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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 829013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785442

ABSTRACT

In several regions of the world, the recent Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak increased morbidity and mortality. The pandemic situation disrupted many workers' previously established lifestyles. The main aim of the present review was to describe the circadian disruption and occupational toxicant exposure affecting the immunity of shift workers during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. We retrieved pertinent published literature from the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases. In the present review, we discuss the circadian rhythm involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the molecular level, its disruption, occupational toxicant exposure causing immunomodulatory effects, and the role of immunity during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. The severity of the progression of the viral infection depends on multiple factors affecting immunity. Hence, shift workers may need to be aware of those factors such as circadian rhythm disruption as well as occupational toxicant exposure. The timing of shift workers' energy intake is also important concerning the shift of the workers. The information in the present review may be important for all workers who are at risk during the pandemic. In the absence of any published literature related to association of circadian rhythm disruption with occupational toxicant exposure, the present review may have greater importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775819

ABSTRACT

Coffee production is a global industry with roasteries throughout the world. Workers in this industry are exposed to complex mixtures of gases, dusts, and vapors including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, coffee dust, allergens, alpha-diketones, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Adverse respiratory health outcomes such as respiratory symptoms, reduced pulmonary function, asthma, and obliterative bronchiolitis can occur among exposed workers. In response to health hazard evaluations requests received from 17 small- to medium-sized coffee facilities across the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted investigations during 2016-2017 to understand the burden of respiratory abnormalities, exposure characteristics, relationships between exposures and respiratory effects, and opportunities for exposure mitigation. Full-shift, task-based, and instantaneous personal and area air samples for diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione and other VOCs were collected, and engineering controls were evaluated. Medical evaluations included questionnaire, spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Exposure and health assessments were conducted using standardized tools and approaches, which enabled pooling data for aggregate analysis. The pooled data provided a larger population to better address the requestors' concern of the effect of exposure to alpha-diketones on the respiratory heath of coffee workers. This paper describes the rationale for the exposure and health assessment strategy, the approach used to achieve the study objectives, and its advantages and limitations.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis Obliterans , Occupational Exposure , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/etiology , Coffee/adverse effects , Diacetyl/adverse effects , Diacetyl/analysis , Food Industry , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/analysis , United States
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 869232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776096

ABSTRACT

Young workers, those under the age of 25, are considered a vulnerable working population, primarily due to their increased risk of injury. In this study we investigate if young workers may also be at an increased risk for occupational exposure to carcinogens. Using the 2006 and 2016 Canadian Census of Population and previously obtained CAREX Canada data, this study aimed to identify sectors and occupations that have high proportions of young workers and where potential exists for exposure to known and suspected carcinogens. Key groups where young workers are likely at a higher risk for occupational exposure to carcinogens were identified. Our work shows that young workers in construction, outdoor occupations, and farming are key groups that warrant further investigation. These specific groups are highlighted because of the large number of young workers employed in these sectors/situations, the high number of possible carcinogen exposures, and the potential for higher risk behavior patterns that typically occur in these types of jobs. While there is no data available to develop carcinogen exposure estimates specific to young workers, it is our perspective that young workers are likely at a higher risk for occupational exposure to carcinogens. Our findings identify opportunities to improve the occupational health and safety for this vulnerable population, particularly for young construction workers, farm workers, and outdoor workers.


Subject(s)
Carcinogens , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Canada/epidemiology , Carcinogens/analysis , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e48, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758088

