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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 306: 114268, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747632

ABSTRACT

Several recent publications have revealed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients were adversely affected during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, how long this negative impact will last is unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on OCD patients after one year. Online questionnaires were administered, and clinical interviews were conducted to assess OCD symptoms, depression, anxiety, information about COVID-19 and mental resilience at baseline (1 December 2019-1 January 2020), during early COVID-19 (26 February-25 March 2020) and at the one-year follow-up (26 February-25 March 2021). A total of 110 OCD patients were enrolled. Our findings showed that OCD, depressive and anxiety symptoms worsened during early COVID-19, and the negative impact persisted at the one-year follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, concern about COVID-19 and OCD symptom severity at baseline were risk factors for exacerbation of OCD symptoms during early COVID-19, while optimism, as one composite factor of resilience, was a protective factor against exacerbation of OCD symptoms both during early COVID-19 and at follow-up. Our study showed that COVID-19 had immediate and long-term impacts on the exacerbation of OCD symptoms, and interventions targeted at improving resilience are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Affect Disord ; 305: 85-93, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the longer-term impact of the Covid-19 pandemic beyond the first months of 2020, particularly for people with pre-existing mental health disorders. Studies including pre-pandemic data from large psychiatric cohorts are scarce. METHODS: Between April 2020 and February 2021, twelve successive online questionnaires were distributed among participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons, and Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association Study (N = 1714, response rate 62%). Outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, worry, loneliness, perceived mental health impact of the pandemic, fear of Covid-19, positive coping, and happiness. Using linear mixed models we compared trajectories between subgroups with different pre-pandemic chronicity of disorders and healthy controls. RESULTS: Depressive, anxiety and worry symptoms were stable since April-May 2020 whereas happiness slightly decreased. Furthermore, positive coping steadily decreased and loneliness increased - exceeding pre-Covid and April-May 2020 levels. Perceived mental health impact and fear of Covid-19 fluctuated in accordance with national Covid-19 mortality rate changes. Absolute levels of all outcomes were poorer with higher chronicity of disorders, yet trajectories did not differ among subgroups. LIMITATIONS: The most vulnerable psychiatric groups may have been underrepresented and results may not be generalizable to lower income countries. CONCLUSIONS: After a year, levels of depressive and worry symptoms remained higher than before the pandemic in healthy control groups, yet not in psychiatric groups. Nevertheless, persistent high symptoms in psychiatric groups and increasing loneliness in all groups are specific points of concern for mental health care professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics
5.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 132: 1086-1098, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been much speculation about untoward effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on psychological symptoms. OCD may be expected to be especially impacted. Our aim was to distil the current evidence base on relationships between the pandemic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, in patients, and general population samples. METHODS: We conducted a rapid scoping review, in the form of a systematic literature search, coupled with narrative review. 32 relevant papers were identified. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: (1) A sizable proportion of people with OCD (but not all) experienced/reported symptom worsening during the pandemic, especially during initial restrictions (approximately 20-65 % of cases in longitudinal studies); (2) contamination/washing symptoms appeared particularly susceptible; and (3) OCD symptoms in general population samples were associated with trait compulsivity and pandemic-related-stress. The literature was heterogeneous with various methodological issues being commonplace. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: The review identified important unaddressed issues: how should exposure based therapy be adapted during pandemics? How can we minimise harm from exacerbation of OCD in vulnerable individuals arising from public health messaging? Why do some but not all OCD patients experience worsening? And does Covid-19 infection affect (or lead to) OCD symptoms?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Anxiety Disord ; 84: 102493, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487807

