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1.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12209, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused devastating damage to employment globally, particularly among the non-standard workforce. The objective of this study was to identify the effects of the pandemic on the employment status and lives of working students in Japan. METHODS: The Labour Force Survey (January 2019 to May 2020) was used to examine changes in students' work situations. In addition, to investigate the economic and health conditions of university students during the pandemic, the Student Lifestyle Survey was conducted in late May 2020. This survey asked students at a national university in Tokyo about recent changes in their studies, work, and lives. RESULTS: The number of working students reported in the Labour Force Survey has declined sharply since March 2020, falling by 780,000 (46%) in April. According to a survey of university students' living conditions, 37% were concerned about living expenses and tuition fees, and a higher percentage of students who were aware of financial insecurity had poor self-rated health. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of working students have lost their jobs during the pandemic in Japan, which has affected their lives, studies, and health. There is a need to monitor the impact of economic insecurity on students' studies and health over time, and to expand the safety net for disadvantaged students.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Employment/psychology , Life Style , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , Work-Life Balance , Young Adult
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 250-253, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089244

ABSTRACT

Certain hazard controls, including physical barriers, cloth face masks, and other personal protective equipment (PPE), are recommended to reduce coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in the workplace (1). Evaluation of occupational hazard control use for COVID-19 prevention can identify inadequately protected workers and opportunities to improve use. CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health used data from the June 2020 SummerStyles survey to characterize required and voluntary use of COVID-19-related occupational hazard controls among U.S. non-health care workers. A survey-weighted regression model was used to estimate the association between employer provision of hazard controls and voluntary use, and stratum-specific adjusted risk differences (aRDs) among workers reporting household incomes <250% and ≥250% of national poverty thresholds were estimated to assess effect modification by income. Approximately one half (45.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.0%-50.3%) of non-health care workers reported use of hazard controls in the workplace, 55.5% (95% CI = 48.8%-62.2%) of whom reported employer requirements to use them. After adjustment for occupational group and proximity to others at work, voluntary use was approximately double, or 22.3 absolute percentage points higher, among workers who were provided hazard controls than among those who were not. This effect was more apparent among lower-income (aRD = 31.0%) than among higher-income workers (aRD = 16.3%). Employers can help protect workers from COVID-19 by requiring and encouraging use of occupational hazard controls and providing hazard controls to employees (1).


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Mandatory Programs/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Voluntary Programs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Architectural Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 53(1): 2-9, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the real-time personal/employee safety experiences and perspectives of school nutrition professionals ranging from frontline staff to state leadership across the US as they responded to the initial weeks of the coronavirus pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered electronically March 31-April 20, 2020, to school nutrition staff, managers, directors, and state agency personnel. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a thematic analysis of an open-ended item was conducted. RESULTS: School nutrition professionals (n = 504) from 47 states responded. Most (86.6%) reported that ensuring employee safety was somewhat or much more difficult during the pandemic, and they were unaware of an emergency plan. Themes from open-ended responses regarding employee safety concerns included, exposure and transmission risk, processes, and personal concerns. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Attention to the safety and concerns of school nutrition employees is vital for continuation of these programs during this pandemic and for future emergency situations.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Dietary Services/methods , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Nutritionists/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , United States
5.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 53(6): 1159-1170, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027957

