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2.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(8): 570-576, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the symptom severity and dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and how patients with different levels of insight have been impacted by the pandemic. This study included 58 patients with OCD. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)-Obsession, Y-BOCS-Compulsion, and Y-BOCS-Total scores during the pandemic were significantly higher than the prepandemic scores (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). Compared with the pre-COVID-19 period, severity of OCD symptoms increased in 39.7% patients, remained the same in 44.8% patients, and reduced in 15.5% patients during the pandemic. The obsession with contamination, Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (for insight assessment) score, and time spent following the news/data about COVID-19 were significantly associated with an increase in OCD severity. In patients with contamination obsessions as well as poor insight, close monitoring and facilitating access to treatment may reduce the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 104, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection control measures during the Covid-19 pandemic have focused on limiting physical contact and decontamination by observing cleaning and hygiene rituals. Breastfeeding requires close physical contact and observance of hygienic measures like handwashing. Worries around contamination increase during the perinatal period and can be expressed as increase in obsessive compulsive symptoms. These symptoms have shown to impact breastfeeding rates. This study attempts to explore any relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and whether the Covid-19 pandemic has any impact on intent to breastfeed. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of perinatal women attending largest maternity centre in Qatar was carried out during the months of October to December 2020. Socio-demographic information, intent to breastfeed and information around obsessive compulsive thoughts around Covid-19 pandemic were collected using validated tools. RESULTS: 15.7% respondents report intent to not breastfeed. 21.4% respondents reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 77.3% respondents believed the biggest source of infection was from others while as only 12% of the respondents believed that the source of infection was through breastfeeding and 15.7% believed the vertical transmission as the main source of risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were increased and the rates of intent to breastfeed were decreased when compared with pre pandemic rates. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intent to not breastfeed were significantly associated with fear of infection to the new-born. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly correlated with intent to breastfeed and can be seen as adaptive strategies utilized by women to continue breastfeeding in the context of fear of infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 152: 225-232, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882278

ABSTRACT

To ensure the needs of children and families are met for the remainder of the COVID-19 situation and beyond there is a demand for a specific response strategy. This longitudinal study will investigate the impact of COVID-19 on Australian parental and childhood mental health symptoms, particularly OCD symptoms, examining the stability of this relationship over time and the needs and preferences for mental health support in response to child symptoms. A total of 141 parents completed a questionnaire during the lockdown period in Australia (June-September 2020). Thirty-five of them completed a follow-up questionnaire during the post-lockdown period (November 2020-January 2021). The questionnaire assessed COVID-19 experiences/worries/knowledge, child OCD, and child/parental anxiety and depression. Sub-samples of youth were determined based on parent-report of an existing diagnosis of any mental health (n = 24), of OCD (n = 22), or no mental health diagnosis (i.e., healthy, n = 81). Results: Parents reported a significant positive association between increased parental worries regarding COVID-19, and their own as well as their child's mental health symptoms. The current sample of children experienced elevated symptom severity for OCD symptoms during COVID-19. The OCD group reported significant reductions in child OCD symptoms at post-lockdown. The any mental health diagnosed children are at greater risk of developing OCD symptoms and reported strong preferences for increased support as a result. The exploratory nature of this study adds further insight into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child OCD and parent mental health symptoms and the stability of symptoms over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Parents/psychology
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 129, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the accumulation of negative emotions brought by COVID-19-related dysfunctional beliefs, individuals adopted obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms (e.g., over-checking the wearing of masks) and formed difficulties in emotion regulation (DER). This study focused on the temporal dynamics of the bidirectional relation between OC symptoms and DER, which had a devastating effect on the individual's mental health. As an extension, we further explored whether OC and DER and their relationship affect sleep problems. METHODS: In February 2020, a 14-day (twice a day, of 28 measurement intervals) online questionnaire survey was conducted on 122 Chinese adults (aged 18-55 years; 63 females). Subsequently, this research applied a dynamic structural equation model with a cross-lagged relationship and a time series. Health anxiety, anxiety, and depression were controlled as covariates. RESULTS: Both OC symptoms and DER had a significant autoregressive and cross-lagged effect. Comparatively speaking, DER was a stronger predictor of OC symptoms than OC's prediction of DER. Moreover, both higher levels of OC symptoms and DER were related to the severity of sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: More guidance on intervening in OC symptoms and identifying emotion regulation should be added to reduce the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics
6.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 44(2): 147-155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To improve the ability of psychiatry researchers to build, deploy, maintain, reproduce, and share their own psychophysiological tasks. Psychophysiological tasks are a useful tool for studying human behavior driven by mental processes such as cognitive control, reward evaluation, and learning. Neural mechanisms during behavioral tasks are often studied via simultaneous electrophysiological recordings. Popular online platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and Prolific enable deployment of tasks to numerous participants simultaneously. However, there is currently no task-creation framework available for flexibly deploying tasks both online and during simultaneous electrophysiology. METHODS: We developed a task creation template, termed Honeycomb, that standardizes best practices for building jsPsych-based tasks. Honeycomb offers continuous deployment configurations for seamless transition between use in research settings and at home. Further, we have curated a public library, termed BeeHive, of ready-to-use tasks. RESULTS: We demonstrate the benefits of using Honeycomb tasks with a participant in an ongoing study of deep brain stimulation for obsessive compulsive disorder, who completed repeated tasks both in the clinic and at home. CONCLUSION: Honeycomb enables researchers to deploy tasks online, in clinic, and at home in more ecologically valid environments and during concurrent electrophysiology.


