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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 849547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776064

ABSTRACT

Fatal vehicle crashes (FVCs) are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Professional drivers often drive under dangerous conditions; however, knowledge of the risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers remain scant. We investigated whether professional drivers have a higher risk of FVCs than non-professional drivers and sought to clarify potential risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers. We analyzed nationwide incidence rates of FVCs as preliminary data. Furthermore, by using these data, we created a 1:4 professionals/non-professionals preliminary study to compare with the risk factors between professional and non-professional drivers. In Taiwan, the average crude incidence rate of FVCs for 2003-2016 among professional drivers was 1.09 per 1,000 person-years; professional drivers had a higher percentage of FVCs than non-professional drivers among all motor vehicle crashes. In the 14-year preliminary study with frequency-matched non-professional drivers, the risk of FVCs among professional drivers was significantly associated with a previous history of involvement in motor vehicle crashes (adjustment odds ratio [OR] = 2.157; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-2.453), previous history of benzodiazepine use (adjustment OR = 1.385; 95% CI, 1.215-1.579), and speeding (adjustment OR = 1.009; 95% CI, 1.006-1.013). The findings have value to policymakers seeking to curtail FVCs.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Occupations , Taiwan/epidemiology
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 375, 2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770569

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in infections with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is still limited as most of the available studies are ecological in nature and individual-level data is sparse. We therefore analysed individual-level data on socioeconomic differences in the prevalence and perceived dangerousness of SARS-CoV-2 infections in local populations. Data were obtained from a population-based seroepidemiological study of adult individuals in two early German SARS-CoV-2 hotspots (n = 3903). Infection was determined by IgG antibody ELISA, RT-PCR testing and self-reports on prior positive PCR tests. The perceived dangerousness of an infection and socioeconomic position (SEP) were assessed by self-reports. Logistic and linear regression were applied to examine associations of multiple SEP measures with infection status and perceptions of dangerousness. RESULTS: We found no evidence of socioeconomic inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 infections by education, occupation, income and subjective social status. Participants with lower education and lower subjective social status perceived an infection as more dangerous than their better-off counterparts. In successfully contained local outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 in Germany, infections may have been equally distributed across the socioeconomic spectrum. But residents in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups might have experienced a higher level of mental distress due to the higher perceived dangerousness of an infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Dangerous Behavior , Humans , Occupations , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266058, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on U.S. COVID-19 mortality rates by occupation is limited. We aimed to characterize 2020 COVID-19 fatalities among working Californians to inform preventive strategies. METHODS: We identified laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 fatalities with dates of death in 2020 by matching death certificates to the state's COVID-19 case registry. Working status for decedents aged 18-64 years was determined from state employment records, death certificates, and case registry data and classified as "confirmed working," "likely working," or "not working." We calculated age-adjusted overall and occupation-specific COVID-19 mortality rates using 2019 American Community Survey denominators. RESULTS: COVID-19 accounted for 8,050 (9.9%) of 81,468 fatalities among Californians 18-64 years old. Of these decedents, 2,486 (30.9%) were matched to state employment records and classified as "confirmed working." The remainder were classified as "likely working" (n = 4,121 [51.2%]) or "not working" (n = 1,443 [17.9%]) using death certificate and case registry data. Confirmed and likely working COVID-19 decedents were predominantly male (76.3%), Latino (68.7%), and foreign-born (59.6%), with high school or less education (67.9%); 7.8% were Black. The overall age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality rate was 30.0 per 100,000 workers (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.3-30.8). Workers in nine occupational groups had age-adjusted mortality rates higher than this overall rate, including those in farming (78.0; 95% CI, 68.7-88.2); material moving (77.8; 95% CI, 70.2-85.9); construction (62.4; 95% CI, 57.7-67.4); production (60.2; 95% CI, 55.7-65.0); and transportation (57.2; 95% CI, 52.2-62.5) occupations. While occupational differences in mortality were evident across demographic groups, mortality rates were three-fold higher for male compared with female workers and three- to seven-fold higher for Latino and Black workers compared with Asian and White workers. CONCLUSION: Californians in manual labor and in-person service occupations experienced disproportionate COVID-19 mortality, with the highest rates observed among male, Latino, and Black workers; these occupational group should be prioritized for prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Educational Status , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Young Adult
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e19, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735173

