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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 829013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785442

ABSTRACT

In several regions of the world, the recent Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak increased morbidity and mortality. The pandemic situation disrupted many workers' previously established lifestyles. The main aim of the present review was to describe the circadian disruption and occupational toxicant exposure affecting the immunity of shift workers during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. We retrieved pertinent published literature from the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases. In the present review, we discuss the circadian rhythm involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the molecular level, its disruption, occupational toxicant exposure causing immunomodulatory effects, and the role of immunity during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. The severity of the progression of the viral infection depends on multiple factors affecting immunity. Hence, shift workers may need to be aware of those factors such as circadian rhythm disruption as well as occupational toxicant exposure. The timing of shift workers' energy intake is also important concerning the shift of the workers. The information in the present review may be important for all workers who are at risk during the pandemic. In the absence of any published literature related to association of circadian rhythm disruption with occupational toxicant exposure, the present review may have greater importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 705225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775819

ABSTRACT

Coffee production is a global industry with roasteries throughout the world. Workers in this industry are exposed to complex mixtures of gases, dusts, and vapors including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, coffee dust, allergens, alpha-diketones, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Adverse respiratory health outcomes such as respiratory symptoms, reduced pulmonary function, asthma, and obliterative bronchiolitis can occur among exposed workers. In response to health hazard evaluations requests received from 17 small- to medium-sized coffee facilities across the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted investigations during 2016-2017 to understand the burden of respiratory abnormalities, exposure characteristics, relationships between exposures and respiratory effects, and opportunities for exposure mitigation. Full-shift, task-based, and instantaneous personal and area air samples for diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione and other VOCs were collected, and engineering controls were evaluated. Medical evaluations included questionnaire, spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Exposure and health assessments were conducted using standardized tools and approaches, which enabled pooling data for aggregate analysis. The pooled data provided a larger population to better address the requestors' concern of the effect of exposure to alpha-diketones on the respiratory heath of coffee workers. This paper describes the rationale for the exposure and health assessment strategy, the approach used to achieve the study objectives, and its advantages and limitations.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis Obliterans , Occupational Exposure , Bronchiolitis Obliterans/etiology , Coffee/adverse effects , Diacetyl/adverse effects , Diacetyl/analysis , Food Industry , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/analysis , United States
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 869232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776096

ABSTRACT

Young workers, those under the age of 25, are considered a vulnerable working population, primarily due to their increased risk of injury. In this study we investigate if young workers may also be at an increased risk for occupational exposure to carcinogens. Using the 2006 and 2016 Canadian Census of Population and previously obtained CAREX Canada data, this study aimed to identify sectors and occupations that have high proportions of young workers and where potential exists for exposure to known and suspected carcinogens. Key groups where young workers are likely at a higher risk for occupational exposure to carcinogens were identified. Our work shows that young workers in construction, outdoor occupations, and farming are key groups that warrant further investigation. These specific groups are highlighted because of the large number of young workers employed in these sectors/situations, the high number of possible carcinogen exposures, and the potential for higher risk behavior patterns that typically occur in these types of jobs. While there is no data available to develop carcinogen exposure estimates specific to young workers, it is our perspective that young workers are likely at a higher risk for occupational exposure to carcinogens. Our findings identify opportunities to improve the occupational health and safety for this vulnerable population, particularly for young construction workers, farm workers, and outdoor workers.


