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2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 820-825, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from those caused by common viruses. Early isolation and containment is challenging. Although screening all patients with respiratory symptoms for COVID-19 has been recommended, the practicality of such an effort has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Over a 6-week period during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, our institution introduced a "respiratory surveillance ward" (RSW) to segregate all patients with respiratory symptoms in designated areas, where appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) could be utilized until SARS-CoV-2 testing was done. Patients could be transferred when SARS-CoV-2 tests were negative on 2 consecutive occasions, 24 hours apart. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,178 patients were admitted to the RSWs. The mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.89 days (SD, 1.23). Among confirmed cases of pneumonia admitted to the RSW, 5 of 310 patients (1.61%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This finding was comparable to the pickup rate from our isolation ward. In total, 126 HCWs were potentially exposed to these cases; however, only 3 (2.38%) required quarantine because most used appropriate PPE. In addition, 13 inpatients overlapped with the index cases during their stay in the RSW; of these 13 exposed inpatients, 1 patient subsequently developed COVID-19 after exposure. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. However, this method was resource-intensive in terms of testing and bed capacity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(6)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In light of the current evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and the need to learn from past infectious disease outbreaks to provide better psychological support for our frontline health care workers (HCW), we conducted a rapid review of extant studies that have reported on both psychological and coping responses in HCW during recent outbreaks. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search of the available literature using PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), and Web of Science, combining key terms regarding recent infectious disease outbreaks and psychological and coping responses. Papers published from database inception to April 20, 2020, were considered for inclusion. Only studies in the English language and papers from peer-reviewed journals were included. STUDY SELECTION: We identified 95 (PubMed) and 49 papers (Web of Science) from the database search, of which 23 papers were eventually included in the review. DATA EXTRACTION: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used for data extraction. The McMaster University critical appraisal tool was used to appraise quantitative studies. Guidelines by Higginbotham and colleagues were used to appraise qualitative studies. Only studies exploring the combined psychological and coping responses of HCW amid infectious diseases were included. RESULTS: Salient psychological responses that can persist beyond the outbreaks included anxiety/fears, stigmatization, depression, posttraumatic stress, anger/frustration, grief, and burnout, but also positive growth and transformation. Personal coping methods (such as problem solving, seeking social support, and positive thinking) alongside workplace measures (including infection control and safety, staff support and recognition, and clear communication) were reported to be helpful. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological support for HCW in the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks should focus on both individual (eg, psychoeducation on possible psychological responses, self-care) and institutional (eg, clear communication, providing access to resources for help, recognition of efforts of HCW) measures.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
6.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(10): 745-751, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in University of Defence members. BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most important method of prevention against COVID-19 and achieving sufficient vaccination rate is thus essential to maintain the military capability. METHODOLOGY: An online questionnaire was distributed electronically to 2,408 respondents in autumn 2021. The survey was designed to collect demographic predictors of vaccination, data on motivation and reasons for refusing vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 626 completed questionnaires were analyzed, of which 557 (89 %) were vaccinated and 69 (11 %) were unvaccinated respondents. The most significant predictors of vaccine acceptance were: concern about COVID-19 (OR 2.44, p < 0.001), history of COVID-19 (OR 0.39, p = 0.001). The most frequently cited motives for vaccination were health protection (74.7 %) and an easier social life (69.1 %), while concerns about vaccine safety and vaccine adverse effects (79.1 %) followed by lack of confidence in vaccine efficacy (68.7 %) were the main reasons for vaccine refusal. CONCLUSION: To increase the vaccination rate it is necessary to target the younger population and increase awareness of vaccine safety and efficacy. If these measures are not sufficient to encourage voluntary vaccine acceptance, consideration should be given to making vaccination mandatory for selected professional groups (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 25).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Vaccination Hesitancy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic , Humans , Motivation , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935474, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) and the sudden inflow of patients with severe COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) symptoms increased demand for hospital and pre-hospital care, the latter being provided by emergency medical teams. The Polish Medical Air Rescue Services include the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and the airplane-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS). This study aimed to present the experience of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and measures taken to protect patients, medical staff, and air crew from SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of missions completed by the Polish Medical Air Rescue crews with respect to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases. We analyzed data from the medical records of the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service, which included flights to accidents and emergencies, and air patient transport missions, where medical assistance was provided to patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first year of the pandemic in Poland. RESULTS Among the COVID-19 patients, the most common comorbidity was acute respiratory failure (41.58%). Emergency missions more often concerned older patients with sudden cardiac arrest, dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infection, stroke, and acute coronary syndromes. CONCLUSIONS During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland, the Polish Medical Air Rescue Service implemented procedures to protect patients, medical staff, and air crew from SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study highlights the importance of using single-patient isolation units for patient transport between hospitals and for emergency hospital admissions when the SARS-CoV-2 status of the patients were unknown.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Medical Records , Pandemics , Poland , Retrospective Studies , Transportation of Patients
9.
Work ; 71(2): 309-318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent mandate for university faculty and staff to work-from-home (WFH) during the COVID-19 pandemic has forced employees to work with sub-optimal ergonomic workstations that may change their musculoskeletal discomfort and pain. As women report more work-related musculoskeletal discomfort (WMSD), this effect may be exacerbated in women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe university employee at-home office workstations, and explore if at-home workstation design mediates the effect of gender on musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: University employees completed a survey that focused on the WFH environment, at home workstation design and musculoskeletal pain. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyze the responses. RESULTS: 61% of respondents reported an increase in musculoskeletal pain, with the neck, shoulders and lower back being reported most frequently. Women reported significantly greater musculoskeletal pain, but this relationship was significantly mediated by poor ergonomic design of the home workstation. Improper seat-height and monitor distance were statistically associated with total-body WMSD. CONCLUSIONS: WFH has worsened employee musculoskeletal health and the ergonomic gap between women and men in the workspace has persisted in the WFH environment, with seat height and monitor distance being identified as significant predictors of discomfort/pain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Musculoskeletal Pain , Occupational Diseases , Ergonomics , Female , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/prevention & control , Musculoskeletal Pain/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Pain/etiology , Musculoskeletal Pain/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Work ; 71(2): 395-405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The imposition of telework by the COVID-19 pandemic represented a challenge for companies and workers with regard to the management and organization of the workplace at home. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ergonomic risks, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms as well as the relationships between these variables in employees of a Brazilian labor judiciary unit. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 55 employees who had their workstations evaluated by means of the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA-Br) and answered a questionnaire of sociodemographic and occupational characterization, the dimensions of workstation and posture of the Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ-Br-revised), the short version of the Job Stress Scale and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). RESULTS: The workstations evaluations by ROSA-Br and MUEQ-Br-revised showed a strong correlation between themselves and to body posture, but they were not related to the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Body posture and demands were correlated to each other and with to occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Shoulders, neck and wrists / hands were the most affected body regions. CONCLUSIONS: Companies that adopt teleworking for their employees must be aware of working conditions at home, including the workload, and offer adequate support in order to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ergonomics , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1593-1596, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572710