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has particularly affected people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) has been suspected for those with contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). However, the course of OCS over the ongoing pandemic remains unclear. We assessed 268 participants with OCD (n = 184 with C-OCD) in an online survey at the beginning of the pandemic in Germany, reassessing 179 participants (66.8%, 104 C-OCD) three months later. We assessed severity of OCD (OCI-R), depression (PHQ-9), experiential avoidance, as well as functional and dysfunctional beliefs. Overall, OCS and depressive symptoms did not substantially change over time. However, when people with and without C-OCD were compared, symptoms improved in patients without C-OCD (nC-OCD) but remained stable in patients with C-OCD over time. Symptom improvement was associated with male gender, higher initial OCI-R, and nC-OCD. Experiential avoidance and beliefs at the beginning of the pandemic did not generally predict change in OCS. People with OCD, particularly those with nC-OCD, showed tentative signs for signs of adapting, whereas distress in those with C-OCD remained at a high level, underlining the burden for these patients. Clinicians should be informed about how to maintain effective treatment for C-OCD during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Dreams , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 169, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study highlights the significant association between cyberchondria and quality of life among the Lebanese population in the time of COVID-19. The aim was to assess the association between cyberchondria and quality of life (QOL) of Lebanese community during the COVID-19 pandemic and assess the mediating effect of fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, stress and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in this association. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2020 and January 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 449 persons participated in this study by filling the online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine the structural relationship between cyberchondria severity, the mediator (anxiety, stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and fear of COVID-19) and physical/mental QOL. RESULTS: Having a university level of education and older age were significantly associated with higher physical QOL scores, whereas higher obsession-compulsion disorder, higher stress and higher anxiety were significantly associated with lower physical QOL scores. Higher anxiety was significantly associated with lower mental QOL scores. The results of the SEM showed that stress, fear of COVID-19 and to a lesser limit OCD, mediated the association between cyberchondria severity and physical QOL, whereas anxiety, stress and fear of COVID-19 mediated the association between cyberchondria severity and mental QOL. CONCLUSION: This research reported interesting results encouraging more exploration of cyberchondria and its association with quality of life during this unique period of the pandemic. However, this virus has altered the lives of individuals all across the world, and the consequences will last for a long time. Along with all of the steps done to stop the development of COVID-19 and improve physical outcomes, mental health requires immediate care. More research is needed to determine the coping techniques people are employing to deal with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(11): 71, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This systematic review evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on obsessive-compulsive symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies showed that obsessive-compulsive symptoms worsened during the early stages of the pandemic, particularly for individuals with contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), though other symptoms dimensions were found to worsen as well. Many patients and individuals in the general population experienced new obsessive-compulsive-like symptoms centered on COVID-19. Self-reported rates of symptom exacerbation and COVID-19-focused symptoms were consistently lower in studies that recruited patients from specialty clinics (compared to online samples). Most studies were conducted in Spring/Summer, 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has been an enormous stressor for individuals with OCD, especially for those with contamination symptoms. Regardless, there is strong reason to believe gold standard treatment approaches for OCD have maintained strong efficacy. Disseminating and effectively delivering evidence-based treatments for OCD is an urgent public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376898

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The Internet is widely used and disseminated amongst youngsters and many web-based applications may serve to improve mental health care access, particularly in remote and distant sites or in settings where there is a shortage of mental health practitioners. However, in recent years, specific digital psychiatry interventions have been developed and implemented for special populations such as children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Hereby, we describe the current state-of-the-art in the field of TMH application for young mental health, focusing on recent studies concerning anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and affective disorders. Results: After screening and selection process, a total of 56 studies focusing on TMH applied to youth depression (n = 29), to only youth anxiety (n = 12) or mixed youth anxiety/depression (n = 7) and youth OCD (n = 8) were selected and retrieved. Conclusions: Telemental Health (TMH; i.e., the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide access to mental health assessment, diagnosis, intervention, consultation, supervision across distance) may offer an effective and efficacious tool to overcome many of the barriers encountering in the delivery of young mental health care.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy
10.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 86(1): 35-47, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341532

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to challenges in providing cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the presence of the pandemic and the risk of contracting illness, therapists can continue to utilize exposure with response prevention (ERP), which is the gold standard psychotherapy treatment for OCD. Therapists can ethically implement ERP by focusing on core treatment tenets while incorporating guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to mitigate risk for COVID-19 exposure. The pandemic has also provided an opportunity to more widely implement ERP through virtual telehealth appointments, which have notable benefits as well as some drawbacks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3805-3808, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinicians have reported an increase in functional tic-like behaviours in children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe adults developing rapid onset of functional tic-like behaviours between May 2020 and June 2021. METHODS: Data were analysed from the Adult Tic Disorders Registry, a single-site,12-month prospective cohort study that began enrolment in January 2021. We compared clinical features of participants with Tourette syndrome or persistent motor/vocal tic disorder to participants with rapid onset tic-like behaviours. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants registered between January and June of 2021; nine had rapid onset tic-like behaviours, and 24 had Tourette syndrome or persistent motor tic disorder. Participants with rapid onset tic-like behaviours were younger (19.9 vs. 38.6 years, p = 0.003), had older age at onset (15.3 vs. 10.1, p = 0.0009), and were more likely female (p < 0.0001). They had higher motor and vocal tic severity and impairment scores (all p < 0.01) and were more likely to have complex arm/hand motor tics (p < 0.0001), complex vocal tics (p < 0.0001), and coprolalia (p = 0.004). They had significantly higher scores on all mental health symptom self-report measures (all p < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with depression (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features that help differentiate rapid onset tic-like behaviours from Tourette syndrome or persistent motor tic disorder include their phenomenology, onset age, and clinical course. Rapid onset tic-like behaviours are a distinct subtype of functional neurological disorder that has emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic in young people and appears to be strongly socially influenced.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Tic Disorders , Tics , Tourette Syndrome , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tic Disorders/epidemiology , Tics/epidemiology , Tourette Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 25(2): 367-376, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315338