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the characteristics of transmission routes of COVID-19 cluster infections (⩾10 linked cases within a short period) in Gangwon Province between 22 February 2020 and 31 May 2021. Transmission routes were divided into five major categories and 35 sub-categories according to the relationship between the infector and the infectee and the location of transmission. A total of 61 clusters occurred during the study period, including 1741 confirmed cases (55.7% of all confirmed cases (n = 3125)). The the five major routes of transmission were as follows: 'using (staying in) the same facility (50.7%), 'cohabiting family members' (23.3%), 'social gatherings with acquaintances' (10.8%), 'other transmission routes' (7.0%), and 'social gatherings with non-cohabiting family members/relatives' (5.5%). For transmission caused by using (staying in) the same facility, the highest number of confirmed cases was associated with churches, followed by medical institutions (inpatient), sports facilities, military bases, offices, nightlife businesses, schools, restaurants, day-care centres and kindergarten, and service businesses. Our analysis highlights specific locations with frequent transmission of infections, and transmission routes that should be targeted in situations where adherence to disease control rules is difficult.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Family , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 154, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical (UM) students faced the difficulties inherent in medical careers due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Thus, imperative containment measures might affect UM students' career intentions. Information on the factors that may be associated with these students' career change intentions is limited. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in August 2020 to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on career intention and the associated factors in UM students. Univariate analyses and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify said factors. RESULTS: A total of 2040 medical students from the Hubei University of Medicine were surveyed. Univariate analyses showed that grade, attitude towards healthcare, and the degree of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the students' lives were associated with changes in career choice (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that Grade 2, Grade 5, attitude towards a medical career, and having relatives with a medical background were associated with changes in career choice. The degree of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact was a common and significant factor associated with career preference, career perspective, and ideal workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in career intentions were particularly influenced by grade, attitude towards being a health worker, and the degree of COVID-19's impact on the participants' lives. Treating large-scale public health emergencies rationally, setting up correct views of occupation choice, and building reasonable career planning may reduce the loss of medical talent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Occupations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Work ; 67(2): 281-283, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725333

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world. It is difficult to follow protocols and regulations set forth by governments, designed by the World Health Organization. The most common protocol set forth by governments is quarantining at home. Many occupations must stay home to comply with this protocol. Among these occupations, office workers are the most common group to comply and work from home. This has led to a lack of daily movement and increased sedentary lifestyle, which has made employees prone to developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Additionally, obesity is a known risk factor for this group. This commentary presents feasible protocols aimed at helping home-based office workers stay healthy and decrease the risk of developing CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686791

ABSTRACT

Organizational studies suggest that certain psychosocial working conditions are liable to foster positive health outcomes, such as engaging in leisure-time physical activities. However, the psychosocial factors contributing to this improvement remain unexplored, particularly in the workplace and in the context of the decline observed in the physical activity level of the population worldwide. The objective of the study was to examine whether exposure to different combinations of psychosocial working conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic predicts the probability of becoming physically active among Quebec workers. Job demands, job control, and physical activity were assessed three times during the first year of the pandemic via an online questionnaire among physically inactive workers (n = 440). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between various combinations of psychosocial risks and physical activity. A total of 117 participants became physically active during the study. After controlling for covariates, active jobs increased the odds of becoming physically active, compared to high-strain jobs (OR = 2.57 (95% CI 1.13 to 5.87)). Having a highly demanding job may not negatively impact physical activity if workers have enough job control to achieve the required tasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Occupations , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686716