ABSTRACT

This review explores the changes to practice associated with COVID-19 for providers treating patients with head and neck cancer and laryngeal pathology. The aim of the review is to highlight some of the challenges and considerations associated with treating this patient population during the pandemic. Additionally, it seeks to discuss some of the areas of concern related to ramping up clinical volume.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infection Control/methods , Laryngectomy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Humans , Laryngectomy/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management , Telemedicine/methods , United States
7.
Int Marit Health ; 71(4): 217-228, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The well-being of the world's 1.65 million seafarers is expected to be secured by the rights established under the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), 2006 with active monitoring of its implementation by the flag administrations through the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and International Labour Organisation (ILO). However, the substantial gains achieved since entry into force of MLC in August 2013 appear to have been severely dented by the COVID-19 global pandemic. The aim of the study was to examine, on a pilot basis, the disruptions and challenges to the observance of seafarers' rights to shore leave, repatriation and medical assistance as an immediate consequence of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The impact of COVID-19 on seafarers' rights was examined in three dimensions - shore leave, repatriation and medical assistance. Questionnaires were administered online from June to August 2020 to 450 seafarers, top 10 ship-management companies, 35 shipping companies and maritime administrations of top 5 seafarer supplying countries. The paper discusses the results of the survey. RESULTS: The research revealed a previously unknown majority preference for shore leave, that diminished sharply during COVID-19. Impact on work-performance and well-being of seafarers was revealed with only a fifth of the seafarers having willingly agreed to an extension of contract. This study revealed incidence rates at 6 months into the pandemic of several parameters - delayed repatriations (21.44%) that includes crew with contract extensions (12.48%), crew with completed contract awaiting repatriation (8.96%) and crew that had exceeded 12-month continuous service (0.82%). Compensation, if provided, is meagre and was affecting ratings the most. Deprivation of medical assistance was also revealed. CONCLUSIONS: The well being of seafarers would likely remain vulnerable to breaches, unless measures are put in place to safeguard the rights assured under MLC in the face of uncertainties caused by a pandemic such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Ships , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pilot Projects , Workplace/organization & administration
8.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(2): 73-77, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985921

ABSTRACT

Globally, migrant and immigrant workers have borne the brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic as essential workers. They might be a Bulgarian worker at a meat processing plant in Germany, a Central American farmworker in the fields of California, or a Filipino worker at an aged-care facility in Australia. What they have in common is they are all essential workers who have worked throughout the coronavirus pandemic and have been infected with coronavirus at work. COVID-19 has highlighted the inequitable working conditions of these workers. In many instances, they are employed precariously, and so are ineligible for sick leave or social security, or COVID-19 special payments. If these are essential workers, they should get at least the same health and safety benefits of all nonessential workers. Improving the working and living conditions of migrant workers can and should be a positive outcome of the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , /transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Insurance Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health Services/supply & distribution , Risk Factors , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Social Security/statistics & numerical data , Social Values , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 833-840, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963399

ABSTRACT

Performance of endoscopic procedures is associated with a risk of infection from COVID-19. This risk can be reduced by the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). However, shortage of PPE has emerged as an important issue in managing the pandemic in both traditionally high and low-resource areas. A group of clinicians and researchers from thirteen countries representing low, middle, and high-income areas has developed recommendations for optimal utilization of PPE before, during, and after gastrointestinal endoscopy with particular reference to low-resource situations. We determined that there is limited flexibility with regard to the utilization of PPE between ideal and low-resource settings. Some compromises are possible, especially with regard to PPE use, during endoscopic procedures. We have, therefore, also stressed the need to prevent transmission of COVID-19 by measures other than PPE and to conserve PPE by reduction of patient volume, limiting procedures to urgent or emergent, and reducing the number of staff and trainees involved in procedures. This guidance aims to optimize utilization of PPE and protection of health care providers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/economics , Health Resources/economics , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gastroenterology/standards , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Internationality , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poverty , Societies, Medical
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895361

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has deeply altered social and working environments in several ways. Social distancing policies, mandatory lockdowns, isolation periods, and anxiety of getting sick, along with the suspension of productive activity, loss of income, and fear of the future, jointly influence the mental health of citizens and workers. Workplace aspects can play a crucial role on moderating or worsening mental health of people facing this pandemic scenario. The purpose of this literature review is to deepen the psychological aspects linked to workplace factors, following the epidemic rise of COVID-19, in order to address upcoming psychological critical issues in the workplaces. We performed a literature search using Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus, selecting papers focusing on workers' psychological problems that can be related to the workplace during the pandemic. Thirty-five articles were included. Mental issues related to the health emergency, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sleep disorders are more likely to affect healthcare workers, especially those on the frontline, migrant workers, and workers in contact with the public. Job insecurity, long periods of isolation, and uncertainty of the future worsen the psychological condition, especially in younger people and in those with a higher educational background. Multiple organizational and work-related interventions can mitigate this scenario, such as the improvement of workplace infrastructures, the adoption of correct and shared anti-contagion measures, including regular personal protective equipment (PPE) supply, and the implementation of resilience training programs. This review sets the basis for a better understanding of the psychological conditions of workers during the pandemic, integrating individual and social perspectives, and providing insight into possible individual, social, and occupational approaches to this "psychological pandemic".


