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1.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 72(4): 289-297, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608845

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be diagnosed as occupational disease by an occupational health physician (OHP), if supported by relevant work-related and medical documentation. The aim of this study was to analyse such documentation submitted by Croatian healthcare workers (HCWs) and discuss its relevance in view of European and Croatian guidelines. The study included 100 Croatian HCWs who were SARS-CoV-2-positive and requested that their infection be diagnosed as occupational disease by their OHPs from 1 May 2020 to 10 March 2021. As participants they were asked to fill out our online Occupational COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers Questionnaire. For the purpose of this study we analysed answers about the type of close contact at the workplace, COVID-19 symptoms, and enclosed work-related (job description, employer statement about exposure to SARS-CoV-2) and medical documentation (positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test and patient history confirming the diagnosis of COVID-19). Most participants were working in hospitals (N=95), mostly nurses (N=75), who became infected by a patient (N=68) or colleague (N=31), and had at least one COVID-19 symptom (N=87). Eighty participants did not enclose obligatory documents, 41 of whom failed to submit job description and 31 both job description and employer statement. These findings confirm that the major risk of occupational COVID-19 in HCWs is close contact with patients and colleagues, and points out the need for better cooperation between OHPs, occupational safety experts, employers, and diseased workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Health Personnel , Humans , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20210097, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1599695

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to translate and transculturally adapt the Risk assessment and management of exposure of health care workers in the context of COVID-19 questionnaire. Method: this is a methodological study. The translation, back-translation, synthesis, evaluation by experts committee and pre-test stages were followed. The participants were invited by electronic means and answered an online questionnaire. The data were collected between June and September 2020. Content validation by the experts committee was verified using the Content Validity Index. The pre-test participants assessed the instrument's applicability by means of the "Assessment of Instruments' Feasibility" questionnaire. Results: the study participants were four translators, eight evaluators in the experts committee and 35 professionals who answered the pre-test. The changes suggested by the experts committee were accepted and consensus was reached in two evaluation rounds, obtaining a content validity index higher than 0.80 for all items of the instrument. The pre-test version presented good applicability and satisfactory reliability (0.76). Conclusion: the instrument was adapted for use in Brazil, which will allow international comparison of the results and using the data obtained for assessment and decision-making in relation to workers' health. In addition to that, its use may be expanded to assess other situations of health professionals' exposure to the risk of contamination by infectious agents.


RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar la traducción y adaptación transcultural del instrumento Risk assessment and management of exposure of healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19. Método: estudio metodológico en el que se desarrollaron las siguientes etapas: traducción, retrotraducción, síntesis, evaluación a cargo de un comité de expertos y prueba previa (pre-test). Se invitó a los participantes a través de medios electrónicos para que respondieran un formulario en línea. Los datos se recolectaron entre junio y septiembre de 2020. La validación del contenido a cargo del comité de expertos se verificó por medio del Índice de Validez del Contenido. Los participantes de la prueba previa evaluaron la aplicabilidad del instrumento por medio del cuestionario "Evaluación de la Viabilidad de Instrumentos". Resultados: los participantes del estudio fueron cuatro traductores, ocho evaluadores en el comité de expertos y 35 profesionales que respondieron la prueba previa. Las modificaciones sugeridas por el comité de expertos fueron acatadas y se llegó a un consenso en dos evaluaciones, obteniéndose un Índice de Validez del Contenido superior a 0,80 para todos los ítems del instrumento. La versión de la prueba previa presentó buena aplicabilidad y confiabilidad satisfactoria (0,76). Conclusión: el instrumento fue adaptado para su uso en Brasil, lo que permitirá realizar una comparación internacional de los resultados y emplear los datos obtenidos con fines de evaluación y toma de decisiones en relación con la salud de los trabajadores. Además, se podrá expandir su utilización para evaluar otras situaciones de exposición de profesionales de la salud al riesgo de contaminación a raíz de agentes infecciosos.