Subject(s)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Psychophysiology
7.
J Cogn Psychother ; 36(2): 102-111, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847010

ABSTRACT

Public health crises, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, have wide reaching implications on mental health, and have resulted in unique OCD presentations specific to respective crises. The distribution of highly efficacious and effective vaccines for COVID-19 present a crossroads for the COVID-19-specific OCD presentation, including the potential for COVID-19 presentation perpetuation or remission in the face of vaccinations. Individual differences may play a unique role in who does and does not see a reduction of OCD symptoms specific to this virus as a function of vaccination status. Here, we discuss prior health crises that have resulted in unique OCD presentations, review relevant assessment and intervention guidelines, discuss potential implications that vaccines may have on this COVID-19-specifc presentation, and provide case presentations and future recommendations for treatment providers and researchers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 313: 114610, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821457

ABSTRACT

Until recently, psychotherapies, including exposure and response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), have primarily been delivered in-person. The COVID-19 pandemic required OCD providers delivering ERP to quickly transition to telehealth services. While evidence supports telehealth ERP delivery, limited research has examined OCD provider perceptions about patient characteristics that are most appropriate for this modality, as well as provider abilities to identify and address factors interfering with effective telehealth ERP. In the present study, OCD therapists (N = 113) rated the feasibility of delivering telehealth ERP relative to in-person for different (1) patient age-groups, (2) levels of OCD severity, and (3) provider ability to identify and address factors interfering with ERP during in-person and telehealth ERP (e.g., cognitive avoidance, reassurance seeking, etc.). Providers reported significantly greater feasibility of delivering telehealth ERP to individuals ages 13-to-65-years relative to other age groups assessed. Greater perceived feasibility for telehealth relative to in-person ERP was reported for lower versus higher symptom severity levels. Lastly, providers felt better able to identify and address problematic factors in-person. These findings suggest that providers should practice appropriate caution when offering telehealth ERP for certain patients with OCD. Future research may examine how to address these potential limitations of telehealth ERP delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809891

ABSTRACT

People with pre-pandemic health conditions are more vulnerable and more likely to suffer greater psychosocial impact due to the current COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures. Thus, the objective of this work was to systematically review the impact of the early stages COVID-19 pandemic on people with pre-existing psychiatric disorders. The search was performed between 23 January and 2 September 2021 in PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE. A total of 4167 published results were identified; however, only 49 were included in this review. Results show that there was considerable heterogeneity among studies, which resulted in a low consensus. However, it seems that the impact of the first stage of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychiatric disorders was two-fold: (1) an overall effect, in which people suffering from psychiatric disorders in general experienced more psychological distress and anxiety when compared to people who had no psychiatric diagnosis, and (2) a condition-specific effect, namely in people suffering from eating disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders. Moreover, the current work highlights that there were also some external factors that were related to worsening symptoms. For instance, unemployment or experiencing work and financial difficulties can be a trigger for greater distress during the pandemic for people with mood disorders, and being alone and in social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic may actually increase substance use and relapse rates. Further studies are needed to prospectively investigate the long-term effects of the current COVID-19 pandemic on people with (pre)-existing psychiatric conditions and on the onset or deterioration of psychiatric-related symptoms in a larger number of participants, as well as exploring the long-term effects of the current pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mental Health , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics
10.
Biomed J ; 45(2): 219-226, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797124