ABSTRACT

The goal of the present study is to examine the psychology of working framework/theory with a sample of Korean workers. This study examined the structural model of sociocultural factors (i.e., economic constraints and social marginalization), psychological variables (i.e., work volition and career adaptability), and outcomes of decent work based on the psychology of working framework. This study assumed that decent work helps all workers attain a sense of self-respect, dignity, experience freedom and security in the work environment and provides an opportunity for workers to contribute to society. Data were collected from 420 Korean workers, with an average age of 39.13 years (SD = 9.26). We used a hypothesis model that did not assume a direct path from economic constraints and social marginalization to decent work and work volition and career adaptation to job satisfaction and life satisfaction. We also employed an alternative model that assumed all of its paths and compared the models' goodness of fit based on prior studies. Results indicated that alternative models have higher goodness of fit than hypothesis models. All path coefficients were significant except for the direct path from social marginalization to work volition and career adaptability to life satisfaction. Additionally, work volition and career adaptability mediated both the relationship between social marginalization and job satisfaction and between marginalization and life satisfaction. This study enabled the comprehensive examination of the relevance of various social environments and psychological and occupational characteristics that should be considered when exploring job or life satisfaction in the process of career counseling.


Subject(s)
Job Satisfaction , Occupations , Adult , Humans , Republic of Korea , Social Marginalization/psychology , Workplace/psychology
9.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(2): 397-408, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected front-line health care workers (HCW) and first responders (FR). The specific components of COVID-19 related occupational stressors (CROS) associated with psychiatric symptoms and reduced occupational functioning or retention remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Examine the relationships between total and factored CROS, psychiatric symptoms, and occupational outcomes. DESIGN: Observational, self-report, single time-point online assessment. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 510 US HCW (N = 301) and FR (N = 200) with occupational duties affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: CROS were assessed using a custom 17-item questionnaire. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, insomnia, and generalized anxiety symptoms were assessed using the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL5), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD7). Respondents' likelihood of leaving current field and occupational functioning were assessed with 2-item PROMIS subscales. Relationships were modeled using multivariable regression. Open-ended responses were coded using rapid template analysis. RESULTS: CROS total scores correlated significantly with all four psychiatric symptom domains (R's = .42-.53), likelihood of leaving one's current occupation (R = .18), and trouble doing usual work (R = .28), all p's < .001. Half of HCW indicated a decreased likelihood of staying in their current occupation as a result of the pandemic. CROS were fit to a 3-factor model consisting of risk, demoralization, and volume factors. All CROS factors were associated with psychiatric symptom burden, but demoralization was most prominently associated with psychiatric symptoms and negative occupational outcomes. Among psychiatric symptoms, PTSD symptoms were most strongly associated with negative occupational outcomes. Open-ended statements emphasized lack of protection and support, increased occupational demands, and emotional impact of work duties. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These results demonstrate potentially treatable psychiatric symptoms in HCW and FR experiencing CROS, impacting both wellbeing and the health care system. Mitigating CROS, particularly by addressing factors driving demoralization, may improve HCW and FR mental health, occupational functioning, and retention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , Occupational Health , Anxiety , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Occupations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262337, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662439

ABSTRACT

The speed of the economic downturn in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic has been exceptional, causing mass layoffs-in Germany up to 30% of the workforce in some industries. Economic rationale suggests that the decision on which workers are fired should depend on productivity-related individual factors. However, from hiring situations we know that discrimination-i.e., decisions driven by characteristics unrelated to productivity-is widespread in Western labor markets. Drawing on representative survey data on forced layoffs and short-time work collected in Germany between April and December 2020, this study highlights that discrimination against immigrants is also present in firing situations. The analysis shows that employees with a migration background are significantly more likely to lose their job than native workers when otherwise healthy firms are unexpectedly forced to let go of part of their workforce, while firms make more efforts to substitute firing with short-time working schemes for their native workers. Adjusting for detailed job-related characteristics shows that the findings are unlikely to be driven by systematic differences in productivity between migrants and natives. Moreover, using industry-specific variation in the extent of the economic downturn, I demonstrate that layoff probabilities hardly differ across the less affected industries, but that the gap between migrants and natives increases with the magnitude of the shock. In the hardest-hit industries, job loss probability among migrants is three times higher than among natives. This confirms the hypothesis that firing discrimination puts additional pressure on the immigrant workforce in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Economic Recession , Economics , Employment/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography/economics , Developed Countries/economics , Emigration and Immigration , Germany , Health Workforce/economics , Humans , Industry/economics , Occupations/economics , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Socioeconomic Factors , Transients and Migrants
11.
J Health Soc Behav ; 63(1): 19-36, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662385