RESUMO Objetivo: realizar a tradução e a adaptação transcultural do Risk assessment and management of exposure of healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19. Método: trata-se de estudo metodológico. Foram seguidas as etapas de tradução, retrotradução, síntese, avaliação por comitê de juízes e pré-teste. Os participantes foram convidados por meio eletrônico e responderam um formulário on-line. Os dados foram coletados entre junho e setembro de 2020. A validação de conteúdo pelo comitê de juízes foi verificada por meio do índice de validade de conteúdo. Os participantes do pré-teste avaliaram a aplicabilidade do instrumento por meio do questionário "Avaliação da Praticabilidade de Instrumentos". Resultados: participaram do estudo quatro tradutores, oito avaliadores no comitê de juízes e 35 profissionais responderam ao pré-teste. As modificações sugeridas pelo comitê de juízes foram acatadas e o consenso atingido em duas avaliações, obtendo índice de validade de conteúdo superior a 0,80 para todos os itens do instrumento. A versão pré-teste apresentou boa aplicabilidade e confiabilidade satisfatória (0,76). Conclusão: o instrumento foi adaptado para uso no Brasil, o que permitirá a comparação internacional dos resultados e o uso dos dados obtidos para a avaliação e tomada de decisão em relação à saúde do trabalhador. Além disso, seu uso poderá ser ampliado para avaliar outras situações de exposição de profissionais de saúde ao risco de contaminação por agentes infecciosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Management , Occupational Risks , Occupational Health , Validation Study , Personal Protective Equipment
4.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 24(3): 240-251, 2021 07 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599809

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occupational safety and health management of COVID-19 at a company in the Peruvian fishing sector Methods: The independent variable was occupational safety and health management, defined as the implementation of preventive and control measures in response to COVID-19. The dependent variable was defined as the number of detected COVID-19 cases and test positivity rate. We used a pre- (implementation phase) and post-test (following the implementation phase) study design. We performed a non-parametric inferential analysis to identify any significant pre- and post-test differences and any associations between the variables. RESULTS: The company initiated a strategy to detect positive cases through the use of serological tests. During the first stage, 2329 tests were conducted, yielding a positivity rate of 71%. Once prevention and control actions were implemented, the positivity rate in August 2020 had decreased to 15.65%,, a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05), as well as its relationship to the measures implemented. CONCLUSIONS: This occupational safety and health intervention significantly reduced the number of COVID-19 cases and positivity rate in this group of workers in the Peruvian fishing sector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Humans , Peru , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12309, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the COVID-19 pandemic, the idea of universal mask wearing to prevent infecting others when one becomes infected has prevailed among people. In general, any workplace is not exempt and workers are required to wear a mask while working at the sites. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to integrate information to assist workers to select effective protectors for the prevention of droplet infection even at workplaces without occupational health personnel. METHODS: A total of 94 studies were included in this study: 91 studies were identified in MEDLINE, which was used for the literature search, and an additional three studies were identified from other information sources. The studies were checked to eliminate duplication and narrowed down to 31 based on the titles and abstracts. The contents of the 31 studies were read through and then 19 studies were extracted for careful reading. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the protectors used at workplaces, it was suggested that (1) workers continue to use respiratory protectors as needed at sites where respiratory protectors such as an N95 respirator had to be used even before the spread of COVID-19 and (2) wear surgical masks, multi-layer cloth masks, or hybrid fabric masks made of several types of fabrics that are recommended in terms of preventing dissemination of droplets and protecting against inhalation of droplets, selected according to the working conditions, taking account of air permeability, breathability, and durability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks/standards , Occupational Health , Workplace , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Food Prot ; 84(11): 1973-1989, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551720

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the U.S. food supply and consumer behavior. Food production and processing are being disrupted as illnesses, proactive quarantines, and government-mandated movement restrictions cause labor shortages. In this environment, the food industry has been required to adopt new, additional practices to minimize the risk of COVID-19 cases and outbreaks among its workforce. Successfully overcoming these challenges requires a comprehensive approach that addresses COVID-19 transmission both within and outside the facility. Possible interventions include strategies (i) to vaccinate employees, (ii) to assure that employees practice social distancing, (iii) to assure that employees wear face coverings, (iv) to screen employees for COVID-19, (v) to assure that employees practice frequent hand washing and avoid touching their faces, (vi) to clean frequently touched surfaces, and (vii) to assure proper ventilation. Compliance with these control strategies must be verified, and an overall COVID-19 control culture must be established to implement an effective program. Despite some public misperceptions about the health risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 on foods or food packaging, both the virus biology and epidemiological data clearly support a negligible risk of COVID-19 transmission through food and food packing. However, COVID-19 pandemic-related supply chain and workforce disruptions and the shift in resources to protect food industry employees from COVID-19 may increase the actual food safety risks. The goal of this review was to describe the COVID-19 mitigation practices adopted by the food industry and the potential impact of these practices and COVID-19-related disruptions on the industry's food safety mission. A review of these impacts is necessary to ensure that the food industry is prepared to maintain a safe and nutritious food supply in the face of future global disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Food Safety , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ind Health ; 59(5): 318-324, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547178