ABSTRACT

This issue of Biomedical Journal provides the reader with articles concerning the latest understanding of Tourette syndrome (TS), the relation to genetic predisposition, defects in the dopaminergic system, and related comorbidities which further complications like sleep disruption. Treatment approaches for TS, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder are discussed. The second section of this issue offers insights into inside out integrin activation and its link to T cell activation, demonstrates how polarity in immune cells allows adoption to specialized functions, and describes the endosomal signaling of internalized T cell receptors (TCRs). The link between mutations in TCR signaling and immunodeficiencies is elucidated, as well as the interactions of thymocyte-expressed molecule involved in selection in T cell development. Additionally, we learn about a potential biomarker for colorectal cancer, screening tools for determining frailty in older adults, surgical approaches in spinal metastases, the influence of autophagy on mating behavior, and the effect of nitrite administration on SNARE proteins associated with insulin secretion. Finally, parameters for surgery in breast cancer are discussed, as well as gender and age dependent pain perception in a lysosomal storage disease, and the use of laser meridian massage in opioid use disorder. Three letters complement this issue, one concerning neuroimaging in pediatric COVID-19 patients, and two discussing the role of cancer antigen-125 and renal impairment in ovarian cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Tics , Tourette Syndrome , Aged , Child , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/complications , Tics/complications , Tourette Syndrome/complications , Tourette Syndrome/diagnosis , Tourette Syndrome/therapy
11.
Compr Psychiatry ; 116: 152313, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures reduced well-being in the general population significantly and led to an increase in anxiety and depression symptoms, however, results on the impact on people with mental disorders are heterogeneous to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health status, social support, perceived stress, and the medical care provision of people with mental disorders during the time period immediately after the first COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020 in Germany. METHODS: Participants were people with mental disorders currently receiving treatment in the psychiatric outpatient department of the University Hospital Leipzig, Germany. Structured telephone interviews were administered to assess depressive symptoms, self-rated medical care provision, attitudes and social and emotional aspects of the pandemic (social support, perceived stress, loneliness, resilience, and agreeableness). RESULTS: A total of N = 106 people completed the telephone interview. The most frequent clinician-rated diagnoses were attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD; n = 29, 27.4%) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n = 24, 22.6%). The mean Patient Health Questionnaire-9 sum score was 10.91 (SD = 5.71) and the majority of participants (n = 56, 52.8%) reported clinically relevant depressive symptoms. A low self-rated medical care provision was significantly associated with higher depressive symptom load. In a regression analysis, higher perceived stress levels and low medical care provision significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Furthermore, 38.1% (n = 40) reported to feel relieved as a result of the restrictions and, due to previous experience in dealing with crisis, half of the participants (n = 53, 50.5%) stated they were better able to deal with the current situation than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the importance of maintenance of medical care provision for people with mental disorders, as cancelled or postponed treatment appointments and perceived stress were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Regular treatment services showed to have a protective effect. In addition, a majority of people with mental disorders felt prepared for managing the COVID pandemic due to existing crisis management abilities. These resources should also be taken into account for further future treatment considerations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00022071).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Outpatients , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Telephone
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 165-172, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757598

ABSTRACT

There has been substantial concern about the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for those with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) given the overlap between OCD symptoms (e.g., excessive handwashing) and appropriate disease prevention measures. However, the pandemic has demonstrated heterogeneous mental health effects, suggesting that individual-level factors could play a role in buffering or exacerbating its deleterious impact. This study aimed to understand how individual differences in resilience were associated with trajectories of obsessive-compulsive, depression, and anxiety symptoms among healthy adults and those with OCD residing in New York City, considered the epicenter of the pandemic in the United States at its onset. The sample consisted of healthy individuals (n = 30) and people with OCD (n = 33) who completed clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires that assessed baseline resilience, OCD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and perceived positive effects of the pandemic at four assessment timepoints: baseline (April 2020) and one, two, and six months later. Linear mixed-effects growth models revealed that greater resilience was associated with stable trajectories of symptoms over time. Conversely, less resilience was associated with worsening obsessive-compulsive symptoms from the two-month to six-month assessment timepoints and worsening depressive symptoms at six months across both groups, and with worsening anxiety symptoms in individuals with OCD at six months. Resilience was correlated with the ability to appreciate "silver linings" of the pandemic. These findings highlight resilience as a potential treatment target for bolstering mental health outcomes among individuals with and without psychopathology during sustained and unprecedented periods of stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 306: 114268, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747632