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 serological tests are used to assess the infection seroprevalence within a population. This study aims at assessing potential biases in estimating infection prevalence amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) when different diagnostic criteria are considered. A multi-site cross-sectional study was carried out in April-September 2020 amongst 1.367 Italian HCWs. SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was assessed using three diagnostic criteria: RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swab, point-of-care fingerprick serological test (POCT) result and COVID-19 clinical pathognomonic presentation. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of POCT-positive result in relation to the time since infection (RT-PCR positivity). Among 1.367 HCWs, 69.2% were working in COVID-19 units. Statistically significant differences in age, role and gender were observed between COVID-19/non-COVID-19 units. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection varied according to the criterion considered: 6.7% for POCT, 8.1% for RT-PCR, 10.0% for either POCT or RT-PCR, 9.6% for infection pathognomonic clinical presentation and 17.6% when at least one of the previous criteria was present. The probability of POCT-positive result decreased by 1.1% every 10 days from the infection. This study highlights potential biases in estimating SARS-CoV-2 point-prevalence data according to the criteria used. Although informative on infection susceptibility and herd immunity level, POCT serological tests are not the best predictors of previous COVID-19 infections for public health monitoring programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Bias , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Prevalence , Probability , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are particularly exposed to COVID-19 and therefore it is important to study preventive measures in this population. AIM: To investigate socio-demographic factors and professional practice associated with the risk of COVID-19 among HCWs in health establishments in Normandy, France. METHODS: A cross-sectional and 3 case-control studies using bootstrap methods were conducted in order to explore the possible risk factors that lead to SARS-CoV2 transmission within HCWs. Case-control studies focused on risk factors associated with (a) care of COVID-19 patients, (b) care of non COVID-19 patients and (c) contacts between colleagues. PARTICIPANTS: 2,058 respondents, respectively 1,363 (66.2%) and 695 (33.8%) in medical and medico-social establishments, including HCW with and without contact with patients. RESULTS: 301 participants (14.6%) reported having been infected by SARS-CoV2. When caring for COVID-19 patients, HCWs who declared wearing respirators, either for all patient care (ORa 0.39; 95% CI: 0.29-0.51) or only when exposed to aerosol-generating procedures (ORa 0.56; 95% CI: 0.43-0.70), had a lower risk of infection compared with HCWs who declared wearing mainly surgical masks. During care of non COVID-19 patients, wearing mainly a respirator was associated with a higher risk of infection (ORa 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06-3.37). An increased risk was also found for HCWs who changed uniform in workplace changing rooms (ORa 1.93; 95% CI: 1.63-2.29). CONCLUSION: Correct use of PPE adapted to the situation and risk level is essential in protecting HCWs against infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Personnel/classification , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Professional Practice , Risk Reduction Behavior
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(4): 1398-1402, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic surgery has been suggested to pose a risk of infection to the surgical team due to aerosol and gas leakage during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there have been no studies on the risk of gas and aerosol leakage in laparoscopic surgery. We aimed to answer the question "Is the aerosol and gas leakage in laparoscopy is hazardous in terms of coronavirus infection?" with this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, gas and aerosol leaks were documented by simulating the entry and exit maneuvers from a trocar during laparoscopic surgery using a high-speed camera, fog, and laser in a model representing the abdomen. RESULTS: The maximum gas and aerosol leakage were found during wet gauze extraction from the 10 mm trocar, and its velocity reached 7.5 m/s. The fastest aerosol leakage rate was observed when a 5 mm grasper was extracted from the 5 mm trocar. The results of the subsequent trials were consistent with these values. CONCLUSIONS: Higher leakage speeds were observed than the velocity of the exhaled air in a resting person. The surgical crew members, who work very close to the trocars and each other, are at serious risk of infection with COVID-19 which can spread as fast as exhalation speed through trocars. Since there is an evident risk of infection for the surgical crew from laparoscopic surgery of a patient whose intraabdominal fluids are infected with COVID-19, patients must be evaluated elaborately for COVID-19 preoperatively and infected patients should undergo surgery conventionally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Laparoscopy , Aerosols , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Infection Control , Lasers , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Personnel, Hospital
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690735

