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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(12): 2463-2467, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in high-risk occupation workers in an urban setting. METHODS: The analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi from July to December 2020, and comprised office workers, operation theatre technicians and coolies. The presence of musculoskeletal disorders was assessed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to determine factors associated with moderate to severe condition. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 300 male subjects, 100(33.3%) each were office workers, operation theatre technicians and coolies. The overall mean age was 33.25±6.8 years (range: 18-50 years). The overall prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 179(59.7%). Besides, 117(65.4%) patients with musculoskeletal disorders had intermediate stage of the disease. The lower back and neck were the most common site of trouble involved in preceding 12 months 111(43.6%) each. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found to be a common problem affecting high-risk occupational workers.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Humans , Male , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/complications , Risk Factors , Occupations , Surveys and Questionnaires , Prevalence
2.
Work ; 75(1): 135-143, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cleaning is considered a female-dominant occupation. Women cleaning workers present a high risk of suffering impaired health probably as a result of performing low-skilled tasks. However, to date, no studies have been found that examine the health status of female cleaning workers in Spain. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to 1) determine the level of perceived health in a sample of female cleaning workers, 2) evaluate the main psychosocial risks they face, 3) explore the relationship between perceived health and psychosocial risk factors, and 4) compare the perceived health of those women who present some psychosocial risk factor and those who do not. METHODS: This is a multi-centered cross-sectional study carried out in the service sector of a Spanish company. The final sample was composed of 455 female cleaning workers. Sociodemographic variables, perceived health status and psychosocial risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Women presented a high perception of health status. The main psychosocial risk was lack of acknowledgement by their superiors, which affected 25.2% (n = 111) of the sample. Moderate negative correlations (r=-.222 to -.442; p < .01) were identified between perceived health and evident psychosocial risks. Those women who presented some psychosocial risk (n = 174; 38.3%) had a worse state of perceived health in all variables studied. CONCLUSION: Presence of psychosocial risk had a relationship with a worse health perception. This article highlights the need to orient preventive actions in the psychosocial field. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a new situation to renew the health promotion between cleaning workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Occupations , Health Status
3.
Occup Environ Med ; 80(7): 377-383, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether crowded workplaces, sharing surfaces and exposure to infections were factors associated with a positive test for influenza virus. METHODS: We studied 11 300 cases with a positive test for influenza A and 3671 cases of influenza B from Swedish registry of communicable diseases. Six controls for each case were selected from the population registry, with each control being assigned the index date of their corresponding case. We linked job histories to job-exposure matrices (JEMs), to assess different transmission dimensions of influenza and risks for different occupations compared with occupations that the JEM classifies as low exposed. We used adjusted conditional logistic analyses to estimate the ORs for influenza with 95% CI. RESULTS: The highest odds were for influenza were: regular contact with infected patients (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.73); never maintained social distance (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.59); frequently sharing materials/surfaces with the general public (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.48); close physical proximity (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.62) and high exposure to diseases or infections (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.64). There were small differences between influenza A and influenza B. The five occupations with the highest odds as compared with low exposed occupations were: primary care physicians, protective service workers, elementary workers, medical and laboratory technicians, and taxi drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Contact with infected patients, low social distance and sharing surfaces are dimensions that increase risk for influenza A and B. Further safety measures are needed to diminish viral transmission in these contexts.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Occupational Exposure , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupations , Workplace
4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 14(2): 2205332, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318650