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is around the world. We attempt to apply three-step method in ISO/IEC Guide 51: 2014 to COVID-19 infection control in the workplace. The results show that the COVID-19 infection control measures include the eradication of the virus, the destruction of infectivity, the detoxification and weakening and the elimination of opportunities for infection as "Inherently Safe Design Measures", the avoidance of contact as "Safeguarding and Complementary Protective Measures" and the reduction of contact and the avoidance of seriousness as "Information for Use". Among these specific measures, the New Normal, especially in the manufacturing industries, would be "telecommuting" and "unmanned workplaces", which are part of the elimination of opportunities for infection, and "changes in flow lines" and "changes in airflow", which are part of the avoidance of contact. Where "telecommuting" and "unmanned workplaces" are feasible, they should be implemented as much as possible, and where they are not, attempts should be made to minimize human-to-human contact by "changes in flow lines". In addition, in the area of "changes in airflow", there are high expectations for future research on how to establish a ventilation design for COVID-19, in which but also the source would be workers themselves, not only combustible gases and toxic gases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking , Ventilation/standards , Workplace/standards
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 747894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528873

ABSTRACT

Eighteen months into the COVID-19 pandemic, and as the world struggles with global vaccine equity, emerging variants, and the reality that eradication is years away at soonest, we add to notion of "layered defenses" proposing a conceptual model for better understanding the differential applicability and effectiveness of precautions against SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The prevailing adaptation of Reason's Swiss cheese model conceives of all defensive layers as equally protective, when in reality some are more effective than others. Adapting the hierarchy of controls framework from occupational safety provides a better framework for understanding the relative benefit of different hazard control strategies to minimize the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management
9.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(3): 505-517, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527999

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread mental health distress. Few COVID-19 employee wellness initiatives have been evaluated and have primarily focused on frontline health care workers. This study described the feasibility and utilization of, and participant satisfaction for virtual COVID-19 employee wellness sessions at a large university and health system. METHOD: Thomas Jefferson University behavioral health consultants (BHCs) and behavioral health leaders developed and offered JeffBeWell (JBW) wellness sessions over 17 weeks during March 2020 through July 2020. Sessions were advertised via mass emails and an employee intranet. Multiple live thirty-minute sessions were offered weekly; facilitators provided psychoeducation and offered coping tools. Topics included working remotely, parenting, sleep, nutrition, grief, anxiety, and yoga and relaxation. Attendance was tracked and participants were asked to complete satisfaction surveys; survey data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 388 sessions were offered with 1,324 participants. Attendance rose in weeks 1-5, followed by a decline and then a second increase in Weeks 15 through 17, 213 participants (16%) responded to the survey. The largest portion of respondents were in academic administrative roles (46%), followed by clinical providers and staff (34%) and faculty and students (9%). Of respondents, 91% of respondents felt that the sessions met their expectations, 92% felt the session helped them, and 92% planned to attend future sessions. DISCUSSION: JBW sessions were feasible to implement, attended by diverse participants and well received by survey respondents, although attendance has fluctuated during the pandemic. BHCs have refined sessions based on participant feedback and are tailoring more sessions to specific audiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e60790, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1518832

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo descrever a percepção e vivências dos enfermeiros sobre o seu desempenho durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos estudo qualitativo com abordagem fenomenológica. Participaram do estudo 15 enfermeiros, selecionados de acordo com uma amostra intencional do tipo bola de neve. Os dados foram obtidos através de entrevistas semiestruturadas e a informação transcrita foi submetida à análise de conteúdo temático-categorial. Resultados da análise do discurso dos participantes, emergiram as seguintes categorias e subcategorias: experiências vivenciadas (estados negativos; organização do trabalho; coesão da equipe; desafios e normas e orientações); estratégias adotadas (individuais; suporte da equipe; familiar e informativo) e expectativas futuras (regresso à normalidade; adaptação; crescimento pessoal e profissional; incerteza e valorização da enfermagem). Conclusão das percepções e vivências dos enfermeiros do seu desempenho na pandemia COVID-19 salientam-se os estados emocionais negativos, estratégias adotadas de caráter individual e expectativas futuras de regresso à normalidade.