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a public mental health crisis with many people experiencing new or worsening anxiety. Fear of contagion and the lack of predictability/control in daily life increased the risk for problems such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the general population. Pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable to such pandemic-related stressors yet the prevalence of OC symptoms in this population during the pandemic remains unknown. We examined the prevalence of OC symptoms in a sample of 4451 pregnant women in the USA, recruited via targeted online methods at the start of the pandemic. Participants completed self-report measures including the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale. Clinically significant OC symptoms were present in 7.12% of participants, more than twice as high as rates of peripartum OCD reported prior to the pandemic. Younger maternal age, income loss, and suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were all associated with higher OC symptoms. Two types of pregnancy-specific stress, pandemic-related and pandemic-unrelated, were both associated with higher levels of OC symptoms. Pandemic-related pregnancy stress predicted OC symptoms even after controlling for non-pandemic-related, pregnancy-specific stress. Elevated rates of OC symptoms were observed in women pregnant during the pandemic, particularly those experiencing elevated pandemic-related pregnancy stress. This type of stress confers a distinct risk for OC symptoms above and beyond pregnancy-specific stress and demographic factors. Healthcare providers should be prepared to see and treat more peripartum women with OC symptoms during this and future public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308350

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) exerts variable impact on patients with obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD). There remains a challenge to determine the extent to which OCD is exacerbated due to the pandemic. Therefore, our aim is to explicate the latest researching progress of OCD under COVID-19 based on a review of 15 existing articles. Our review confirms the prevalence of OCD exacerbation in different age groups and particular symptoms. However, it also reveals nonconformity among research, lack of investigation in OCD treatment, and imbalance in OCD symptoms research. Further, we discuss the probable reasons of the exacerbation and current situation of OCD treatments. Finally, based on our discussion, we offer suggestions on how to manage OCD under the new circumstance, including the introduction of new policies, the use of communications technology, the improvement of researching methods, and possible angles for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Compulsive Personality Disorder , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 33(4): 165-177, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297283

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric sequalae to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are beginning to emerge, like previous Spanish influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome episodes. Streptococcal infection in paediatric patients causing obsessive compulsive disorder (PANDAS) is another recent example of an infection-based psychiatric disorder. Inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders has been previously reported but there is no standard clinical management approach established. Part of the reason is that it is unclear what factors determine the specific neuronal vulnerability and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment in neuroinflammation. The emerging COVID-19 data suggested that in the acute stage, widespread neuronal damage appears to be the result of abnormal and overactive immune responses and cytokine storm is associated with poor prognosis. It is still too early to know if there are long-term-specific neuronal or brain regional damages associated with COVID-19, resulting in distinct neuropsychiatric disorders. In several major psychiatric disorders where neuroinflammation is present, patients with abnormal inflammatory markers may also experience less than favourable response or treatment resistance when standard treatment is used alone. Evidence regarding the benefits of co-administered anti-inflammatory agents such as COX-2 inhibitor is encouraging in selected patients though may not benefit others. Disease-modifying therapies are increasingly being applied to neuropsychiatric diseases characterised by abnormal or hyperreactive immune responses. Adjunct anti-inflammatory treatment may benefit selected patients and is definitely an important component of clinical management in the presence of neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Streptococcal Infections/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/etiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology
15.
Saudi Med J ; 42(7): 750-760, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and its correlation with the level of perceived stress among the Saudi population. METHODS: In July 2020, a cross-sectional survey of 2909 participants in Saudi Arabia during the outbreak was conducted to collect data related to sociodemographic characteristics and scores on the Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (BOCS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: Most participants were female (73.9%) with a university level of education or higher (81%). The prevalence of new-onset obsessions was 57.8%, compulsions 45.9%, and moderate/high perceived stress 72.4%. New-onset dirt, germs, and virus obsessions were significantly higher among 40-49 age group, employees, housewives, students, quarantine discipliners, and those who spent 20 or more days in quarantine. New-onset hand-washing compulsions were significantly higher among the 30-49 age group. A significantly higher level of perceived stress was reported among those in the 18-29 age group, females, singles, participants with no children, students, non-smokers, those who were unemployed, living with families, diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, living in the northern region, quarantine discipliners, and those who spent 60 or more days in quarantine. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a significantly higher prevalence of high perceived stress in respondents with new-onset OCD contamination symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. This implies that a biodisaster is associated with high psychological morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 18-34, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the world since the first cases were reported in China in January 2020. The secondary mental health impacts of the pandemic are thought to be significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a condition defined by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. It has been hypothesised that the focus on hygiene and contamination during the pandemic could exacerbate obsessive-compulsive symptoms in young people. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted. Papers were sought looking at the effect of the pandemic on obsessive-compulsive disorder in young people. RESULTS: Six published cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were identified, of which four studies investigated clinic samples with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder and two looked at community adolescent populations. Five out of the six studies found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms were exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic appears to be associated with a worsening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in young people. Being in treatment seems to have a protective effect. Maintaining mental health services during a pandemic is vital. It is important to be aware of the implications of pandemic on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in young people in order to allow them to access appropriate treatments. More research is needed in this area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114021, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275648