ABSTRACT

Background: Moral injury (MI) has become a research and organizational priority as frontline personnel have, both during and in the years preceding the COVID-19 pandemic, raised concerns about repeated expectations to make choices that transgress their deeply held morals, values, and beliefs. As awareness of MI grows, so, too, does attention on its presence and impacts in related occupations such as those in public safety, given that codes of conduct, morally and ethically complex decisions, and high-stakes situations are inherent features of such occupations.Objective: This paper shares the results of a study of the presence of potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) in the lived experiences of 38 public safety personnel (PSP) in Ontario, Canada.Method: Through qualitative interviews, this study explored the types of events PSP identify as PMIEs, how PSP make sense of these events, and the psychological, professional, and interpersonal impacts of these events. Thematic analysis supported the interpretation of PSP descriptions of events and experiences.Results: PMIEs do arise in the context of PSP work, namely during the performance of role-specific responsibilities, within the organizational climate, and because of inadequacies in the broader healthcare system. PMIEs are as such because they violate core beliefs commonly held by PSP and compromise their ability to act in accordance with the principles that motivate them in their work. PSP associate PMIEs, in combination with traumatic experiences and routine stress, with adverse psychological, professional and personal outcomes.Conclusion: The findings provide additional empirical evidence to the growing literature on MI in PSP, offering insight into the contextual dimensions that contribute to the sources and effects of PMIEs in diverse frontline populations as well as support for the continued application and exploration of MI in the PSP context.


The objective of this study was to understand the types of events that Canadian public safety personnel (PSP) experience as potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) as well as the impacts that they associate with these events.The findings illuminate that contextual dimensions are significant in the origin of PMIEs, which PSP experience in the completion of routine duties, because of the organizational culture, or as a result of issues in the broader healthcare system, which led to many negative consequences in their personal and professional lives.PMIEs reduced the trust PSP had in their leadership and the healthcare system to protect the public and themselves, were associated with feelings of anger, frustration, resignation, and helplessness, and connected to internal struggles marked by inner conflict and the erosion of self-concept.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Occupations
5.
Am J Ind Med ; 66(7): 587-600, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the occupational risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for healthcare personnel in the United States has been relatively well characterized, less information is available on the occupational risk for workers employed in other settings. Even fewer studies have attempted to compare risks across occupations and industries. Using differential proportionate distribution as an approximation, we evaluated excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupation and industry among non-healthcare workers in six states. METHODS: We analyzed data on occupation and industry of employment from a six-state callback survey of adult non-healthcare workers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and population-based reference data on employment patterns, adjusted for the effect of telework, from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. We estimated the differential proportionate distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupation and industry using the proportionate morbidity ratio (PMR). RESULTS: Among a sample of 1111 workers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly higher-than-expected proportions of workers were employed in service occupations (PMR 1.3, 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and in the transportation and utilities (PMR 1.4, 99% CI 1.1-1.8) and leisure and hospitality industries (PMR 1.5, 99% CI 1.2-1.9). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of significant differences in the proportionate distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupation and industry among respondents in a multistate, population-based survey, highlighting the excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection borne by some worker populations, particularly those whose jobs require frequent or prolonged close contact with other people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Occupations , Industry , Health Personnel
6.
Health Serv Res ; 58(3): 642-653, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minorities among the general population in the United States; however, little is known regarding its impact on U.S. military Veterans. In this study, our objectives were to identify the extent to which Veterans experienced increased all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, stratified by race and ethnicity. DATA SOURCES: Administrative data from the Veterans Health Administration's Corporate Data Warehouse. STUDY DESIGN: We use pre-pandemic data to estimate mortality risk models using five-fold cross-validation and quasi-Poisson regression. Models were stratified by a combined race-ethnicity variable and included controls for major comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and county fixed effects. DATA COLLECTION: We queried data for all Veterans residing in the 50 states plus Washington D.C. during 2016-2020. Veterans were excluded from analyses if they were missing county of residence or race-ethnicity data. Data were then aggregated to the county-year level and stratified by race-ethnicity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, Veterans' mortality rates were 16% above normal during March-December 2020 which equates to 42,348 excess deaths. However, there was substantial variation by racial and ethnic group. Non-Hispanic White Veterans experienced the smallest relative increase in mortality (17%, 95% CI 11%-24%), while Native American Veterans had the highest increase (40%, 95% CI 17%-73%). Black Veterans (32%, 95% CI 27%-39%) and Hispanic Veterans (26%, 95% CI 17%-36%) had somewhat lower excess mortality, although these changes were significantly higher compared to White Veterans. Disparities were smaller than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Minoritized Veterans experienced higher rates excess of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to White Veterans, though with smaller differences than the general population. This is likely due in part to the long-standing history of structural racism in the United States that has negatively affected the health of minoritized communities via several pathways including health care access, economic, and occupational inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , American Indian or Alaska Native/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Racism/ethnology , Systemic Racism/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Employment/economics , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/economics , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(4): e1011083, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306502