ABSTRACT

Several recent publications have revealed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients were adversely affected during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, how long this negative impact will last is unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on OCD patients after one year. Online questionnaires were administered, and clinical interviews were conducted to assess OCD symptoms, depression, anxiety, information about COVID-19 and mental resilience at baseline (1 December 2019-1 January 2020), during early COVID-19 (26 February-25 March 2020) and at the one-year follow-up (26 February-25 March 2021). A total of 110 OCD patients were enrolled. Our findings showed that OCD, depressive and anxiety symptoms worsened during early COVID-19, and the negative impact persisted at the one-year follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, concern about COVID-19 and OCD symptom severity at baseline were risk factors for exacerbation of OCD symptoms during early COVID-19, while optimism, as one composite factor of resilience, was a protective factor against exacerbation of OCD symptoms both during early COVID-19 and at follow-up. Our study showed that COVID-19 had immediate and long-term impacts on the exacerbation of OCD symptoms, and interventions targeted at improving resilience are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(2)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732344

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among the general population of the United Arab Emirates.Methods: An online survey of a convenience sample was conducted between October 2020 and January 2021. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to assess symptoms of OCD. The rate of OCD symptoms in those who had positive COVID-19 test results was compared with those who had no previous COVID-19 diagnosis.Results: The total number of participants was 702, including 371 males and 325 females (6 skipped the question regarding sex). Most participants reported no previous psychiatric history (84.3%). Previous psychiatric diagnoses were reported by 15.7% of participants (n = 110) and included generalized anxiety (27.3%), phobia (1.8%), depression (19.1%), bipolar mood disorder (1.8%), OCD (6.3%), and panic attacks (8.2%). There were 39 (5.6%) participants who had past psychiatric history but were unsure of the exact diagnosis. Presence of history of OCD for the total sample was reported by 7 (1%) participants. A family history of OCD was reported by 34 (4.8%) participants. A total of 218 (31.1%) participants scored mild, moderate, severe, or extreme OCD symptoms. Clinically significant OCD symptoms were reported by 75 participants (10.7% of the total sample). The mean (SD) score of the Y-BOCS was 6.63 (7.13) for the COVID-positive group and 4.9 (6.34) for the COVID-negative group, which was statistically significant (P = .0008).Conclusions: The study findings indicate an increased prevalence of OCD during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is significantly higher among people with positive COVID-19 infection compared to those with negative COVID-19 test results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
16.
J Affect Disord ; 305: 85-93, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the longer-term impact of the Covid-19 pandemic beyond the first months of 2020, particularly for people with pre-existing mental health disorders. Studies including pre-pandemic data from large psychiatric cohorts are scarce. METHODS: Between April 2020 and February 2021, twelve successive online questionnaires were distributed among participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons, and Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association Study (N = 1714, response rate 62%). Outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, worry, loneliness, perceived mental health impact of the pandemic, fear of Covid-19, positive coping, and happiness. Using linear mixed models we compared trajectories between subgroups with different pre-pandemic chronicity of disorders and healthy controls. RESULTS: Depressive, anxiety and worry symptoms were stable since April-May 2020 whereas happiness slightly decreased. Furthermore, positive coping steadily decreased and loneliness increased - exceeding pre-Covid and April-May 2020 levels. Perceived mental health impact and fear of Covid-19 fluctuated in accordance with national Covid-19 mortality rate changes. Absolute levels of all outcomes were poorer with higher chronicity of disorders, yet trajectories did not differ among subgroups. LIMITATIONS: The most vulnerable psychiatric groups may have been underrepresented and results may not be generalizable to lower income countries. CONCLUSIONS: After a year, levels of depressive and worry symptoms remained higher than before the pandemic in healthy control groups, yet not in psychiatric groups. Nevertheless, persistent high symptoms in psychiatric groups and increasing loneliness in all groups are specific points of concern for mental health care professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics
18.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 61(3): 816-835, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Unrealistic pessimism (UP) is an aspect of overestimation of threat (OET) that has been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder/symptoms (OCD/OCS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, UP may have played an important role in the course of OCD. To investigate the relationship, we conducted two longitudinal studies assuming that higher UP predicts an increase in OCS. METHOD: In Study 1, we investigated UP in the general population (N = 1,184) at the start of the pandemic asking about overall vulnerability to infection with SARS-CoV-2 and UP regarding infection and outcome of severe illness. Further, OCS status (OCS+/-) was assessed at the start of the pandemic and 3 months later. In Study 2, we investigated UP in individuals with OCD (N = 268) regarding the likelihood of getting infected, recovering, or dying from an infection with SARS-CoV-2 at the start of the pandemic and re-assessed OCS 3 months later. RESULTS: In Study 1, UP was higher in the OCS+ compared to the OCS- group, and estimates of a higher overall vulnerability for an infection predicted a decrease in OCS over time. UP regarding severe illness predicted an increase in symptoms over time. In Study 2, UP was found for a recovery and death after an infection with SARS-CoV-2, but not for infection itself. CONCLUSIONS: Exaggeration of one's personal vulnerability rather than OET per se seems pivotal in OCD, with UP being associated with OCD/OCS+ as well as a more negative course of symptomatology over the pandemic in a nonclinical sample. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Unrealistic optimism, a bias common in healthy individuals, is thought to be a coping mechanism promoting well-being in the face of danger or uncertainty. The current study extends findings that its inversion, unrealistic pessimism, may play an important role in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may also be involved in the development of the disorder. This study highlights the importance that prevention programs during a pandemic should include targeting unrealistic pessimism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Pessimism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 147: 307-312, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns regarding its psychological effects on people with preexisting psychiatric disorders have been raised, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nevertheless, only a few longitudinal studies have been performed, and a more longstanding follow-up of a clinical sample is needed. In this study, our aim was to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on symptom changes in a sample of Brazilian OCD patients for about a one-year period. METHODS: Thirty OCD outpatients seen in a specialized OCD clinic in Rio de Janeiro were evaluated at baseline and after one year (during the pandemic). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected along with a questionnaire aimed at quantifying the number of stressful events related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Comparisons between two time points (pre vs. during COVID-19) and two subgroups (patients with vs without worsening of symptoms) were carried out. RESULTS: As a group, OCD patients treated with SRIs had an overall stabilization of symptoms throughout the follow-up period, regardless of the number of stressful experiences related to coronavirus (median baseline YBOCS remained 22.0 at follow-up). In addition, when individually analyzed, even those who reported an increase in their symptoms did not describe a greater number of COVID-19 related events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OCD, who were under treatment, did not show significant symptom deterioration as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Individual variations in OCD symptom severity did not seem to be related to experiences linked to coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 148: 21-26, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 restrictions ease, the public are expected to relinquish previously enforced safety behaviors and resume a more normal lifestyle. Despite these aims, our recent survey of 438 adults from the general population, during a temporary release of lockdown in the United Kingdom (July-November 2020), showed that 25% of the public find re-adjustment problematic. This was especially the case in those with a history of mental disorder and obsessive-compulsive (OC) traits and symptoms, including rigidity as measured by a neurocognitive test of attentional flexibility. To aid in identifying those most at risk, we performed a secondary analysis on the data to determine which specific OC traits were related to specific aspects of behavioral adjustment. METHODS: Correlational and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine associations between the eight individual personality traits constituting DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), as measured by the self-rated Compulsive Personality Assessment Scale (CPAS) and a range of self-rated Post-Pandemic Adjustment Questionnaire items. RESULTS: Three items on the Post-Pandemic Adjustment Questionnaire correlated with individual CPAS items: 'General difficulties adjusting' correlated with perfectionism, preoccupation with details, over-conscientiousness and need for control; 'social avoidance' correlated with perfectionism and preoccupation with details; and 'disinfecting behaviors' correlated with preoccupation with details and miserliness (Pearson's r - all p < .001). Intriguingly, none of the adjustment items correlated significantly with self-rated rigidity. CONCLUSIONS: Several OCPD traits predict post-pandemic adjustment difficulties, but perfectionism and preoccupation-with-details showed the most robust correlations. These traits constitute a platform for the development of new screening and interventional strategies aimed at restoring public mental health and wellbeing. Cognitive rigidity may be more reliably evaluated using an objective form of assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Compulsive Behavior , Compulsive Personality Disorder/psychology , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology
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