Subject(s)
Carcinogens , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Canada/epidemiology , Carcinogens/analysis , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
6.
Anesth Analg ; 134(2): 348-356, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the personal and professional lives of all health care workers. Anesthesiologists frequently perform virus-aerosolizing procedures (eg, intubation and extubation) that place them at increased risk of infection. We sought to determine how the initial COVID-19 outbreak affected members of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) on both personal and professional levels. Specifically, we examined the potential effects of gender and age on personal stress, burnout, sleep deprivation, anxiety, depression, assessed job satisfaction, and explored financial impact. METHODS: After receiving approval from the SPA Committees for Research and Quality and Safety and the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, we e-mailed a questionnaire to all 3245 SPA members. The survey included 22 questions related to well-being and 13 questions related to effects of COVID-19 on current and future practice, finances, retirement planning, academic time and productivity, and clinical and home responsibilities. To address low initial response rates and quantify nonresponse bias, we sent a shortened follow-up survey to a randomly selected subsample (n = 100) of SPA members who did not respond to the initial survey. Response differences between the 2 cohorts were determined. RESULTS: A total of 561 (17%) members responded to the initial questionnaire. Because of COVID-19, 21.7% of respondents said they would change their clinical responsibilities, and 10.6% would decrease their professional working time. Women were more likely than men to anticipate a future COVID-19-related job change (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.63; P = .011), perhaps because of increased home responsibilities (OR = 2.63, 95% CI, 1.74-4.00; P < .001). Additionally, 14.2% of respondents planned to retire early, and 11.9% planned to retire later. Women and non-White respondents had higher likelihoods of burnout on univariate analysis (OR = 1.75, 95% CI, 1.06-2.94, P = .026 and OR = 1.82, 95% CI, 1.08-3.04, P = .017, respectively), and 25.1% of all respondents felt socially isolated. In addition, both changes in retirement planning and future occupational planning were strongly associated with total job satisfaction scores (both P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the personal and professional lives of pediatric anesthesiologists, albeit not equally, as women and non-Whites have been disproportionately impacted. The pandemic has significantly affected personal finances, home responsibilities, and retirement planning; reduced clinical and academic practice time and responsibilities; and increased feelings of social isolation, stress, burnout, and depression/anxiety.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/psychology , Anesthesiologists/psychology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pediatrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anesthesia/trends , Anesthesiologists/trends , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pediatrics/trends , Retirement/trends , Societies, Medical/trends
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580851