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in a substantial morbidity and mortality, and has put the health system under tremendous stress. A need for devising and adopting newer methods and techniques is being emphasized in the healthcare facilities to combat the effects of the SARS-CoV-2. Besides patient care, focus needs to be laid on the effective and dignified management of the deceased and medico-legal services provided by the hospitals and medical institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the likelihood of forensic experts and autopsy personnel being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 inadvertently during the autopsy, it is recommended to resort to safer and minimally invasive techniques of postmortem examination of the dead. In this regard, employing radiological techniques for postmortem examination appears to be a promising option during the COVID-19 pandemic. An inherent advantage of postmortem radiography over conventional autopsies is the minimization of the risk of transmission of infection to the health care workers. Our correspondence highlights on the possibility of using radiological facilities as an effective replacement of high-risk conventional autopsy procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Radiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Regional Health Planning
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1640-1645, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572709

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To analyze the virus spread among Sassari Hospital staff in the first Covid-19 wave and the impact of the Swab Team, a multidisciplinary task force entitled of nasopharyngeal swab collection and testing. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal swabs from HCWs between March 6 and May 28 2020 are evaluated. RESULTS: 4919 SARS-CoV-2 tests were performed on 3521 operators. Nurses and doctors are the categories at highest risk. After the Swab Team institution, the average number of swabs raised from 47/day to 86/day (p = 0.007). Positive samples decreased from 18.6% to 1.7% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The Swab Team is effective in increasing the cases tested and in reducing the reporting time. Procedure standardization reduces the risk for all the subjects involved (no transmission among swab team members, nor during the sample collection).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff, Hospital , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1615-1617, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572706

ABSTRACT

The impacts of COVID -19 pandemic have been quite significant on healthcare providers. I was particularly challenging for those in Low and Middle-Income Countries including Sudan . Unfortunately, the pandemic has hit Sudan on extremely difficult time for the country and its people. The country was coming out of long-brutal and devastating dictatorship and transitioning to new democracy with civilian leadership. In addition to the pandemic related issues, trying to rebuild the health system during socioeconomic crisis, healthcare providers  in the country were challenged personally and professionally. These challenges include the stress of working in under-resourced settings with limited access to personal-protection equipment and testing kits raised the fear of contracting the virus and spreading it to their families. The professional, social, and personal life of healthcare providers have been dramatically changed by the ongoing pandemic, however, they are heroically accepting this change in a hope that, this will save the life of many more people. Nevertheless, their fights and sacrifices should at least be rewarded by governments and communities altogether strictly enforce the implementation of other preventive measures including vaccination, face masking, and social distancing and get all protected. We should all understand that, unless we are all protected no one is protected, so all must adapt to the new norm of life and collaborate not only on ending this pandemic but to prevent similar ones in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Sudan/epidemiology , Vaccination
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488572