ABSTRACT Objective to describe the perception and experiences of nurses about their performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods qualitative study with phenomenological approach. Fifteen nurses participated in the study, selected according to an intentional snowball type sample. The data were obtained through semi-structured interviews and the transcribed information was submitted to thematic-category content analysis. Results from the analysis of the participants' discourse, the following categories and subcategories emerged: lived experiences (negative states; work organization; team cohesion; challenges and norms and guidelines); adopted strategies (individual; team support; familiar and informative) and future expectations (return to normality; adaptation; personal and professional growth; nursing uncertainty and valorization). Conclusion from the perceptions and experiences of the nurses of their performance in the COVID-19 pandemic, the negative emotional states, strategies adopted of individual character and future expectations of return to normality are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Nurses, Male
12.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20210160, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1511864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to know the factors that exert an influence on the health professionals' perception of the risk of becoming contaminated with COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods: a survey conducted from May to October 2020 with 436 active health professionals working in the front line against COVID-19. Descriptive analyses were used and a structural equation model from an exploratory factor analysis was estimated. Results: the health professionals' perception on contracting COVID-19 was considered as medium to very high for 72% of the respondents. In the structural equation model, knowledge of the treatment for COVID-19, preparation of the health professionals to work, and safety in the institutional protocol together with confidence in official protocols and disclosures through social, printed and television media exerted an influence on confidence to face the pandemic (P<0.05). This self-confidence along with the male gender were significant determinants (P<0.001) for the perception of the possibility of becoming contaminated. Conclusion: this study may contribute to the realization of strategies, public policies and guidelines that may impact on improving self-confidence and protecting the health professionals in their performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.


RESUMEN Objetivo: conocer los factores que influencian la percepción del riesgo de infección por COVID-19 de los profesionales de salud en Brasil. Métodos: estudio del tipo survey realizado entre mayo y octubre de 2020 con 436 profesionales de salud que trabajan en la primera línea de combate contra el COVID-19. Se utilizaron análisis descriptivos y se estimó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales a partir de un análisis factorial exploratorio. Resultados: la percepción de los profesionales de salud con respecto a contraer COVID-19 se consideró entre media y muy alta en el 72% de los encuestados. En el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, el conocimiento sobre el tratamiento del COVID-19, la preparación de los profesionales de salud para trabajar, y la confianza en el protocolo institucional, en conjunto con la confianza en protocolos oficiales y diversas informaciones divulgadas a través de medios sociales, impresos y televisivos influenciaron la autoconfianza para enfrentar la pandemia (P<0,05). Dicha autoconfianza, junto con el sexo masculino, fueron determinantes significativos (P<0,001) para la percepción de la posibilidad de contagio. Conclusión: este estudio podrá contribuir para que se lleven adelante estrategias, políticas públicas y directrices que repercutan sobre la mejora de la autoconfianza y sobre la protección de los profesionales de salud frente a su desempeño en la pandemia de COVID-19.


RESUMO Objetivo: conhecer os fatores que influenciam a percepção do risco dos profissionais de saúde para se contaminarem com Covid-19 no Brasil. Métodos: survey realizado de maio a outubro de 2020 com 436 profissionais de saúde atuantes na linha de frente da Covid-19. Utilizaram-se análises descritivas e foi estimado um modelo de equações estruturais a partir de uma análise fatorial exploratória. Resultados: a percepção dos profissionais de saúde para contrair Covid-19 foi considerada média a muito elevada para 72% dos respondentes. No modelo de equações estruturais, o conhecimento do tratamento da Covid-19, preparo dos profissionais de saúde para atuação e a segurança no protocolo institucional em conjunto à confiança em protocolos oficiais e informações divulgadas por mídias sociais, impressa e televisiva influenciaram a autoconfiança para o enfrentamento da pandemia (P<0,05). Essa autoconfiança juntamente com o sexo masculino foram determinantes significativos (P<0,001) para a percepção da possibilidade da vir a se contaminar. Conclusão: este estudo poderá contribuir para a realização de estratégias, políticas públicas e diretrizes que impactem na melhoria da autoconfiança e na proteção dos profissionais de saúde frente a sua atuação na pandemia da Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Occupational Risks , Occupational Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512303

ABSTRACT

The world of work is changing dramatically due to continuous technological advancements and globalization (the so-called industry 4 [...].