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: It has been hypothesised that a significant increase in the use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), for example, when examining COVID-19 convalescents using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has an influence the exposure profiles of medical personnel to static magnetic fields (STmf). (2) Methods: Static exposure to STmf (SEmf) was recorded during activities that modelled performing CMR by radiographers. The motion-induced time variability of that exposure (TVEmf) was calculated from SEmf samples. The results were compared with: (i) labour law requirements; (ii) the distribution of vertigo perception probability near MRI magnets; and (iii) the exposure profile when actually performing a head MRI. (3) Results: The exposure profiles of personnel managing 42 CMR scans (modelled using medium (1.5T), high (3T) and ultrahigh (7T) field scanners) were significantly different than when managing a head MRI. The majority of SEmf and TVEmf samples (up to the 95th percentile) were at low vertigo perception probability (SEmf < 500 mT, TVEmf < 600 mT/s), but a small fraction were at medium/high levels; (4) Conclusion: Even under the "normal working conditions" defined for SEmf (STmf < 2T) by labour legislation (Directive 2013/35/EC), increased CMR usage increases vertigo-related hazards experienced by MRI personnel (a re-evaluation of electromagnetic safety hazards is suggested in the case of these or similar changes in work organisation).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0253108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the work environment and COVID-19 mitigation measures for homeless shelter workers and assess occupational risk factors for COVID-19. METHODS: Between June 9-August 10, 2020, we conducted a self-administered survey among homeless shelter workers in Washington, Massachusetts, Utah, Maryland, and Georgia. We calculated frequencies for work environment, personal protective equipment use, and SARS-CoV-2 testing history. We used generalized linear models to produce unadjusted prevalence ratios (PR) to assess risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Of the 106 respondents, 43.4% reported frequent close contact with clients; 75% were worried about work-related SARS-CoV-2 infections; 15% reported testing positive. Close contact with clients was associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (PR 3.97, 95%CI 1.06, 14.93). CONCLUSIONS: Homeless shelter workers may be at risk of being exposed to individuals with COVID-19 during the course of their work. Frequent close contact with clients was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Protecting these critical essential workers by implementing mitigation measures and prioritizing for COVID-19 vaccination is imperative during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Cell Movement/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
12.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(1-2): 57-61, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical smoke or plume is produced by a variety of surgical coagulators and dissectors. A number of jurisdictions have recently introduced policies to reduce the associated occupational health risks including WorkSafe Victoria and New South Wales Health. METHOD: This paper is a narrative review of potential risks, including any associated with COVID-19, and options for mitigation. RESULTS: Surgical smoke or plume contains potentially toxic chemicals, some of which are carcinogens. Plume may also contain live virus, notably Human Papilloma and Hepatitis B, though any possible viral transmission is limited to a few case reports. Despite identifying COVID-19 ribonucleic acid fragments in various body tissues and fluids there are no current reports of COVID-19 transmission. Although plume is rapidly removed from the atmosphere in modern operating rooms, it is still inhaled by the operative team. Mitigation should include ensuring diathermy devices have evacuators while plume extraction should be standard for laparoscopic procedures. Consideration needs to be given to the potential to compromise the operating field of view, or the noise of the extractor impairing communication. There is an increasing range of suitable products on the market. The future includes pendant systems built into the operating room. CONCLUSION: The potential risks associated with surgical plume cannot be ignored. Health services should invest in plume extraction devices with a view to protecting their staff. The conduct of the operation should not be compromised by the devices chosen. Future operating theatres need to be designed to minimize exposure to plume.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Operating Rooms , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoke/adverse effects
14.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 72(1): 10-16, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) have an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to occupational exposure. Strict measures generally focus on the patient-to-HCW contacts. However, interactions between the HCWs also pose a high risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure. AIMS: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of social contacts on the level of SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk among workers by broadening the current risk assessment algorithm. METHODS: Contact tracing records of the workers in a large university hospital between 19th March and 31st December 2020 were analysed. Multivariate conditional logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate factors associated with high-risk exposure for contacts among workers. RESULTS: Of the 329 exposed clusters, 260 (79%) were HCW-to-HCW contacted clusters. High-risk exposure was higher in the HCW-to-HCW contacts (44%), when compared to the patient-to-HCW contacts (5%) (P < 0.001). A total of 1827 HCWs contacted a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-positive co-worker. Among the HCW-to-HCW contacts, high-risk exposure was higher in the support staff (49%, P < 0.001), in non-patient care settings (47%, P < 0.001) and in the social contacts (57%, P < 0.001). Social contacts between workers increased the high-risk exposure (adjusted odds ratio: 3.50, 95% confidence interval 2.62-4.69) in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between social contacts among workers and high-risk exposure of SARS-CoV-2 was observed. The results of the study emphasize the need for policies regarding the improved protection of HCWs in social settings in addition to patient care services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Health Personnel , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102727, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446793

