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6.
Occup Environ Med ; 79(2): 116-119, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This cohort study including essential workers, assessed the risk and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second surge of COVID-19 according to baseline serostatus and occupational sector. METHODS: Essential workers were selected from a seroprevalence survey cohort in Geneva, Switzerland and were linked to a state centralised registry compiling SARS-CoV-2 infections. Primary outcome was the incidence of virologically confirmed infections from serological assessment (between May and September 2020) to 25 January 2021, according to baseline antibody status and stratified by three predefined occupational groups (occupations requiring sustained physical proximity, involving brief regular contact or others). RESULTS: 10 457 essential workers were included (occupations requiring sustained physical proximity accounted for 3057 individuals, those involving regular brief contact, 3645 and 3755 workers were classified under 'Other essential occupations'). After a follow-up period of over 27 weeks, 5 (0.6%) seropositive and 830 (8.5%) seronegative individuals had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, with an incidence rate of 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.6) and 3.2 (95% CI 2.9 to 3.4) cases per person-week, respectively. Incidences were similar across occupational groups. Seropositive essential workers had a 93% reduction in the hazard (HR of 0.07, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.17) of having a positive test during the follow-up with no significant between-occupational group difference. CONCLUSIONS: A 10-fold reduction in the hazard of being virologically tested positive was observed among anti-SARS-CoV-2 seropositive essential workers regardless of their sector of occupation, confirming the seroprotective effect of a previous SARS-CoV2 exposure at least 6 months after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/standards , Reinfection/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Proportional Hazards Models , Reinfection/epidemiology , Switzerland/epidemiology
7.
Ind Health ; 59(5): 318-324, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547178

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is around the world. We attempt to apply three-step method in ISO/IEC Guide 51: 2014 to COVID-19 infection control in the workplace. The results show that the COVID-19 infection control measures include the eradication of the virus, the destruction of infectivity, the detoxification and weakening and the elimination of opportunities for infection as "Inherently Safe Design Measures", the avoidance of contact as "Safeguarding and Complementary Protective Measures" and the reduction of contact and the avoidance of seriousness as "Information for Use". Among these specific measures, the New Normal, especially in the manufacturing industries, would be "telecommuting" and "unmanned workplaces", which are part of the elimination of opportunities for infection, and "changes in flow lines" and "changes in airflow", which are part of the avoidance of contact. Where "telecommuting" and "unmanned workplaces" are feasible, they should be implemented as much as possible, and where they are not, attempts should be made to minimize human-to-human contact by "changes in flow lines". In addition, in the area of "changes in airflow", there are high expectations for future research on how to establish a ventilation design for COVID-19, in which but also the source would be workers themselves, not only combustible gases and toxic gases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking , Ventilation/standards , Workplace/standards
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260261, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. In low- and middle- income countries, they may be particularly impacted by underfunded health systems, lack of personal protective equipment, challenging working conditions and barriers in accessing personal healthcare. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, occupational health screening was implemented at the largest public sector medical centre in Harare, Zimbabwe, during the "first wave" of the country's COVID-19 epidemic. Clients were voluntarily screened for symptoms of COVID-19, and if present, offered a SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection assay. In addition, measurement of height, weight, blood pressure and HbA1c, HIV and TB testing, and mental health screening using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14) were offered. An interviewer-administered questionnaire ascertained client knowledge and experiences related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Between 27th July and 30th October 2020, 951 healthcare workers accessed the service; 210 (22%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 12 (5.7%) tested positive. Clients reported high levels of concern about COVID-19 which declined with time, and faced barriers including lack of resources for infection prevention and control. There was a high prevalence of largely undiagnosed non-communicable disease: 61% were overweight or obese, 34% had a blood pressure of 140/90mmHg or above, 10% had an HbA1c diagnostic of diabetes, and 7% had an SSQ-14 score consistent with a common mental disorder. Overall 8% were HIV-positive, with 97% previously diagnosed and on treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers mirrored the national epidemic curve. Implementation of comprehensive occupational health services during a pandemic was feasible, and uptake was high. Other comorbidities were highly prevalent, which may be risk factors for severe COVID-19 but are also important independent causes of morbidity and mortality. Healthcare workers are critical to combatting COVID-19; it is essential to support their physical and psychological wellbeing during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health Services/standards , Occupational Health/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(2): 467-474, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349835