ABSTRACT

Pandemic frontline occupations consist of disproportionately low socioeconomic status and racial minority workers. Documenting occupational health disparities is therefore crucial for understanding COVID-19-related health inequalities in the United States. This study uses Current Population Survey microdata to estimate occupational differences in sickness-related absences (SAs) from work in March through June 2020 and their contribution to educational, racial-ethnic, and nativity health disparities. We find that there has been an unprecedented rise in SAs concentrated in transportation, food-related, and personal care and service occupations. SA rates were 6 times higher in these occupations than in non-health-care professions. The greatest increases were in occupations that are unsuitable for remote work, require workers to work close to others, pay low wages, and rarely provide health insurance. Workers in these occupations are disproportionately Black, Hispanic, indigenous, and immigrants. Occupation contributes 41% of the total of Black/white differences and 54% of educational differences in SAs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Occupations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 737, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624572

ABSTRACT

A twenty-year-old idea from network science is that vaccination campaigns would be more effective if high-contact individuals were preferentially targeted. Implementation is impeded by the ethical and practical problem of differentiating vaccine access based on a personal characteristic that is hard-to-measure and private. Here, we propose the use of occupational category as a proxy for connectedness in a contact network. Using survey data on occupation-specific contact frequencies, we calibrate a model of disease propagation in populations undergoing varying vaccination campaigns. We find that vaccination campaigns that prioritize high-contact occupational groups achieve similar infection levels with half the number of vaccines, while also reducing and delaying peaks. The paper thus identifies a concrete, operational strategy for dramatically improving vaccination efficiency in ongoing pandemics.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Immunization Programs , Occupational Health , Occupations , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/ethics
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581755

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the dynamics of the labor market in Latin America during the COVID-19 pandemic. After a decade of a virtuous circle of growth with the creation of formal jobs, the pandemic has had an considerable impact on the region's labor market, generating an unparalleled increase in the proportion of the inactive population, considerable reductions in informality, and, in contrast, smaller fluctuations in formal jobs. In this context, the formal sector, given its lower flexibility, became a "social safety net" that preserved the stability of employment and wages. Based on the findings presented in this paper, it is projected that, starting in 2021, informality will grow to levels higher than those of the pre-COVID-19 era-with 7.56 million additional informal jobs-as a result of the population returning to the labor market to compensate for the declines in incomes. According to the simulations presented, postponing or forgiving income tax payments and social security contributions conditional on the generation of formal jobs could reduce the growth of informality by 50 to 75 percent. Achieving educational improvements has the potential to reduce it by 50 percent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Public Policy , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 686, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remains largely unknown. We evaluated variability in the associations between community-level predictors and COVID-19 case incidence in 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from March to October 2020. METHODS: Using publicly available sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility datasets, we developed mixed-effect, adjusted Poisson regression models to depict associations between these variables and town-level COVID-19 case incidence data across five distinct time periods from March to October 2020. We examined town-level demographic variables, including population proportions by race, ethnicity, and age, as well as factors related to occupation, housing density, economic vulnerability, air pollution (PM2.5), and institutional facilities. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with these predictors and compared these values across the multiple time periods to assess variability in the observed associations over time. RESULTS: Associations between key predictor variables and town-level incidence varied across the five time periods. We observed reductions over time in the association with percentage of Black residents (IRR = 1.12 [95%CI: 1.12-1.13]) in early spring, IRR = 1.01 [95%CI: 1.00-1.01] in early fall) and COVID-19 incidence. The association with number of long-term care facility beds per capita also decreased over time (IRR = 1.28 [95%CI: 1.26-1.31] in spring, IRR = 1.07 [95%CI: 1.05-1.09] in fall). Controlling for other factors, towns with higher percentages of essential workers experienced elevated incidences of COVID-19 throughout the pandemic (e.g., IRR = 1.30 [95%CI: 1.27-1.33] in spring, IRR = 1.20 [95%CI: 1.17-1.22] in fall). Towns with higher proportions of Latinx residents also had sustained elevated incidence over time (IRR = 1.19 [95%CI: 1.18-1.21] in spring, IRR = 1.14 [95%CI: 1.13-1.15] in fall). CONCLUSIONS: Town-level COVID-19 risk factors varied with time in this study. In Massachusetts, racial (but not ethnic) disparities in COVID-19 incidence may have decreased across the first 8 months of the pandemic, perhaps indicating greater success in risk mitigation in selected communities. Our approach can be used to evaluate effectiveness of public health interventions and target specific mitigation efforts on the community level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Social Environment , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Movement/physiology , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 292: 114637, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556987