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease secondary to three cardinal pathological features: immune-system alterations, diffuse microangiopathy, and fibrosis involving the skin and internal organs. The etiology of SSc remains quite obscure; it may encompass multiple host genetic and environmental -infectious/chemical-factors. The present review focused on the potential role of environmental agents in the etiopathogenesis of SSc based on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory investigations previously published in the world literature. Among infectious agents, some viruses that may persist and reactivate in infected individuals, namely human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and parvovirus B19 (B19V), and retroviruses have been proposed as potential causative agents of SSc. These viruses share a number of biological activities and consequent pathological alterations, such as endothelial dysfunction and/or fibroblast activation. Moreover, the acute worsening of pre-existing interstitial lung involvement observed in SSc patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection might suggest a potential role of this virus in the overall disease outcome. A variety of chemical/occupational agents might be regarded as putative etiological factors of SSc. In this setting, the SSc complicating silica dust exposure represents one of the most promising models of study. Considering the complexity of SSc pathogenesis, none of suggested causative factors may explain the appearance of the whole SSc; it is likely that the disease is the result of a multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process. A variable combination of potential etiological factors may modulate the appearance of different clinical phenotypes detectable in individual scleroderma patients. The in-deep investigations on the SSc etiopathogenesis may provide useful insights in the broad field of human diseases characterized by diffuse microangiopathy or altered fibrogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Parvoviridae Infections/complications , Retroviridae Infections/complications , Roseolovirus Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Scleroderma, Systemic/etiology , Cytomegalovirus , Herpesvirus 6, Human , Humans , Parvovirus B19, Human , Retroviridae , Scleroderma, Systemic/virology
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047328, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Globally, there are increasing cases of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin among heat-exposed workers. We aimed to see the kidney damages of indoor heat-exposed workers and whether urine specific gravity can predict any kidney damages. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A shoe-making factory in West Java, Indonesia. PARTICIPANTS: 119 subjects were included. Minimum total sample size was 62. Subjects were indoor heat-exposed workers who were exposed to occupational wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 28°C-30°C for 8 hours daily with 1 hour break, 5 days a week. The inclusion criterion was healthy subjects according to the result from annual medical check-up in 2019. The exclusion criteria were subjects who were taking vitamins and/or supplements that might cause disturbance in urine specific gravity and/or hydration status, pregnant and fasting. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of urine specific gravity for the detection of urinary nephrin and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were analysed. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and quantitative albuminuria were also measured. RESULTS: WBGT in the work area of the subject was 28°C-30°C. There were 15 (12.6%) subjects who had eGFR <90 mL/min, but ≥60 mL/min. High serum vasopressin levels were found in 79 subjects with a mean of 6.54 (95% CI 5.94 to 7.14) ng/mL. Most subjects had nephrinuria (87.4%) with preserved renal function (87.4%). Several subjects had elevated urinary KIM-1 (10.9%) and albuminuria (7.6%). AUC of urine specific gravity for increased urinary nephrin was 81.7% (95% CI 68.8% to 94.6%) and statistically significant (p<0.001). Cut-off value of ≥1.018 for urine specific gravity has sensitivity of 71.2% and specificity of 80% for detecting elevation of urinary nephrin levels. CONCLUSION: Urine specific gravity with a cut-off value of ≥1.018 could be used to detect nephrinuria among heat-exposed workers.


Subject(s)
Heat Stress Disorders , Occupational Exposure , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hot Temperature , Humans , Indonesia , Kidney , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Specific Gravity
18.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436363

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion/history , Healthy Lifestyle , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/history , Occupational Health/history , Occupational Medicine/history , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , Humans , Life Style , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Risk
20.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(9): 920-927, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431004

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> COVID-19 is a fast-spreading worldwide pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization recommended wearing face masks. Masks have become an urgent necessity throughout the pandemic, the study's goal was to track the impact of wearing masks on immunological responses. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This study was conducted on 40 healthy people who were working in health care at Nineveh Governorate Hospitals from September-December, 2020. They wore face masks at work for more than 8 months for an average of 6 hrs a day. The control sample included 40 healthy individuals, who wore masks for very short periods. All samples underwent immunological and physiological tests to research the effects of wearing masks for extended periods within these parameters. <b>Results:</b> The results showed a significant decrease in total White Blood Count and the absolute number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and phagocytic activity. However, there was a significant increase in the absolute number of eosinophils in participants compared with the control. The results also suggested there were no significant differences in IgE, haemoglobin concentration and blood O<sub>2 </sub>saturation in participants who wore masks for more than 6 hrs compared to the control group. The results showed a significant increase in pulse rate in participants who wore masks for more than 6 hrs compared to the control group. The results also showed a strong correlation coefficient between the time of wearing masks and some immunological, haematological parameters. <b>Conclusion:</b> Wearing masks for long periods alters immunological parameters that initiate the immune response, making the body weaker in its resistance to infectious agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Leukocytes/immunology , Masks , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Phagocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Rate , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Leukocyte Count , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Oxygen/blood , Personnel, Hospital , Phagocytosis , Time Factors
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