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The novel coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Although plastic surgeons may be postponing elective operations, there are still a number of emergent or urgent procedures that may need to be performed, and surgeons may be facing the reality of returning to a new normalcy of operating with coronavirus disease of 2019. These procedures, consisting of those such as head and neck reconstruction or maxillofacial trauma, largely require a multidisciplinary approach and may be considered of higher risk to health care workers because of the involvement of areas of the body identified as sources for viral transmission. Moreover, viral transmission may potentially extend beyond respiratory secretions, which has been the main focus of most safety precautions. The authors aim to present the scope of these procedures and the means of viral transmission, and to provide safety precaution recommendations for plastic surgery and its related disciplines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , N95 Respirators , Occupational Health/standards , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergencies , Humans , Patient Care Team
11.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 410-419, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been estimated that approximately 10% of health care professionals (HCPs) have been diagnosed contacting  COVID-19. Aerosol-generating procedures have led to change in safety practices among HCPs. We thus evaluated the efficacy of the endoscopic safety measures among HCPs posted in the endoscopy unit. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all endoscopic procedures performed over a period of 4 months, from 1 April to 31 July 2020 were included. We noted indications and number of COVID-positive procedures as well as comprehensive screening of HCPs posted in our endoscopy unit. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of COVID-19 among HCPs. RESULTS: Three thousand four hundred and sixty procedures were included in the analysis. Indications were divided as urgent (n = 190, 5.49%), semi-urgent (n = 553, 16%) and non-urgent group (n = 2717, 78.52%). Thirty-four procedures (0.98%) were done on diagnosed COVID-19 patients. The most common indications were gastrointestinal bleed (n = 12/34, 35.30%) followed by biliary sepsis (n = 9/34, 26.5%). Among the HCPs, the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 6.58% (n = 5/76). All HCPs recovered with excellent outcomes. A comprehensive screening showed 7.90% (n = 6/76) HCPs having Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in their sera. CONCLUSION: Addition of safety measures in endoscopy leads to low risk of transmission among HCPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Incidence , India , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Health/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
12.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(8): 352-358, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eye health has garnered increased attention since the COVID-19 pandemic. This Round Table explored the impact mask wearing, delays in eye examinations, and increased screen time have on vision and ultimately the worker. METHODS: Leading experts in the areas of occupational health, risk management, eye health, and communication were identified and invited to participate in a Round Table discussion. Questions posed to experts were based on literature that addressed eye health, such as mask wearing, communication and managing expectations when accessing professional eye health appointments, and increased screen time. FINDINGS: Experts agreed that eye health considerations must be in place. These considerations should address not only clinical care of the patient but ways to protect workers from occupational injury associated with the eye. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: The occupational health professional is a key resource for assessment and training that pertains to eye health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Interior Design and Furnishings/standards , Occupational Health/standards , Occupational Injuries/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25290, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289779

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Health care employees are the front liners whom are directly involved in the management of COVID-19 at high risk of developing psychological distress and other mental health illness. We aim to assess the burden of depression during this pandemic on health care employees treating COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. We also will shed the light on the best solutions of how to encounter depression.A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey conducted via a region-stratified, 2-stage cluster sample was conducted for 554 participants in >15 hospitals from April 29, 2020, to June 30, 2020. Depression is measured using the established PHQ9 score system. We grade PHQ9 depression scores as: normal, 0 to 4, mild, 5 to 9, significant (moderate or severe), 10 to 27. χ2/Fisher exact test was used; significant association between level of depression and survey characteristics were made. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.A total of 554 participants completed the survey. A total of 18.9% (n = 105) were aged <29 years, 51.2% (n = 284) were between 30 to 39 years and female represent 70% of all participants. Of all participants, 53.7% (n = 298) were nurses, and 38.6% (n = 214) were physicians; 68.5% (n = 380) worked in central area hospitals in Saudi Arabia. No significant (P = .432, 95% confidence interval [CI]) association was observed between sex and depression classifications. However, female had high proportion of significant depression 75.0% (n = 76) was observed as compared to male 24.8% (n = 25). Depression was significant in Saudis 61.4% (n = 62) (P < .001, 95% CI) and medical staff who encountered corona patients 51.5% (n = 52) (P < .002, 95% CI). Hospital preparedness associated with more freedom of depression symptoms 69.1% (n = 199/288) (P < .001, 95% CI).Frontline young health care workers especially physician in Saudi Arabia reported a high rate of depression symptoms. Countermeasures for health care workers represent a key component for the mental and physical well-being as part of public health measures during this pandemic. Attention to hospital preparedness and adequacy of personal protective equipment contributed to milder depression symptoms. Further studies need to be conducted on crisis management and depression.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Occupational Stress , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Depression/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/classification , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitalists/psychology , Hospitalists/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/standards , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Occupational Stress/psychology , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
14.
Maturitas ; 150: 14-21, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253363

