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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 719668, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533720

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated precautionary measures have substantial impacts not only on the medical, economic, and social context but also on psychological health. This study aimed to assess the obsession toward COVID-19 preventive measures among undergraduate medical students during the early phase of the pandemic in Jordan. Methods: Online questionnaires were distributed between March 16, 2020 and March 19, 2020. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected, and self-reported obsession toward COVID-19 preventive measures was assessed using a single question.COVID-19 knowledge, risk perception, and precautionary measures were evaluated using scales. Using the chi-square test, Student t-test, and one-way ANOVA, we assessed the differences in the obsession of students with socio-demographic characteristics and scores of the scales. Results: A total of 1,404 participants (60% were female participants) completed the survey with a participation rate of 15.6%. Obsession with preventive measures was reported by 6.8%. Obsession was significantly more common among women (9.2%) than men (3.3%) and students who attended COVID-19 lectures (9.5%) than those who did not attend such lectures (5.8%) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.015, respectively). Obsessed participants reported significantly higher levels of COVID-19 knowledge (p = 0.012) and precautionary measures (p < 0.001). COVID-19 risk perception had a mild effect size difference but with no statistical significance (p = 0.075). There were no significant differences in the academic levels of participants (p = 0.791) and universities (p = 0.807) between students who were obsessed and those who were not. Conclusions: Obsession is one of the significant but unspoken psychological effects of COVID-19 precautionary measures among undergraduate medical students. Medical schools should be equipped with means to handle pandemic psychological effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Obsessive Behavior , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian Federal government has locked down schools as one measure to contain Covid-19 pandemic. Psychological effect of COVID-19 on students is increased due to the reopening of schools. The psychological effect of the pandemic is increasing along with physical aspect of health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the psychological impact of Covid-19 and its contributing factors of students' behavior in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional design was conducted from November to December 2020. Data were collected using pre tested self- administered questionnaire from secondary school students in Gondar city North West Ethiopia. Stratified simple random sampling technique was used to select 403 secondary school students. Data were entered and cleaned with Epidata version 4.62 and exported for analysis STATA version 14. Multivariable logistic regression and multiple linear regression were used to show the association of dependent and independent variables. Independent variables in relation to dependent variable measured using odd ratios and B coefficient with 95% confidence interval for Covid-19 anxiety and preventive behavior of Covid-19 respectively were used. RESULTS: A total of 370 students were participated giving response rate of 92%. The prevalence of Covid-19 anxiety and obsession among secondary school students were 38.1% and 40.27% respectively. Being 11thgrade 54% (AOR = 0.46; 95%CI:0.22, 0.95) and increased knowledge16% (AOR = 0.84;95%CI: 0.77, 0.89) score associated with decreased COVID-19 anxiety while Covid-19 obsession, 14.51 times (AOR = 14.51;95%CI: 8.05, 26.17), and being female 1.6 times (AOR = 1.6; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.51) increased Covid-19 Anxiety. Furthermore, increased self-efficacy 0.5 times (B = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.28, 0.62), and increased cues to action 0.4 times (B = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.69) increased preventive behavior of Covid-19 while perceived barrier 0.1 times (B = -0.1; 95%CI:-0.22, 0.01) decrease preventive behavior of Covid-19. CONCLUSION: Almost two individuals of five participants developed COVID-19 anxiety and COVID-19 obsession. Being grade 11th and knowledge were negatively associated with anxiety while being female and being obsessed with COVID-19 were positively associated with anxiety. No variable was associated with obsession of Covid-19. Intervention is needed to reduce anxiety among females. Furthermore, perceived barrier, self-efficacy and cues to action were significant factors of preventive behaviour of Covid-19. Therefore, to increase preventive behaviour of Covid-19, information, education and communication and behavioural change communication should be targeted on reducing barriers and increasing motivations and confidences.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive Behavior/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Self Efficacy , Sex Factors , Young Adult
3.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1131-1137, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With concern over the rise in mental health symptoms associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, the present study set out to address the absence of pandemic-specific screening tools for detecting those in Chinese societies who are at-risk for experiencing mental distress due to the pandemic; thus, its aim was to validate the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) and Obsession with COVID-19 Scale (OCS) in Chinese adults. METHODS: With a two-stage cluster random sampling method, we surveyed 1011 Chinese community-dwelling adults (38.8% men; 41.2 years old on average with an SD of 15.8) in June and July of 2020. RESULTS: Our psychometric evaluation results showed that the Chinese version of CAS and OCS retained their original one-dimensional structure and demonstrated measurement invariance across genders. In line with validation studies of the CAS and OCS in other languages, subsequent analyses also provided support to our Chinese version with respect to their satisfactory internal consistency (α = .87 and .73, respectively), and good concurrent validity (i.e., positive associations with negative feelings, excessive time-consumption, subjective distress, and functioning impairment). LIMITATIONS: Due to constraints of time and cross-sectional design, we only validated CAS and OCS among Chinese adults and did not evaluate their test-retest reliability nor predictive validity. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the practical benefits of understanding the source of mental symptoms during the pandemic, we recommend the use of CAS and OCS in Chinese communities to facilitate early identification and intervention for those who require clinical attention due to their COVID-19 related anxiety and obsessive thoughts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Language , Male , Obsessive Behavior , Probability , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 155-162, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contamination-prevention behaviors such as mask wearing and physical distancing are crucial to reduce coronavirus transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesized that engagement in these behaviors could provoke obsessions and phobias in vulnerable individuals in the community. METHODS: A total of 2117 participants, systematically selected to represent the age, gender, and race distributions of the US population, completed an online survey that assessed demographic characteristics, clinical features, COVID-19 risks, and COVID-19 contamination-prevention behaviors. Logistic regression was used to estimate the magnitude of the relationships between the COVID-19 behavior score and clinically significant contamination obsessions, contamination compulsions, and pre-COVID-19 to current change in obsessive-compulsive symptom scores. RESULTS: The COVID-19 behavior score was significantly associated with contamination obsessions (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.12-1.16; p < 0.001) and contamination phobias (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.12-1.16; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 behavior score also was associated with pre-pandemic to current increase in the overall obsessive-compulsive symptom score (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.23; p < 0.001), as well as increase in obsessive-compulsive symptom score excluding washing items (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.19; p < 0.001). The magnitude of these relationships did not appreciably change, after adjustment for other variables associated with the outcomes. Moreover, the relationship was significant in those with or without OCD, and in individuals with different levels of doubt and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Contamination safety measures are critical for reducing the spread of COVID-19 in the community. However, they may be related to the development of contamination-related symptoms and OCD in vulnerable individuals, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders during this period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Obsessive Behavior , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113363, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic and related home confinement on symptom profile, symptom severity and exacerbation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and related factors among young subjects with OCD. METHOD: Young subjects who have been followed up with a primary diagnosis of OCD in a university hospital were reached by telephone or online programs to assess symptom profile, symptom severity and exacerbation during pandemic. Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (CY-BOCS) and Clinical Global Impression- Severity (CGI-S) Scales were used to rate symptom profile and severity before pandemic and during pandemic periods. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the frequency of contamination obsessions (p=0.008) and cleaning/washing compulsions (p=0.039) during pandemic period. CY-BOCS obsessions (p<0.001), compulsions subscales (p<0.001) and total scores (p<0.001), and CGI-S scores (p<0.001) during pandemic period were statistically higher than before pandemic period. There was a significant relationship between the change in CY-BOCS scores with talking/searching in the social environment about COVID-19, daily preoccupation about COVID-19, duration of OCD diagnosis and diagnosis of COVID-19 in someone familiar. CONCLUSIONS: Young subjects with OCD may develop additional symptoms and worsen already existing symptoms of OCD during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Obsessive Behavior/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Flare Up
7.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(9): 2169-2173, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world from every aspect. Individuals are drained from social, financial, and emotional percussion of this pandemic. Psychosocial consequences are far greater than are being perceived. It is anticipated that once the pandemic is over the psycho-emotional turbulence would shake the whole populations of affected countries. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review the psychological consequences of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A literature search was conducted on major databases from January 2020 to April 2020 with the search terms of Covid-19, Corona virus, psychological, depression, anxiety, phobias, obsessive behaviors, paranoia, parental relationship, marital life and maternal and fetal bond. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 infection are more likely to suffer from a myriad of psychological consequences, and this infection may have profound effect on parenting, relationships, marital life, elderly, and maternal-fetal bond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology , Obsessive Behavior/epidemiology , Obsessive Behavior/etiology , Obsessive Behavior/psychology , Paranoid Disorders/epidemiology , Paranoid Disorders/etiology , Paranoid Disorders/psychology , Parenting/psychology , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/etiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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