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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753714

ABSTRACT

Aberrant TGF­ß/Smad7 signaling has been reported to be an important mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of a number of potential anti­colitis agents on intestinal epithelial permeability and the TGF­ß/Smad7 signaling pathway in an experimental model of colitis. A mouse model of colitis was first established before anti­TNF­α and 5­aminosalicyclic acid (5­ASA) were administered intraperitoneally and orally, respectively. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histological index (HI) of the colon and the disease activity index (DAI) scores were then detected in each mouse. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemical and functional tests, including Evans blue (EB) and FITC­dextran (FD­4) staining, were used to evaluate intestinal mucosal permeability. The expression of epithelial phenotype markers E­cadherin, occludin, zona occludens (ZO­1), TGF­ß and Smad7 were measured. In addition, epithelial myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression and activity were measured. Anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatments was both found to effectively reduce the DAI score and HI, whilst decreasing colonic MPO activity, plasma levels of FD­4 and EB permeation of the intestine. Furthermore, anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatments decreased MLCK expression and activity, reduced the expression of Smad7 in the small intestine epithelium, but increased the expression of TGF­ß. In mice with colitis, TEM revealed partial epithelial injury in the ileum, where the number of intercellular tight junctions and the expression levels of E­cadherin, ZO­1 and occludin were decreased, all of which were alleviated by anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA treatment. In conclusion, anti­TNF­α and 5­ASA both exerted protective effects on intestinal epithelial permeability in an experimental mouse model of colitis. The underlying mechanism may be mediated at least in part by the increase in TGF­ß expression and/or the reduction in Smad7 expression, which can inhibit epithelial MLCK activity and in turn reduce mucosal permeability during the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Smad7 Protein/genetics , Smad7 Protein/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Animals , Cadherins/metabolism , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colon/pathology , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/ultrastructure , Male , Mesalamine/administration & dosage , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Peroxidase/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1630918, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impairment of microcirculation is associated with the unfavorable outcome for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients. Studies revealed that pulsatile modification improves hemodynamics and attenuates inflammation during ECMO support. However, whether flow pattern impacts microcirculation and endothelial integrity is rarely documented. The objective of this work was to explore how pulsatility affects microcirculation during ECMO. METHODS: Canine animal models with cardiac arrest were supported by ECMO, with the i-Cor system used to generate nonpulsatile or pulsatile flow. The sublingual microcirculation parameters were examined using the CytoCam microscope system. The expression of hsa_circ_0007367, a circular RNA, was measured during ECMO support. In vitro validation was performed in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) exposed to pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow, and the expressions of hsa_circ_0007367, endothelial tight junction markers, endothelial adhesive molecules, endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS), and NF-κB signaling activity were analyzed. RESULTS: The pulsatile modification of ECMO enhanced microcirculatory perfusion, attenuated pulmonary inflammation, and stabilized endothelial integrity in animal models; meanwhile, the expression of hsa_circ_0007367 was significantly upregulated both in animals and PMVECs exposed to pulsatile flow. In particular, upregulation of hsa_circ_0007367 stabilized the expressions of endothelial tight junction markers zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1 and occludin, followed by modulating the endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) activity and inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: The modification of pulsatility contributes to microcirculatory perfusion and endothelial integrity during ECMO. The expression of hsa_circ_0007367 plays a pivotal role in this protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart Arrest/therapy , Animals , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Dogs , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heart Arrest/genetics , Heart Arrest/pathology , Heart Arrest/physiopathology , Inflammation , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Microcirculation , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Occludin/genetics , Occludin/metabolism , Pulsatile Flow , Rats , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/genetics , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
3.
Inflamm Res ; 70(10-12): 1165-1175, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Junctional proteins are the most important component of the blood-testis barrier and maintaining the integrity of this barrier is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. The present study elucidated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in patients who died from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) complications. METHODS: In this study, lung and testis tissue was collected from autopsies of COVID-19 positive (n = 10) and negative men (n = 10) and was taken for stereology, immunocytochemistry, and RNA extraction. RESULTS: Evaluation of the lung tissue showed that the SARS-CoV-2 infection caused extensive damage to the lung tissue and also increases inflammation in testicular tissue and destruction of the testicular blood barrier. Autopsied testicular specimens of COVID-19 showed that COVID-19 infection significantly changes the spatial arrangement of testicular cells and notably decreased the number of Sertoli cells. Moreover, the immunohistochemistry results showed a significant reduction in the protein expression of occluding, claudin-11, and connexin-43 in the COVID-19 group. In addition, we also observed a remarkable enhancement in protein expression of CD68 in the testes of the COVID-19 group in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, the result showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL1ß, and IL6 was significantly increased in COVID-19 cases as well as the expression of occludin, claudin-11, and connexin-43 was decreased in COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could induce the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and down-regulation of junctional proteins of the BTB, which can disrupt BTB and ultimately impair spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Blood-Testis Barrier/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Autopsy , Claudins/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Occludin/metabolism , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sertoli Cells/pathology , Testis/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
4.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 659-668, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109085

ABSTRACT

Human intestinal epithelial cell line-6 (HIEC-6) cells and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) were treated with 3-amidinophenylalanine-derived inhibitors of trypsin-like serine proteases for 24 hours. It was proven that treatment with MI-1900 and MI-1907 was tolerated up to 50 µM in HIEC-6. These inhibitors did not cause elevations in extracellular H2O2 levels and in the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and did not alter occludin distribution in HIEC-6. It was also found that MI-1900 and MI-1907 up to 50 µM did not affect cell viability, IL-6 and IL-8 and occludin levels of PHH. Based on our findings, these inhibitors could be safely applicable at 50 µM in HIEC-6 and in PHH; however, redox status was disturbed in case of PHH. Moreover, it has recently been demonstrated that MI-1900 prevents the replication and spread of the new SARS-CoV-2 in infected Calu-3 cells, most-likely via an inhibition of the membrane-bound host protease TMPRSS2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Phenylalanine/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/enzymology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hepatocytes/cytology , Hepatocytes/enzymology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology , Occludin/genetics , Occludin/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Phenylalanine/analogs & derivatives , Primary Cell Culture , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
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