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of psychosocial risks continues to increase and the COVID-19 pandemic has even worsened this threat on workers' health. This inexorable and evidence-based rise seems to be impervious to the preventive strategies proposed for more than 40 years. Hypotheses are proposed to explain this serious problem that drastically impacts public health and the economy. The objectives of this paper are to present, in this broad context of societal and cultural changes, how the present shift in management paradigms may represent opportunities to reduce work-related diseases. In the first part of this paper, we will summarize the situation on three main issues and their relation with psychosocial risks: (1) evolution of the occupational safety and health field, (2) change in the nature of work, and (3) emerging models of governance. In the second part, we will describe, through a few examples (among many others), how emerging models of corporate governance may reduce and prevent stress and burnout. Work is changing fundamentally, and this impacts workers' (and managers') health and well-being; that is why approaches in line with these changes are necessary. The COVID-19 pandemic has produced major changes in work organization. This may offer promising opportunities to reanalyze working conditions for a better control of occupational diseases and stress with all the benefits these improvements will bring for society and for individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Humans , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 283, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472501

ABSTRACT

Self-denial and sense of duty are fundamental ethical principles in health care. Since the outbreak of health crisis, healthcare workers have been the first bulwark against the spread of coronavirus, and therefore, the occupational category at higher risk of contamination. In this regard, in a statement dated 23 March 2020, the World Health Organization published a guidance regarding the management of the disease caused by Covid-19 in health workers, but also in workers employed in all sectors exposed to the risk of contamination. In Morocco, the Ministry of Health published on April 6, on its official website, a condolence message to the families of the first two doctors died following contraction of coronavirus, while specifying that coronavirus infection was not due to the exercise of their professional functions. The Minister of Labor and Professional Integration recently appointed an internal committee to undertake a reflection on this issue. At present, given Morocco's law, what are the chances to categorize coronavirus as an occupational disease?


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Morocco/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(17): 622-626, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410367

ABSTRACT

Large COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred in high-density workplaces, such as food processing facilities (1). Alaska's seafood processing industry attracts approximately 18,000 out-of-state workers annually (2). Many of the state's seafood processing facilities are located in remote areas with limited health care capacity. On March 23, 2020, the governor of Alaska issued a COVID-19 health mandate (HM10) to address health concerns related to the impending influx of workers amid the COVID-19 pandemic (3). HM10 required employers bringing critical infrastructure (essential) workers into Alaska to submit a Community Workforce Protective Plan.* On May 15, 2020, Appendix 1 was added to the mandate, which outlined specific requirements for seafood processors, to reduce the risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in these high-density workplaces (4). These requirements included measures to prevent introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into the workplace, including testing of incoming workers and a 14-day entry quarantine before workers could enter nonquarantine residences. After 13 COVID-19 outbreaks in Alaska seafood processing facilities and on processing vessels during summer and early fall 2020, State of Alaska personnel and CDC field assignees reviewed the state's seafood processing-associated cases. Requirements were amended in November 2020 to address gaps in COVID-19 prevention. These revised requirements included restricting quarantine groups to ≤10 persons, pretransfer testing, and serial testing (5). Vaccination of this essential workforce is important (6); until high vaccination coverage rates are achieved, other mitigation strategies are needed in this high-risk setting. Updating industry guidance will be important as more information becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Food-Processing Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Alaska/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
20.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(11): 941-951, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: App-based drivers face work disruptions and infection risk during a pandemic due to the nature of their work, interactions with the public, and lack of workplace protections. Limited occupational health research has focused on their experiences. METHODS: We surveyed 100 app-based drivers in Seattle, WA to assess risk perceptions, supports, and controls received from the company that employs them, sources of trust, stress, job satisfaction, COVID-19 infection status, and how the pandemic had changed their work hours. Data were summarized descriptively and with simple regression models. We complemented this with qualitative interviews to better understand controls and policies enacted during COVID-19, and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. RESULTS: Drivers expressed very high levels of concern for exposure and infection (86%-97% were "very concerned" for all scenarios). Only 31% of drivers reported receiving an appropriate mask from the company for which they drive. Stress (assessed via PSS-4) was significantly higher in drivers who reported having had COVID-19, and also significantly higher in respondents with lower reported job satisfaction. Informants frequently identified supports such as unemployment benefits and peer outreach among the driver community as ways to ensure that drivers could access available benefits during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: App-based drivers received few protections from the company that employed them, and had high fear of exposure and infection at work. There is increased need for health-supportive policies and protections for app-based drivers. The most effective occupational and public health regulations would cover employees who may not have a traditional employer-employee relationship.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Safety Management/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Occupational Diseases/virology , Occupational Health , Organizational Culture , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation , Washington , Workplace/organization & administration , Young Adult
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