ABSTRACT

As infected and vaccinated population increases, some countries decided not to impose non-pharmaceutical intervention measures anymore and to coexist with COVID-19. However, we do not have a comprehensive understanding of its consequence, especially for China where most population has not been infected and most Omicron transmissions are silent. This paper aims to reveal the complete silent transmission dynamics of COVID-19 by agent-based simulations overlaying a big data of more than 0.7 million real individual mobility tracks without any intervention measures throughout a week in a Chinese city, with an extent of completeness and realism not attained in existing studies. Together with the empirically inferred transmission rate of COVID-19, we find surprisingly that with only 70 citizens to be infected initially, 0.33 million becomes infected silently at last. We also reveal a characteristic daily periodic pattern of the transmission dynamics, with peaks in mornings and afternoons. In addition, by inferring individual professions, visited locations and age group, we found that retailing, catering and hotel staff are more likely to get infected than other professions, and elderly and retirees are more likely to get infected at home than outside home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Big Data , Occupations , China/epidemiology
8.
Am J Public Health ; 113(6): 647-656, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295257

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the risk of COVID-19 by occupation and industry in the United States. Methods. Using the 2020-2021 National Health Interview Survey, we estimated the risk of having had a diagnosis of COVID-19 by workers' industry and occupation, with and without adjustment for confounders. We also examined COVID-19 period prevalence by the number of workers in a household. Results. Relative to workers in other industries and occupations, those in the industry "health care and social assistance" (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 1.37), or in the occupations "health practitioners and technical," "health care support," or "protective services" had elevated risks of COVID-19. However, compared with nonworkers, workers in 12 of 21 industries and 11 of 23 occupations (e.g., manufacturing, food preparation, and sales) were at elevated risk. COVID-19 prevalence rose with each additional worker in a household. Conclusions. Workers in several industries and occupations with public-facing roles and adults in households with multiple workers had elevated risk of COVID-19. Public Health Implications. Stronger workplace protections, paid sick leave, and better health care access might mitigate working families' risks from this and future pandemics. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(6):647-656. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307249).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations , Industry , Workplace , Employment
9.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 49(5): 350-362, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 mitigations have had a profound impact on workplaces, however, multisectoral comparisons of how work-related mitigations were applied are limited. This study aimed to investigate (i) occupational differences in the usage of key work-related mitigations over time and (ii) workers' perceptions of these mitigations. METHODS: Employed/self-employed Virus Watch study participants (N=6279) responded to a mitigation-related online survey covering the periods of December 2020-February 2022. Logistic regression was used to investigate occupation- and time-related differences in the usage of work-related mitigation methods. Participants' perceptions of mitigation methods were investigated descriptively using proportions. RESULTS: Usage of work-related mitigation methods differed between occupations and over time, likely reflecting variation in job roles, workplace environments, legislation and guidance. Healthcare workers had the highest predicted probabilities for several mitigations, including reporting frequent hand hygiene [predicted probability across all survey periods 0.61 (95% CI 0.56-0.66)] and always wearing face coverings [predicted probability range 0.71 (95% CI 0.66-0.75) - 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84) across survey periods]. There were significant cross-occupational trends towards reduced mitigations during periods of less stringent national restrictions. The majority of participants across occupations (55-88%) agreed that most mitigations were reasonable and worthwhile even after the relaxation of national restrictions; agreement was lower for physical distancing (39-44%). CONCLUSIONS: While usage of work-related mitigations appeared to vary alongside stringency of national restrictions, agreement that most mitigations were reasonable and worthwhile remained substantial. Further investigation into the factors underlying between-occupational differences could assist pandemic planning and prevention of workplace COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Wales/epidemiology , Occupations , Workplace , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 49(4): 231-233, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292719