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Industry , Internationality
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512295

ABSTRACT

The most recent version of the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory proposes that demanding working conditions and employee strain form a self-perpetuating loss cycle. By acknowledging that such cycles are detrimental for both employees and organizations, the present study aimed to contribute to enhancing the current scarce understanding regarding their explanatory mechanisms. For this purpose, it applied social cognitive theory to propose that occupational self-efficacy mediates the effects of two role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) on employee mental health complaints and vice versa. The hypothesized reciprocal mediation effects were tested using a three-wave full panel research design and a dataset of 917 (NT1 = 513, NT1+T2 = 122, NT1+T3 = 70, NT1+T2+T3 = 212) Croatian employees working in heterogeneous private sector industries. The results demonstrated that role conflict, but not role ambiguity, undermined employees' beliefs in their capabilities to successfully master their jobs which, in turn, led them to experience more mental health complaints over time. Contrary to expectations, poor mental health did not lead to diminished efficacy beliefs nor, in turn, more job demands over time. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated an additional mechanism in the job demands-strain relationship and, at the same time, shed new light on the role of personal resources within the JD-R theory. Accounting for the malleable nature of employee efficacy beliefs, the study proposes several ways in which organizations can enhance occupational self-efficacy and thereby curb the causal chain linking job demands and employee strain reactions.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Self Efficacy , Job Satisfaction , Mental Health , Organizations
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512278

ABSTRACT

Total Worker Health® (TWH), an initiative of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related health and safety hazards by promoting efforts that advance worker well-being. Interventions that apply the TWH paradigm improve workplace health more rapidly than wellness programs alone. Evidence of the barriers and facilitators to the adoption, implementation, and long-term maintenance of TWH programs is limited. Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science, the study of methods and strategies for bridging the gap between public health research and practice, can help address these system-, setting-, and worker-level factors to increase the uptake, impact, and sustainment of TWH activities. The purpose of this paper is to draw upon a synthesis of existing D&I science literature to provide TWH researchers and practitioners with: (1) an overview of D&I science; (2) a plain language explanation of key concepts in D&I science; (3) a case study example of moving a TWH intervention down the research-to-practice pipeline; and (4) a discussion of future opportunities for conducting D&I science in complex and dynamic workplace settings to increase worker safety, health, and well-being.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Health Promotion , Implementation Science , Public Health , Workplace
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512276