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been suggestions that various techniques could be employed to improve the fit and, therefore, the effectiveness of face masks. It is well recognized that improving fit tends to improve mask effectiveness, but whether these fit modifiers are reliable remains unexplored. In this study, we assess a range of common "fit hacks" to determine their ability to improve mask performance. METHODS: Between July and September 2020, qualitative fit testing was performed in an indoor living space. We used quantitative fit testing to assess the fit of both surgical masks and KN95 masks, with and without 'fit hacks', on four participants. Seven fit hacks were evaluated to assess impact on fit. Additionally, one participant applied each fit hack multiple times to assess how reliable hacks were when reapplied. A convenience of four participants took part in the study, three females and one male with a head circumference range of 54 to 60 centimetres. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The use of pantyhose, tape, and rubber bands were effective for most participants. A pantyhose overlayer was observed to be the most effective hack. High degrees of variation were noted between participants. However, little variation was noted within participants, with hacks generally showing similar benefit each time they were applied on a single participant. An inspection of the fit hacks once applied showed that individual facial features may have a significant impact on fit, especially the nose bridge. CONCLUSIONS: Fit hacks can be used to effectively improve the fit of surgical and KN95 masks, enhancing the protection provided to the wearer. However, many of the most effective hacks are very uncomfortable and unlikely to be tolerated for extended periods of time. The development of effective fit-improvement solutions remains a critical issue in need of further development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/trends , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/trends , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Physical Functional Performance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 512022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689548

ABSTRACT

The authors report the results of a pilot trial of quantitative N95 respirator mask fit testing in metropolitan general practice and how fit test failures were managed.


Subject(s)
General Practice , Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Australia , Humans , Masks , Ventilators, Mechanical
11.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 19(4): 223-233, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684399

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified Elastomeric Half Mask Respirators equipped with N95 or P100 respirator filter cartridges for protection against the SARS-CoV-2 viral agent, as a viable alternative to N95 filtering facepiece respirators. Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations stated that based on current practice, it was acceptable to repeatedly use these filter cartridges for up to 12 months as a contingency capacity strategy during anticipated respirator shortages. To validate this recommendation, an investigation was undertaken in which Elastomeric Half Mask Respirators equipped with P100 respirator filter cartridges were deployed and used by healthcare professionals in clinical settings (i.e., inpatient nursing units, operating rooms) for extended periods. These filter cartridges were subsequently tested to accurately quantify their filtration efficiency and breathing resistance to determine if they continued to meet National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's performance requirements. Findings from this investigation confirmed that an Elastomeric Half Mask Respirator when equipped with a P100 filter cartridge continues to provide a high level of aerosol filtration performance (≥99.97%) and exhibits little change in breathing resistance even after 12 months of repeated use (i.e., wear, cleaning, and disinfection between patient use and at the end of work shift) in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Filtration , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Ventilators, Mechanical
14.
Anesth Analg ; 134(2): 348-356, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the personal and professional lives of all health care workers. Anesthesiologists frequently perform virus-aerosolizing procedures (eg, intubation and extubation) that place them at increased risk of infection. We sought to determine how the initial COVID-19 outbreak affected members of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) on both personal and professional levels. Specifically, we examined the potential effects of gender and age on personal stress, burnout, sleep deprivation, anxiety, depression, assessed job satisfaction, and explored financial impact. METHODS: After receiving approval from the SPA Committees for Research and Quality and Safety and the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, we e-mailed a questionnaire to all 3245 SPA members. The survey included 22 questions related to well-being and 13 questions related to effects of COVID-19 on current and future practice, finances, retirement planning, academic time and productivity, and clinical and home responsibilities. To address low initial response rates and quantify nonresponse bias, we sent a shortened follow-up survey to a randomly selected subsample (n = 100) of SPA members who did not respond to the initial survey. Response differences between the 2 cohorts were determined. RESULTS: A total of 561 (17%) members responded to the initial questionnaire. Because of COVID-19, 21.7% of respondents said they would change their clinical responsibilities, and 10.6% would decrease their professional working time. Women were more likely than men to anticipate a future COVID-19-related job change (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.63; P = .011), perhaps because of increased home responsibilities (OR = 2.63, 95% CI, 1.74-4.00; P < .001). Additionally, 14.2% of respondents planned to retire early, and 11.9% planned to retire later. Women and non-White respondents had higher likelihoods of burnout on univariate analysis (OR = 1.75, 95% CI, 1.06-2.94, P = .026 and OR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.08-3.04, P = .017, respectively), and 25.1% of all respondents felt socially isolated. In addition, both changes in retirement planning and future occupational planning were strongly associated with total job satisfaction scores (both P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the personal and professional lives of pediatric anesthesiologists, albeit not equally, as women and non-Whites have been disproportionately impacted. The pandemic has significantly affected personal finances, home responsibilities, and retirement planning; reduced clinical and academic practice time and responsibilities; and increased feelings of social isolation, stress, burnout, and depression/anxiety.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/psychology , Anesthesiologists/psychology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pediatrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anesthesia/trends , Anesthesiologists/trends , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pediatrics/trends , Retirement/trends , Societies, Medical/trends
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1816-1824, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the second wave of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, Malaysia reported several COVID-19 clusters related to healthcare workers. Thus, addressing and understanding the risk of exposure in healthcare workers is important to prevent future infection and reduce secondary COVID-19 transmission within the healthcare settings. In this study, we aim to assess exposure and prevention practices against COVID-19 among healthcare workers at the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, a university teaching hospital based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: A total of 571 healthcare workers at COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 wards as well as the emergency department and laboratory staff at COVID-19 testing labs were recruited. The presence of novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and IgM/IgG antibodies were confirmed in all healthcare workers. The healthcare workers responded to an online Google Forms questionnaire that evaluates demographic information and comorbidities, exposure and adherence to infection prevention and control measures against COVID-19. Descriptive analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 24.0. RESULTS: Three healthcare workers (0.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, while the remaining 568 (99.5%) were negative. All were negative for IgM and IgG antibodies during recruitment (day 1) and follow-up (day 15). More than 90% of the healthcare workers followed infection prevention and control practices recommendations regardless of whether they have been exposed to occupational risk for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The healthcare workers' high level of adherence to infection prevention practices at this hospital helped reduce and minimize their occupational exposure to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615839