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate OCD symptoms and responsibility beliefs in relation to coronavirus-related anxiety and adaptive and maladaptive behaviors at two different time points. We tested age as a moderator of the relationship between responsibility and outcomes. 159 participants completed the initial online assessment, whereas 56 completed the second assessment, six months later. OCD symptoms significantly predicted coronavirus-related anxiety, adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Responsibility beliefs predicted the above-mentioned outcomes, but no longer when controlling for OCD symptoms and age did not moderate these relationships. OCD symptoms may represent both protective and vulnerability factors during the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Romania/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(4): 1549-1563, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258235

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of people with OCD and the degree of family accommodation (FA) by live-in family members across phases of the lockdown measures imposed by the Belgian government. Forty-nine OCD patients and 26 live-in family members participated in the study. We assessed OCD symptom severity and FA of the live-in family members, as well as depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress levels and COVID-19 related psychological distress of patients and family members at four different timepoints: one month after the start of the lockdown (T1), during the gradual relaxation (T2), between the two waves (T3) and during the second wave (T4). Results showed that although COVID-19 related stress increased and decreased in accordance with the waxing and waning pattern of the pandemic, OCD symptoms showed an initial slight increase followed by a decrease at T3 and again at T4. Changes in family members' accommodation of symptoms followed the same course as the OCD symptoms. Furthermore, OCD symptoms correlated with depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress levels and COVID-19 related distress at all timepoints. It is important to involve family members in the treatment of OCD even during a pandemic. Clinicians should also pay attention to symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress during OCD treatment. Further research is necessary to entangle the causal relationship between OCD symptoms, FA and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Family , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Pandemics , Patients , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Family/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Patients/psychology
19.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 89-103, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has established an association between pandemic fears and the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms mainly in the general population. AIM: To explore whether COVID-19 pandemic fears are associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms and vice versa in adolescents with preexisting mental and behavioural disorders. METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among adolescents with pre-existing mental disorders. The extent of worrying related to the COVID-19 pandemic was measured using the COVID-19 inventory whereas obsessive-compulsive symptoms were assessed using the obsessive-compulsive inventory-revised (OCI-R). Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to explore the relationship between COVID-19 pandemic fears and the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients out of 63 participants (90.4%) had a COVID-19 inventory score of 12 or higher suggesting that a vast majority of young people with mental disorders had significant pandemic-related worries. Out of these 57 patients, over half (31) had an OCI-R modified score of 17 or higher indicating significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A positive correlation was found between the means of the two scores. This relationship was statistically significant - {r = 0.405, Sig. (two-tailed) = 0.001}. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with mental disorders can exhibit significant pandemic fears and this is likely to be associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 323, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246352

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an increase in obsessive-compulsive disorder/symptoms (OCD/OCS). However, knowledge is limited regarding the trajectories of OCS during the pandemic, as well as their predictors and mechanisms (e.g., experiential avoidance, EA). The aim of this study was to describe the trajectories of OCS and the identification of associated factors. We assessed 1207 participants of the general population in March 2020 (t1) and June 2020 (t2). Pre-pandemic data was available from March 2014 for a subsample (n = 519). To define trajectories, we determined OCS status (OCS+/-). We performed a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression to investigate predictors of trajectories. Between t1 and t2, 66% of participants had an asymptomatic trajectory (OCS-/OCS-); 18% had a continuously symptomatic trajectory (OCS+/OCS+). Ten percent had a delayed-onset trajectory (OCS-/OCS+), and the recovery trajectory group (OCS+/OCS-) was the smallest group (6%). Higher education reduced the odds of an OCS+/OCS- trajectory. OCS in 2014 was associated with increased odds of showing an OCS+/OCS+ or OCS-/OCS+ trajectory. When EA at t1 and change in EA from t1 to t2 were added to the model, higher EA at t1 was associated with increased odds of scoring above the cut score on one or more of the assessments. A higher decrease in EA from t1 to t2 reduced the probability of showing an OCS+/OCS+ and an OCS-/OCS+ trajectory. While the current data supports a slight increase in OCS during the pandemic, trajectories differed, and EA seems to represent an important predictor for an unfavorable development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Comorbidity , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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