ABSTRACT

Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASMs) labour under archaic working conditions and are exposed to high levels of silica dust. Exposure to silica dust has been associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and silicosis. ASMs are highly mobile and operate in remote areas with near absent access to health services. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis, silicosis and silico-tuberculosis among ASMs in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 October to 31 January 2021 on a convenient sample of 514 self-selected ASMs. We report the results from among those ASMs who attended an outreach medical facility and an occupational health clinic. Data were collected from clinical records using a precoded data proforma. Data variables included demographic (age, sex), clinical details (HIV status, GeneXpert results, outcomes of chest radiographs, history of tuberculosis) and perceived exposure to mine dust. Of the 464 miners screened for silicosis, 52 (11.2%) were diagnosed with silicosis, while 17 (4.0%) of 422 ASMs were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). Of the 373 ASMs tested for HIV, 90 (23.5%) were sero-positive. An HIV infection was associated with a diagnosis of silicosis. There is need for a comprehensive occupational health service package, including TB and silicosis surveillance, for ASMs in Zimbabwe. These are preliminary and limited findings, needing confirmation by more comprehensive studies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Occupational Health , Silicosis , Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gold , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Silicosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/etiology , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
17.
Panminerva Med ; 63(3): 324-331, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus-based vaccines (AdV) against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have entered large scale clinical trials. Since healthcare professionals (HCPs) and armed forces personnel (AFP) represent a high-risk category, they act as a suitable target population to investigate vaccine-related side effects, including headache, which has emerged as a common complaint. METHODS: We investigated the side-effects of COVID-19 vaccines among HCPs and AFP through a 38 closed-question international survey. The electronic link was distributed via e-mail or via Whatsapp to more than 500 contacts. Responses to the survey questions were analyzed with bivariate tests. RESULTS: A total of 375 complete surveys have been analyzed. More than 88% received an mRNA vaccine and 11% received AdV first dose. A second dose of mRNA vaccine was administered in 76% of individuals. No severe adverse effects were reported, whereas moderate reactions and those lasting more than 1 day were more common with AdV (P=0.002 and P=0.024 respectively). Headache was commonly reported regardless of the vaccine type, but less frequently, with shorter duration and lower severity that usually experienced by participants, without significant difference irrespective of vaccine type. CONCLUSIONS: Both mRNA and AdV COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated in a real-life subset of HCPs and AFP subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1081-1089, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence to understand effective strategies for surveillance and early detection of SARS-CoV-2 is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of a rigorous, large-scale COVID-19 testing and monitoring program. DESIGN: The U.S. National Football League (NFL) and the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) instituted a large-scale COVID-19 monitoring program involving daily testing using 2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) platforms (Roche cobas and Thermo Fisher QuantStudio), a transcription-mediated amplification platform (Hologic Panther), and an antigen point-of-care (aPOC) test (Quidel Sofia). SETTING: 32 NFL clubs in 24 states during the 2020 NFL season. PARTICIPANTS: NFL players and staff. MEASUREMENTS: SARS-CoV-2 test results were described in the context of medically adjudicated status. Cycle threshold (Ct) values are reported when available. RESULTS: A total of 632 370 tests administered across 11 668 persons identified 270 (2.4%) COVID-19 cases from 1 August to 14 November 2020. Positive predictive values ranged from 73.0% to 82.0% across the RT-PCR platforms. High Ct values (33 to 37) often indicated early infection. For the first positive result, the median Ct value was 32.77 (interquartile range, 30.02 to 34.72) and 22% of Ct values were above 35. Among adjudicated COVID-19 cases tested with aPOC, 42.3% had a negative result. Positive concordance between aPOC test result and adjudicated case status increased as viral load increased. LIMITATIONS: Platforms varied by laboratory, and test variability may reflect procedural differences. CONCLUSION: Routine RT-PCR testing allowed early detection of infection. Cycle threshold values provided a useful guidepost for understanding results, with high values often indicating early infection. Antigen POC testing was unable to reliably rule out COVID-19 early in infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: The NFL and the NFLPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Football , Occupational Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488602

ABSTRACT

Health care workers (HCWs) working in different health care facilities are exposed to many hazards, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This questionnaire-based cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence, pattern, and risk factors of occupational health hazards faced by 438 randomly selected HCWs from northern Saudi Arabia. The HCWs are commonly exposed to needle stick injuries (34.5%) under the biological hazards category; and work-related stress (69.6%) under the non-biological hazards categories. The significant associated factors were work setting (ref: Primary Health Center: Adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.81, 95%CI = 1.21-4.59, p = 0.017), smoking status (ref.: non-smoker: AOR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.03-2.91, p = 0.039), and mean sleeping duration per day (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.04-1.43, p = 0.014) for biological, and smoking status (ref: non-smoker: AOR = 2.16, 95%CI = 1.09-3.29, p = 0.028), and mean sleeping duration per day (AOR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.07-1.70, p = 0.013) for non-biological categories. This study revealed several risk factors and occupational health hazards that HCWs are exposed to during their work time. Periodic training and follow-up assessments regarding bio-safety measures for the HCWs should be implemented. Finally, future explorative studies are warranted on the feasibility of implementing rotation-based postings for the HCWs in different health care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488584

ABSTRACT

The study aim was to understand the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the levels of anxiety, depression, and burnout of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was an online-based, cross-sectional survey during July and August 2020. Participants were eligible from the entire country, and 1290 agreed to participate. The majority of HCWs were females aged 30-39 years old, working as nurses, and 80% considered PPE to be available. Twelve percent of respondents tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Half of HCWs considered themselves physically tired (52.2%), reported musculoskeletal pain or discomfort (54.2%), and perceived moderate-to-high levels of burnout on at least one of three burnout domains (52.8%). A quarter of HCWs reported anxiety (26.3%) or depression (28.1%). HCWs reporting not having musculoskeletal pain, having performed physical activity, and higher scores of available PPE reported lower scores of anxiety, depression, and burnout. UAE HCWs experienced more access to PPE and less anxiety, depression, and burnout compared with HCWs in other countries. Study findings can be used by healthcare organizations and policymakers to ensure adequate measures are implemented to maximize the health and wellbeing of HCWs during the current COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
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