11.
Work ; 68(1): 27-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that have symptoms ranging from simple symptoms of colds to severe respiratory syndromes. In December 2019, cases of unknown pneumonia first appeared in Wuhan, China. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupation and COVID-19 in the Ardabil Imam Khomeini hospital. METHODS: This research was conducted as a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The questionnaires used in this study included demographic information to obtain the required information such as age, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying disease, type of drug used, smoking, occupation, hours of work, number of daily clients, use of mask or shield, type of working hours, weight and height and body mass index, number family, place of residence, role in the family, presence of an infected person in the family, communication with the suspect, observance or non-observance of health protocols. Our sample size consisted of 774 subjects, all patients at the Ardabil Imam Khomeini Hospital. The subjects were selected randomly. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the mean age of patients was 56.70 years, with a standard deviation of 18.20 years. Three hundred and sixty participants (46.5%) were female, and 414 (53.5%) were male. In terms of occupation distribution, 317 patients (41%) were housewives. In addition, 57 people (7.4%) were farmers or ranchers. CONCLUSION: In general, it can be concluded that due to severity of infection and threat posed by Coronavirus and the risk of infections between different occupations like the taxi driver and medical staff, it is very important to find out what jobs are in the big threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Occupations/classification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/standards , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020051, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify occupational groups at high-risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Korea, to estimate the number of such workers, and to examine the prevalence of protective resources by employment status. METHODS: Based on the sixth Standard Occupational Classification codes, 2015 census data were linked with data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey, which measured how frequently workers directly come into contact with people other than fellow employees in the workplace. RESULTS: A total of 30 occupational groups, including 7 occupations from the healthcare and welfare sectors and 23 from other sectors, were classified as high-risk occupational groups involving frequent contact with people other than fellow employees in the workplace (more than half of the working hours). Approximately 1.4 million (women, 79.1%) and 10.7 million workers (46.3%) are employed in high-risk occupations. Occupations with a larger proportion of women are more likely to be at a high-risk of infection and are paid less. For wage-earners in high-risk occupations, protective resources to deal with COVID-19 (e.g., trade unions and health and safety committees) are less prevalent among temporary or daily workers than among those with permanent employment. CONCLUSIONS: Given the large number of Koreans employed in high-risk occupations and inequalities within the working population, the workplace needs to be the key locus for governmental actions to control COVID-19, and special consideration for vulnerable workers is warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Labor Unions/statistics & numerical data , Male , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
13.
Can J Occup Ther ; 90(2): 152-160, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280399

ABSTRACT

Background. The COVID-19 outbreak caused an initial 2-week lockdown throughout Israel. Purpose. To identify (1) changes in time-usage patterns of daily occupations during the first COVID-19 lockdown, by gender and employment status, and (2) correlations among optimism, positive affect, and daily occupations during the lockdown. Method. In a voluntary, anonymous, retrospective, online cross-sectional survey, 481 participants completed the Life Orientation Test, Positive Affect Questionnaire, and Occupational Questionnaire. Findings. During lockdown, participants spent more time in recreation, rest, and sleep regardless of their employment status, and more women than men lost their employment. Both before and during lockdown, women spent significantly higher percentage of time performing everyday tasks but reported less rest and sleep than men. Recreation was associated with positive affect. Conclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic created a temporary occupational disruption. Although people devoted their time differently, the lockdown forced people to find ways to continue engaging in their occupations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Therapy , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Occupations
14.
GMS J Med Educ ; 40(1): Doc4, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286867