ABSTRACT

The potential for alcoholic vapors emitted by common sanitizing treatments to deteriorate the (electrostatic) filtration performance of disposable respirator masks has been investigated. Reports in the literature and some standard test methods provide a confusing and ambiguous picture concerning the relevance of this effect. Four different types of exposure were investigated in this study to clarify the effect of alcoholic vapor emissions on respirator masks. These included exposure to saturated vapors, use of hand sanitizers, cleaning of table surfaces and sanitization of masks by spraying them with alcohol-containing solutions. Methods employed were designed to be as real-world oriented as possible while remaining reproducible. Filtration performance and deterioration effects on exposure to the different treatments were determined on three different types of certified commercial respirator masks-a P2 and two KN95 masks. This study provides substantial evidence that disposable respirator masks with an accepted performance rating are seriously compromised from an exposure to saturated alcoholic vapors, can tolerate a one-off spray treatment with an alcoholic solution and retain their attested protection under the influence of alcoholic vapors from the use of hand sanitizer or spray sanitizer. Considering the range of vastly different outcomes obtained from the four treatments investigated, it seems prudent to assess in each case the specific effects of alcoholic solution treatments and vapors on respirator masks before use.


Subject(s)
Occupational Exposure , Respiratory Protective Devices , Filtration , Masks , Ventilators, Mechanical
17.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614006

ABSTRACT

In Mali, a country in West Africa, cumulative confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain enigmatically low, despite a series of waves, circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the country's weak healthcare system, and a general lack of adherence to public health mitigation measures. The goal of the study was to determine whether exposure is important by assessing the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in HCWs. The study was conducted between November 2020 and June 2021. HCWs in the major hospitals where COVID-19 cases were being cared for in the capital city, Bamako, Mali, were recruited. During the study period, vaccinations were not yet available. The ELISA of the IgG against the spike protein was optimized and quantitatively measured. A total of 240 HCWs were enrolled in the study, of which seropositivity was observed in 147 cases (61.8%). A continuous increase in the seropositivity was observed, over time, during the study period, from 50% at the beginning to 70% at the end of the study. HCWs who provided direct care to COVID-19 patients and were potentially highly exposed did not have the highest seropositivity rate. Vulnerable HCWs with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and asthma had even higher seropositivity rates at 77.8%, 75.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Overall, HCWs had high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, likely reflecting a "herd" immunity level, which could be protective at some degrees. These data suggest that the low number of cases and deaths among HCWs in Mali is not due to a lack of occupational exposure to the virus but rather related to other factors that need to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Mali/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108392, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608746

