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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 215, 2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lack of control over life situations is an important social determinant that may negatively affect parental and child health. This study took place in an area of Stockholm, Sweden with high indications of socioeconomic disadvantage, a large part of the population with foreign background, as well as higher levels of poor health than the county average. It investigated staff perceptions of pathways from situations of low control, potentially leading to health inequities, affecting families enrolled in an early childhood home visiting programme during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 23 child health care nurses and parental advisors working in a home visiting programme. The data was analysed using Reflexive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in five pathways on two explanatory levels, affecting parents' health and parenting capacity and children's health and well-being, potentially damaging health and leading to health inequities. The first four pathways related to control at the personal explanatory level: Families facing instability and insecurity; Caring for children in crowded and poor housing conditions; Experiencing restricted access to resources; and Parenting with limited social support. The fifth pathway, Living in a segregated society, covered the collective experience of lack of control on community level. The Covid-19 pandemic was observed to negatively affect all pathways and thus potentially aggravate health inequities for this population. The pandemic has also limited the delivery of home visits to the families which creates further barriers in families' access to resources and increases isolation for parents with already limited social support. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of pathways connected to health inequities presented in this study highlights the importance of considering this variety of influences when designing interventions for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The additional negative consequences of Covid-19 indicate the need for sustainable preventive early childhood interventions for families in such areas. The study also emphasizes the need for further research as well as policy action on possible long-term effects of changing behaviours during the Covid-19 period on child health and health equity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was retrospectively registered (11 August 2016) in the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN11832097 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Poverty Areas , COVID-19/epidemiology , House Calls , Humans , Observation , Qualitative Research , Sweden/epidemiology
2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 77, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, myocardial injury is increasingly reported and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the pathophysiology, extent of myocardial injury and clinical significance remains unclear. METHODS: COVID-HEART is a UK, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and elevated troponin (sex-specific > 99th centile). Baseline assessment will be whilst recovering in-hospital or recently discharged, and include cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, quality of life (QoL) assessments, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biomarkers and genetics. Assessment at 6-months includes repeat CMR, QoL assessments and 6-min walk test (6MWT). The CMR protocol includes cine imaging, T1/T2 mapping, aortic distensibility, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in selected patients. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) characterise the extent and nature of myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients with an elevated troponin, (2) assess how cardiac involvement and clinical outcome associate with recognised risk factors for mortality (age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities) and genetic factors, (3) evaluate if differences in myocardial recovery at 6 months are dependent on demographics, genetics and comorbidities, (4) understand the impact of recovery status at 6 months on patient-reported QoL and functional capacity. DISCUSSION: COVID-HEART will provide detailed characterisation of cardiac involvement, and its repair and recovery in relation to comorbidity, genetics, patient-reported QoL measures and functional capacity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 58667920. Registered 04 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , Research Design , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Contrast Media , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Observation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , United Kingdom , Walk Test
4.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1534-1539, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153258

ABSTRACT

Patient-provider communication is a hallmark of high-quality care and patient safety; however, the pace and increasingly complex challenges that face overextended teams strain even the most dedicated clinicians. The COVID-19 pandemic has further disrupted communication between clinicians and their patients and families. The dependence on phone communication and the physical barriers of protective gear limit nonverbal communication and diminish clinicians' ability to recognize and respond to emotion. Developing new approaches to teach communication skills to trainees who are often responsible for communicating with patients and their families is challenging, especially during a pandemic or other crisis. "Just-in-time" simulation-simulation-based training immediately before an intervention-provides the scaffolding and support trainees need for conducting difficult conversations, and it enhances patients' and families' experiences. Using a realistic scenario, the author illustrates key steps for effectively using just-in-time simulation-based communication training: assessing the learner's understanding of the situation; determining what aspects of the encounter may prove most challenging; providing a script as a cognitive aid; refreshing or teaching a specific skill; preparing learners emotionally through reflection and mental rehearsal; coaching on the approach, pace, and tone for a delivery that conveys empathy and meaning; and providing specific, honest, and curious feedback to close a performance gap. Additionally, the author acknowledges that clinical conditions sometimes require learning by observing rather than doing and has thus provided guidance for making the most of vicarious observational learning: identify potential challenges in the encounter and explicitly connect them to trainee learning goals, explain why a more advanced member of the team is conducting the conversation, ask the trainee to observe and prepare feedback, choose the location carefully, identify everyone's role at the beginning of the conversation, debrief, share reactions, and thank the trainee for their feedback and observations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Competence/standards , Learning/physiology , Observation/methods , Patient-Centered Care/standards , Training Support/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cognition/physiology , Communication , Computer Simulation , Emotions/physiology , Empathy/physiology , Feedback , Humans , Male , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Interprof Care ; 34(5): 614-621, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772841

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020. The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 required an equally rapid response from health-care organizations to find innovative ways to utilize the existing workforce to care for people with COVID-19. Using an evaluative case study, a unique insight into the collaborative allied health and nursing professions' response to COVID-19 at a specialist cardiothoracic hospital in the United Kingdom is presented. The aim of the case study was to evaluate how an interprofessional workforce from the wider organization could be supported to work in critical care as part of a crisis response. In identifying the key enablers to setting up an interprofessional Essential Care Team and learning from the lived experiences of those involved, this case study has demonstrated that, in supported, interprofessional teams the wider organizational workforce can be facilitated to effectively and safely provide critical care services. The lessons learned from this study will support future pandemic responses and aid the identification of further opportunities for interprofessional learning and practice. Ultimately, the study highlights that by identifying and investing in the key enablers, health-care organizations can be better prepared to respond to a global crisis.


Subject(s)
Allied Health Personnel , Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Nursing Care , Patient-Centered Care/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Observation , Organizational Case Studies , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
7.
Gac Sanit ; 35(3): 298-301, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680037

ABSTRACT

The confinement of the population, researchers, shows the need to adapt the qualitative methodology, techniques and tools, to the current context generated by COVID-19. The Internet and the social media allow the collection of textual data, sequences, images or narratives about a limited reality for access to it in person. We enter the era of e-research, nuancing and reorienting the observation, conversation, collection and analysis of information. Currently, we are working on techniques and models of good practice in this area. This note includes data collection tools used in qualitative research in health sciences, a selection of techniques for qualitative online research is made, and 10 rules for the design of an e-research of this type are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , Health Information Management/methods , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Quarantine , Communication , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Observation/methods
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