ABSTRACT

The economic impact of COVID-19 has exacerbated inequalities in society, but disability has been neglected. This paper contributes to this knowledge gap by providing a comprehensive analysis of the differential labour market impact of COVID-19 by disability in the UK. Using data from the Labour Force Survey before and during the pandemic it estimates disability gaps in pre-pandemic risk factors, as well as changes in labour market inequality nearly one year on. Disabled workers are found to face higher COVID-19-related economic and health risks, including being more likely to work in 'shutdown' industries, and in occupations with greater proximity to others and exposure to disease. However, established measures of inequality, including the disability employment and pay gap suggest limited impact of COVID-19 in 2020. Nevertheless, the increase in the probability of being temporarily away from work, even among otherwise comparable workers, is 40% higher for disabled workers and consistent with disproportionate use of the government's job retention scheme. While the reasons for this are likely to be complex, there is a risk that it will contribute to future disability-related labour market inequality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Humans , Occupations , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551306

ABSTRACT

The knowledge, awareness, and practices (KAP) about COVID-19 among the marine fishers who are engaged in the high-risk occupations and depend on the vulnerable sources of income in the Maharashtra state of India, were investigated to understand the behavioral changes and vulnerability among the respondents because of COVID-19. Data were collected through an online survey from 1st July to 30th July 2020 during the first peak of COVID-19 in the study area by using the questionnaire. Authors based on the latest recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the questionnaire and covered the KAP aspects under study. The questionnaire was administered through Google form link and the link was disseminated through social media such as Facebook and What's App. The completed responses (n = 533) received from the eligible sample, excluding those outsides of the fisher community and duplicate entries were considered for analysis. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Among the respondents, 447 men (83.86%) and 86 women (16.14%), with a mean age of 45.4 years (M = 45.4, SD = 1.18). The results revealed that 70.92% of respondents perceived a low risk of infection because of COVID-19 with M = 1.77 and SD = 0.583, but authors found the perceived severity score high (M = 3.95, SD = 1.21) among the 60.97% of respondents. Around 95% of respondents were aware of the COVID-19, while almost all respondents knew the medium of infection and symptoms of COVID-19. The behavior of respondents towards COVID-19 infection was positive and was following sufficient precautionary measures suggested by WHO to protect themselves from COVID-19 infection. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the demographic features of respondents like age, education were significantly contributing to the KAP of the fisher community. The results confirmed the importance of KAP which is reflected in the behavioral responses of the fishers while tackling the COVID-19 pandemic situation. The results regarding the risk perception, severity, KAP about COVID-19 provide a collective understanding of the emerging infectious disease among the marine fishers of Maharashtra state of India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Occupations , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542532