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Workplace/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 149, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842313

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy has dramatically impacted the National Healthcare System, causing the sudden congestion of hospitals, especially in Northern Italy, thus imposing drastic restriction of almost all routine medical care. This exceptional adaptation of the Italian National Healthcare System has also been felt by non-frontline settings such as Pediatric Orthopaedic Units, where the limitation or temporary suspension of most routine care activities met with a need to maintain continuity of care and avoid secondary issues due to the delay or suspension of the routine clinical practice. The Italian Society of Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology formulated general and specific recommendations to face the COVID-19 outbreak, aiming to provide essential care for children needing orthopaedic treatments during the pandemic and early post-peak period, ensure safety of children, caregivers and healthcare providers and limit the spread of contagion.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Orthopedics/standards , Patient Safety , Pediatrics/standards , Societies, Medical/standards , Traumatology/standards
13.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(3): 659-663, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806095

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has strained health care resources around the world, causing many institutions to curtail or stop elective procedures. This has resulted in an inability to care for patients with valvular and structural heart disease in a timely fashion, potentially placing these patients at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular complications, including CHF and death. The effective triage of these patients has become challenging in the current environment, as clinicians have had to weigh the risk of bringing susceptible patients into the hospital environment during the COVID-19 pandemic against the risk of delaying a needed procedure. In this document, the authors suggest guidelines for how to triage patients in need of structural heart disease interventions and provide a framework for how to decide when it may be appropriate to proceed with intervention despite the ongoing pandemic. In particular, the authors address the triage of patients in need of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and percutaneous mitral valve repair. The authors also address procedural issues and considerations for the function of structural heart disease teams during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/surgery , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Triage/standards , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Societies, Medical , Triage/statistics & numerical data , United States
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22457, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintaining compliance with personal preventive measures is important to achieve a balance of COVID-19 pandemic control and work resumption. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported compliance with four personal measures to prevent COVID-19 among a sample of factory workers in Shenzhen, China, at the beginning of work resumption in China following the COVID-19 outbreak. These preventive measures included consistent wearing of face masks in public spaces (the workplace and other public settings); sanitizing hands using soap, liquid soap, or alcohol-based hand sanitizer after returning from public spaces or touching public installations and equipment; avoiding social and meal gatherings; and avoiding crowded places. METHODS: The participants were adult factory workers who had resumed work in Shenzhen, China. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used. We randomly selected 14 factories that had resumed work. All full-time employees aged ≥18 years who had resumed work in these factories were invited to complete a web-based survey. Out of 4158 workers who had resumed work in these factories, 3035 (73.0%) completed the web-based survey from March 1 to 14, 2020. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS: Among the 3035 participants, 2938 (96.8%) and 2996 (98.7%) reported always wearing a face mask in the workplace and in other public settings, respectively, in the past month. However, frequencies of self-reported sanitizing hands (2152/3035, 70.9%), avoiding social and meal gatherings (2225/3035, 73.3%), and avoiding crowded places (1997/3035, 65.8%) were relatively low. At the individual level, knowledge about COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] from 1.16, CI 1.10-1.24, to 1.29, CI 1.21-1.37), perceived risk (AORs from 0.58, CI 0.50-0.68, to 0.85, CI 0.72-0.99) and severity (AOR 1.05, CI 1.01-1.09, and AOR 1.07, CI 1.03-1.11) of COVID-19, perceived effectiveness of preventive measures by the individual (AORs from 1.05, CI 1.00-1.10, to 1.09, CI 1.04-1.13), organization (AOR 1.30, CI 1.20-1.41), and government (AORs from 1.14, CI 1.04-1.25, to 1.21, CI 1.02-1.42), perceived preparedness for a potential outbreak after work resumption (AORs from 1.10, CI 1.00-1.21, to 1.50, CI 1.36-1.64), and depressive symptoms (AORs from 0.93, CI 0.91-0.94, to 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99) were associated with self-reported compliance with at least one personal preventive measure. At the interpersonal level, exposure to COVID-19-specific information through official media channels (AOR 1.08, CI 1.04-1.11) and face-to-face communication (AOR 0.90, CI 0.83-0.98) were associated with self-reported sanitizing of hands. The number of preventive measures implemented in the workplace was positively associated with self-reported compliance with all four preventive measures (AORs from 1.30, CI 1.08-1.57, to 1.63, CI 1.45-1.84). CONCLUSIONS: Measures are needed to strengthen hand hygiene and physical distancing among factory workers to reduce transmission following work resumption. Future programs in workplaces should address these factors at multiple levels.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Self Report , Workplace , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Occupational Health/standards , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Young Adult
17.
Public Health ; 187: 157-160, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733655