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great stress to frontline medical workers. Our previous study indicated that immune cells in the peripheral blood of frontline medical workers changed significantly. However, the dynamic changes of immune cells of frontline medical workers remain unclear. Here, we reported the dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of 51 frontline medical worker. The frontline medical workers struggling with COVID-19 from February 8 to March 31, 2020. Demographic and clinical data, including routine blood test data were extracted from the electronic health examination record and retrospectively analyzed. The lymphocyte (LYM) count and LYM ratio increased while the monocyte (MONO) ratio, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and neutrophil (NEUT) ratio in the peripheral blood of frontline medical workers decreased 10 days after struggling with COVID-19. Interestingly, the differences of LYM count, LYM ratio, MONO ratio, NLR, NEUT ratio were more significantly in nurse than doctor. The differences of LYM ratio, NLR and NEUT ratio were more significantly in female than male. However, the changes of LYM count, LYM ratio, MONO ratio, NLR, MLR, NEUT ratio returned to the baseline 10 months after struggling with COVID-19. Together, these data indicated that immune cells in the peripheral blood changed significantly 10 days after struggling with COVID-19, but returned to normal after 10 months. Those maybe caused by psychological stress and we recommend to pay more attention to mental health and immune response of frontline medical workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Cellular , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Workload/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Male , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Occupational Exposure , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/blood , Workload/statistics & numerical data
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24502, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599356

ABSTRACT

In the era of COVID-19, essential workers are plagued with unforeseen and obfuscated challenges. Flight attendants are a unique subgroup of essential workers who face a multitude of health risks attributed to occupational exposures that are accentuated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Such risks can be ameliorated with strategies that target factors which enhance COVID-19 risk, including modifiable factors of diet and lifestyle. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to detect occupational dietary and lifestyle factors which could increase COVID-19 incidence amongst flight attendants. To identify potential risk factors, a questionnaire was administered to eighty-four flight attendants and examined the participants' diet and lifestyle, and COVID-19 incidence. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression indicated that the participants' perceived dietary quality at work (p = 0.003), sleep disruptions which impacted their consumption of a healthy diet (p = 0.013), job tenure (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46:0.98) and frequency of reported cold/flu (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.014-2.189) were all factors associated with confirmed/suspected COVID-19 incidence. This study also revealed that a lack of infrastructure for food storage and time limitations are considerable occupational barriers for flight attendants to consume healthy foods. Additional investigation can further elucidate these relationships and related solutions to mitigate COVID-19 risk in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Space Flight/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24503, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596506

ABSTRACT

It is partially unknown whether the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection persists with time. To address this issue, we detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different groups of individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19 disease (group 1 and 2), or potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection (group 3 and 4), and in a representative group of individuals with limited environmental exposure to the virus due to lockdown restrictions (group 5). The primary outcome was specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the different groups assessed by qualitative and quantitative analysis at baseline, 3 and 6 months follow-up. The seroconversion rate at baseline test was 95% in group 1, 61% in group 2, 40% in group 3, 17% in group 4 and 3% in group 5. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed male gender, close COVID-19 contact and presence of COVID-19 related symptoms strongly associated with serological positivity. The percentage of positive individuals as assessed by the qualitative and quantitative tests was superimposable. At the quantitative test, the median level of SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured in positive cases retested at 6-months increased significantly from baseline. The study indicates that assessing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 through qualitative and quantitative testing is a reliable disease surveillance tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
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