infant relationship, and positive affectivity/surgency in offspring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression, Postpartum/therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Mother-Child Relations , Psychotherapy, Brief , Social Support , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior/physiology , Object Attachment , Ontario , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Temperament/physiology
14.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 756-764, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366670

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the psychological implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for father-child bonding and mental health among Italian gay fathers pursuing surrogacy in the USA or Canada? DESIGN: Between 20 March and 29 July 2020, this cross-sectional case-control study collected data on father-child bonding quality, depression, anxiety and somatization in 30 Italian gay fathers (n=15 families) who were having or successfully had a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. These fathers were compared with a sociodemographically similar group of 50 Italian gay fathers (n=25 families) who had children through cross-border surrogacy prior to the pandemic. RESULTS: Although father-child bonding quality and the mental health symptoms of fathers scored below the clinical cut-off points in both groups, fathers who had or were having a child during the COVID-19 pandemic reported poorer father-child bonding (estimate 3.04, SE 1.47, P=0.044) and more depressive (estimate -1.47, SE 0.49, P=0.005), anxious (estimate -1.96, SE 0.55, P<0.001) and somatic symptoms (estimate -2.48, SE 0.52, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for the development of international guidelines for cross-border surrogacy and underline the need for tailored and ongoing psychological and legal support for intended gay fathers to ease their strain and anxiety related to having a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fathers/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Object Attachment , Parenting/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , Canada , Case-Control Studies , Depression/complications , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surrogate Mothers , United States
15.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 43: 146-150, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292671

ABSTRACT

In this review, we suggest attachment science as a framework for understanding the negative impact of loneliness and social disconnection on mental and physical health and for guiding the interventions of clinicians. We provide an overview of current findings linking loneliness and social isolation to mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, as well as to physical illnesses such as heart disease. We propose emotionally focused therapy for couples, families, and individuals to enhance the quality of people's emotional ties to significant others and their subjective sense of social connectedness. We conclude by suggesting that the strengthening of emotional, interpersonal bonds, which is the primary focus of all forms of emotionally focused therapy, can help restore emotional balance, thereby protecting people from chronic feelings of isolation and the host of health problems that they can cause.


Subject(s)
Emotion-Focused Therapy , Anxiety Disorders , Emotions , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Object Attachment
17.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E556-E562, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health of postpartum women has worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the experiences that underlie this remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine how people in Canada who gave birth during the pandemic were affected by policies aimed at limiting interpersonal contact to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission in hospital and during the early weeks postpartum. METHODS: We took a social constructionist approach and used a qualitative descriptive methodology. Sampling methods were purposive and involved a mix of convenience and snowball sampling via social media and email. Study inclusion was extended to anyone aged 18 years or more who was located in Canada and was pregnant or had given birth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were obtained via semistructured qualitative telephone interviews conducted between June 2020 and January 2021, and were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-five interviews were conducted; data from 57 women who had already delivered were included in our analysis. We identified the following 4 themes: negative postpartum experience in hospital owing to the absence of a support person(s); poor postpartum mental health, especially in women with preexisting mental health conditions and those who had had medically complicated deliveries; asking for help despite public health regulations that prohibited doing so; and problems with breastfeeding owing to limited in-person follow-up care and lack of in-person breastfeeding support. INTERPRETATION: Policies that restrict the presence of support persons in hospital and at home during the postpartum period appear to be causing harm. Measures to mitigate the consequences of these policies could include encouraging pregnant people to plan for additional postpartum support, allowing a support person to remain for the entire hospital stay and offering additional breastfeeding support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Object Attachment , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Young Adult
19.
Neonatal Netw ; 40(2): 117-120, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160569

ABSTRACT

During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, containment strategies aimed at limiting the spread of the virus were implemented but not to the extent as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Research is ongoing regarding disease symptomatology, transmission, and treatment for COVID-19. There are limited data regarding the effects of social distancing practices and restrictive hospital-visitation policies on the parent-infant dyad. The purpose of this commentary is to explore the implications of isolation practices on the parent-infant dyad during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Object Attachment , Parent-Child Relations , Social Isolation/psychology , Awareness , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Self Concept
20.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 440-454, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145315

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed so many aspects of our lives. For psychotherapists, telehealth is likely a permanent part of the future mental health landscape. For family therapists using a manualized treatment, this brings unique challenges and creative opportunities. In this article, we describe the adaptation of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) in the context of telehealth and COVID-19. ABFT is an empirically supported treatment model designed for adolescents and young adults struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, and suicide. ABFT is a semi-structured, process-oriented, and trauma-informed family therapy model which presents its own unique challenges and benefits in telehealth environments. We present our adaptations based on years of telehealth clinical experience and address how this model supports the impact of COVID-19 on families.


Subject(s)
Couples Therapy/methods , Family Therapy/methods , Object Attachment , Telerehabilitation/methods , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Psychological , Professional-Family Relations , Young Adult
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