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Japanese prime minister declared a state of emergency on April 7 2020 to combat the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This declaration was unique in the sense that it was essentially driven by the voluntary restraint of the residents. We examined the change of the infection route by investigating contact experiences with COVID-19-positive cases. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a population-level questionnaire-based study using a social networking service (SNS). METHODS: To assess the impact of the declaration, this study used population-level questionnaire data collected from an SNS with 121,375 respondents (between March 27 and May 5) to assess the change in transmission routes over the study period, which was measured by investigating the association between COVID-19-related symptoms and (self-reported) contact with COVID-19-infected individuals. RESULTS: The results of this study show that the declaration prevented infections in the workplace, but increased domestic infections as people stayed at home. However, after April 24, workplace infections started to increase again, driven by the increase in community-acquired infections. CONCLUSIONS: While careful interpretation is necessary because our data are self-reported from voluntary SNS users, these findings indicate the impact of the declaration on the change in transmission routes of COVID-19 over time in Japan.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Report , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
19.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020051, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify occupational groups at high-risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Korea, to estimate the number of such workers, and to examine the prevalence of protective resources by employment status. METHODS: Based on the sixth Standard Occupational Classification codes, 2015 census data were linked with data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey, which measured how frequently workers directly come into contact with people other than fellow employees in the workplace. RESULTS: A total of 30 occupational groups, including 7 occupations from the healthcare and welfare sectors and 23 from other sectors, were classified as high-risk occupational groups involving frequent contact with people other than fellow employees in the workplace (more than half of the working hours). Approximately 1.4 million (women, 79.1%) and 10.7 million workers (46.3%) are employed in high-risk occupations. Occupations with a larger proportion of women are more likely to be at a high-risk of infection and are paid less. For wage-earners in high-risk occupations, protective resources to deal with COVID-19 (e.g., trade unions and health and safety committees) are less prevalent among temporary or daily workers than among those with permanent employment. CONCLUSIONS: Given the large number of Koreans employed in high-risk occupations and inequalities within the working population, the workplace needs to be the key locus for governmental actions to control COVID-19, and special consideration for vulnerable workers is warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Labor Unions/statistics & numerical data , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
20.
Surg Today ; 50(10): 1159-1167, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The absence of previous knowledge of COVID-19 has made decision-making difficult for all in health care, including surgical departments. We reviewed the management recommendations for surgical activity and changes to surgical practice, identifying concordances and discrepancies, based on the literature published in the early phase of the pandemic. METHOD: We searched the electronic datasets, PubMed Database, Google, and Google Scholar, using the keywords "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "surgery", "recommendations", "guideline", and "triage". The search was limited to the first 2 months after the pandemic began and was closed on May 6, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty papers were included in the analysis and their recommendations are divided into the following categories: 1. general aspects, such as maintaining the safety of health personnel and indications for surgery. 2. The preoperative phase, with recommendations about activating different care pathways for COVID-19 positive patients. 3. The operative phase, with recommendations about activating safety measures for aerosol-generating procedures. 4. The postoperative phase, with recommendations for managing operating theatres and patient transfers. CONCLUSION: The recommendations proposed in the revised documents are considered good practices aimed at keeping patients and healthcare professionals safe. However, these recommendations must be contextualized in each individual hospital.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , General Surgery/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , General Surgery/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , World Health Organization
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