ABSTRACT

Governments, employers, and trade unions are increasingly developing "menopause at work" policies for female staff. Many of the world's most marginalised women work, however, in more informal or insecure jobs, beyond the scope of such employment protections. This narrative review focuses upon the health impact of such casual work upon menopausal women, and specifically upon the menopausal symptoms they experience. Casual work, even in less-then-ideal conditions, is not inherently detrimental to the wellbeing of menopausal women; for many, work helps manage the social and emotional challenges of the menopause transition. Whereas women in higher status work tend to regard vasomotor symptoms as their main physical symptom, women in casual work report musculoskeletal pain as more problematic. Menopausal women in casual work describe high levels of anxiety, though tend to attribute this not to their work as much as their broader life stresses of lifelong poverty and ill-health, increasing caring responsibilities, and the intersectionally gendered ageism of the social gaze. Health and wellbeing at menopause is determined less by current working conditions than by the early life experiences (adverse childhood experiences, poor educational opportunities) predisposing women to poverty and casual work in adulthood. Approaches to supporting menopausal women in casual work must therefore also address the lifelong structural and systemic inequalities such women will have faced. In the era of COVID-19, with its devastating economic, social and health effects upon women and vulnerable groups, menopausal women in casual work are likely to face increased marginalisation and stress. Further research is need.


Subject(s)
Employment/psychology , Menopause/physiology , Menopause/psychology , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/standards , Female , Humans , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology
16.
Am J Public Health ; 111(6): 1164-1167, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186642

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To examine SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) epidemiology and risk factors among Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) staff in the United States.Methods. We calculated the SARS-CoV-2 case rate among 37 640 BOP staff from March 12 to June 17, 2020, using payroll and COVID-19-specific data. We compared occupational factors among staff with and without known SARS-CoV-2 using multiple logistic regression, controlling for demographic characteristics. We calculated relative risk among staff in stand-alone institutions versus complexes (> 1 institution).Results. SARS-CoV-2 was reported by 665 staff across 59.8% of institutions, a case rate of 1766.6 per 100 000. Working in dorm-style housing and in detention centers were strong risk factors, whereas cell-based housing was protective; these effects were erased in complexes. Occupational category was not associated with SARS-CoV-2.Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 infection was more likely among staff working in institutions where physical distancing and limiting exposure to a consistent set of staff and inmates are challenging.Public Health Implications. Mitigation strategies-including augmented staff testing, entry and exit testing among inmates, limiting staff interactions across complexes, and increasing physical distancing by reducing occupancy in dorm-style housing-may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections among correctional staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health/standards , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Social Isolation , United States/epidemiology
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1032-1038, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085129

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has severely impacted the meat processing industry in the United States. We sought to detail demographics and outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections among workers in Nebraska meat processing facilities and determine the effects of initiating universal mask policies and installing physical barriers at 13 meat processing facilities. During April 1-July 31, 2020, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 5,002 Nebraska meat processing workers (attack rate 19%). After initiating both universal masking and physical barrier interventions, 8/13 facilities showed a statistically significant reduction in COVID-19 incidence in <10 days. Characteristics and incidence of confirmed cases aligned with many nationwide trends becoming apparent during this pandemic: specifically, high attack rates among meat processing industry workers, disproportionately high risk of adverse outcomes among ethnic and racial minority groups and men, and effectiveness of using multiple prevention and control interventions to reduce disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Food-Processing Industry , Infection Control , Meat-Packing Industry , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Food-Processing Industry/methods , Food-Processing Industry/organization & administration , Food-Processing Industry/trends , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Meat-Packing Industry/methods , Meat-Packing Industry/organization & administration , Meat-Packing Industry/trends , Minority Health/statistics & numerical data , Nebraska/epidemiology , Occupational Health/standards , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Workplace/standards
20.
New Solut ; 31(1): 20-29, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067101

ABSTRACT

Home care aides are on the frontlines providing care to vulnerable individuals in their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic yet are often excluded from policies to protect health care workers. The goal of this study was to examine experiences of agency-employed home care aides during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify ways to mitigate concerns. We used an innovative journaling approach with thirty-seven aides as well as in-depth interviews with fifteen aides and leadership representatives from nine home health agencies in New York and Michigan. Workers described a range of concerns around workplace safety including uncertainty around whether a client had COVID-19, inadequate access to personal protective equipment and safe transportation, as well as fundamental changes to interactions with clients. Agencies also faced challenges acquiring personal protective equipment for their aides. This research points to needed resources to support home care aides and home health agencies both during a public health crisis and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Home Health Aides/psychology , Home Health Aides/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/standards , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/standards , Young Adult
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