ABSTRACT

Some occupational sectors, such as human health and care, food service, cultural and sport activities, have been associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than other sectors. To curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, it is preferable to apply targeted non-pharmaceutical interventions on selected economic sectors, rather than a full lockdown. However, the effect of these general and sector-specific interventions on the virus circulation has only been sparsely studied. We assess the COVID-19 incidence under different levels of non-pharmaceutical interventions per economic activity during the autumn 2020 wave in Belgium. The 14-day incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases per the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (NACE-BEL) sector is modelled by a longitudinal Gaussian-Gaussian two-stage approach. This is based on exhaustive data on all employees in all sectors. In the presence of sanitary protocols and minimal non-pharmaceutical interventions, many sectors with close contact with others show considerably higher COVID-19 14-day incidences than other sectors. The effect of stricter non-pharmaceutical interventions in the general population and non-essential sectors is seen in the timing of the peak incidence and the width and height of the post-peak incidence. In most sectors incidences returned to higher levels after the peak than before and this decrease took longer for the health and care sector. Sanitary protocols for close proximity occupations may be sufficient during periods of low-level virus circulation, but progressively less with increasing circulation. Stricter general and sector-specific non-pharmaceutical interventions adequately decrease COVID-19 incidences, even in close proximity in essential sectors under solely sanitary protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Belgium/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Occupations , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e050656, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate occupation risk from COVID-19 among teachers and others working in schools using publicly available data on mortality in England and Wales. DESIGN: Analysis of national death registration data from the Office for National Statistics. SETTING: England and Wales, 8 March-28 December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: The total working age population in England and Wales plus those still working aged over 65 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Death with COVID-19 as a primary outcome and death from all causes as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Across occupational groups, there was a strong correlation between COVID-19 mortality and both non-COVID-19 and all-cause mortality. The absolute mortality rates for deaths with COVID-19 were low among those working in schools (from 10 per 100 000 in female primary school teachers to 39 per 100 000 male secondary school teachers) relative to many other occupations (range: 9-50 per 100 000 in women; 10-143 per 100 000 in men). There was weak evidence that secondary school teachers had slightly higher risks of dying with COVID-19 compared with the average for all working-aged people, but stronger evidence of a higher risk compared with the average for all professionals; primary school teachers had a lower risk. All-cause mortality was also higher among all teachers compared with all professionals. Teaching and lunchtime assistants were not at higher risk of death from COVID-19 compared with all working-aged people. CONCLUSION: There was weak evidence that COVID-19 mortality risk for secondary school teachers was above expectation, but in general school staff had COVID-19 mortality risks which were proportionate to their non-COVID-19 mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Occupations , Routinely Collected Health Data , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Wales/epidemiology
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22855, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532103

ABSTRACT

Policymakers commonly employ non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the scale and severity of pandemics. Of non-pharmaceutical interventions, physical distancing policies-designed to reduce person-to-person pathogenic spread - have risen to recent prominence. In particular, stay-at-home policies of the sort widely implemented around the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have proven to be markedly effective at slowing pandemic growth. However, such blunt policy instruments, while effective, produce numerous unintended consequences, including potentially dramatic reductions in economic productivity. In this study, we develop methods to investigate the potential to simultaneously contain pandemic spread while also minimizing economic disruptions. We do so by incorporating both occupational and contact network information contained within an urban environment, information that is commonly excluded from typical pandemic control policy design. The results of our methods suggest that large gains in both economic productivity and pandemic control might be had by the incorporation and consideration of simple-to-measure characteristics of the occupational contact network. We find evidence that more sophisticated, and more privacy invasive, measures of this network do not drastically increase performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing/economics , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Occupations/classification , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Policy , Principal Component Analysis , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 48(1): 61-70, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM) for risk of becoming infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus in an occupational setting. METHODS: Experts in occupational epidemiology from three European countries (Denmark, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom) defined the relevant exposure and workplace characteristics with regard to possible exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In an iterative process, experts rated the different dimensions of the COVID-19-JEM for each job title within the International Standard Classification of Occupations system 2008 (ISCO-08). Agreement scores, weighted kappas, and variances were estimated. RESULTS: The COVID-19-JEM contains four determinants of transmission risk [number of people, nature of contacts, contaminated workspaces and location (indoors or outdoors)], two mitigation measures (social distancing and face covering), and two factors for precarious work (income insecurity and proportion of migrants). Agreement scores ranged from 0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.29] for 'migrants' to 0.76 (95% CI 0.74-0.78) for 'nature of contacts'. Weighted kappas indicated moderate-to-good agreement for all dimensions [ranging from 0.60 (95% CI 0.60-0.60) for 'face covering' to 0.80 (95% CI 0.80-0.80) for 'contaminated workspaces'], except for 'migrants' (0.14 (95% CI -0.07-0.36). As country differences remained after several consensus exercises, the COVID-19-JEM also has a country-axis. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-JEM assesses the risk at population level using eight dimensions related to SARS-COV-2 infections at work and will improve our ability to investigate work-related risk factors in epidemiological studies. The dimensions of the COVID-19-JEM could also be valuable for other future communicable diseases in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Humans , Occupations , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace
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