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Students frequently rely on part-time jobs to earn a living wage. We sought to evaluate the sociodemographic status of Swiss medical students and their perception regarding equal career opportunities in view of impaired part-time job opportunities under the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted an anonymous online survey among Swiss medical students from Bern and Geneva over a period of 4 months between December 2020 and April 2021. We evaluated sociodemographic data, current living situation, part-time job occupation as well as other sources of income to fund living expenses, and, by means of a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree), whether COVID-19 was perceived as impeding equal career opportunities. Results: Of 968 participants, corresponding to around 13.8% of all medical students in Switzerland, 81.3% had part-time jobs. Amongst the employed, 54.8% worked to afford living expenses and 28.9% reported a negative financial impact due to reduced part-time jobs under the pandemic. The loss of part-time jobs was perceived to make medical studies a privilege for students with higher socioeconomic status (4.11±1.0), whose opportunity to study is independent of a regular income. A governmental backup plan was considered crucial to support affected students (4.22±0.91). Discussion: COVID-19 and its sequelae are perceived as a threat for Swiss medical students and lead to a disadvantage for those with lower socioeconomic status. Nationwide measures should be established to foster equal career opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Career Choice , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations
15.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 14(2): 180-202, 2023 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286683

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unexpected disruptions to Western countries which affected women more adversely than men. Previous studies suggest that gender differences are attributable to: women being over-represented in the most affected sectors of the economy, women's labour market disadvantage as compared to their partners, and mothers taking a bigger share childcare responsibilities following school closures. Using the data from four British nationally representative cohort studies, we test these propositions. Our findings confirm that the adverse labour market effects were still experienced by women a year into the COVID-19 pandemic and that these effects were the most severe for women who lived with a partner and children, even if they worked in critical occupations. We show that adjusting for pre-pandemic job characteristics attenuates the gaps, suggesting that women were over-represented in jobs disproportionately affected by COVID-19 pandemic. However, the remaining gaps are not further attenuated by adjusting for the partner's job and children characteristics, suggesting that the adversities experienced by women were not driven by their relative labour market position, as compared to their partners or childcare responsibilities. The residual gender differences observed in the rates of active, paid work and furlough for those who live with partner and children point to the importance of unobserved factors such as social norms, preferences, or discrimination. These effects may be long-lasting and jeopardise women's longer-term position through the loss of experience, leading to reinforcement of gender inequalities or even reversal of the progress towards gender equality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender Equity , Male , Child , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Employment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations , Cohort Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 49(4): 259-270, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational exposures on the risk of a positive COVID-19 test, and whether this differed across pandemic waves. METHODS: Data from 207 034 workers from The Netherlands with test data on COVID-19 from June 2020 until August 2021 were available. Occupational exposure was estimated by using the eight dimensions of a COVID-19 job exposure matrix (JEM). Personal characteristics, household composition and residence area were derived from Statistics Netherlands. A test-negative design was applied in which the risk of a positive test was analyzed in a conditional logit model. RESULTS: All eight dimensions of occupational exposure included in the JEM increased the odds of a positive test for the entire study period and three pandemic waves [OR ranging from 1.09, (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.17) to 1.77 (95% CI 1.61-1.96)]. Adjusting for a previous positive test and other covariates strongly reduced the odds to be infected, but most dimensions remained at elevated risk. Fully adjusted models showed that contaminated work spaces and face covering were mostly relevant in the first two pandemic waves, whereas income insecurity showed higher odds in the third wave. Several occupations have a higher predicted value for a positive COVID-19 test, with variation over time. Discussion Occupational exposures are associated with a higher risk of a positive test, but variations over time exist in occupations with the highest risks. These findings provide insights for interventions among workers for future pandemic waves of COVID-19 or other respiratory epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Humans , Pandemics , Occupations , Netherlands
17.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1140983, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257919

ABSTRACT

The work of public safety personnel (PSP) such as police officers, firefighters, correctional officers, and paramedics, as well as other PSP, makes them vulnerable to psychological injuries, which can have profound impacts on their families and the communities they serve. A multitude of complex operational, organizational, and personal factors contribute to the mental health of PSP; however, to date the approach of the research community has been largely to explore the impacts of these factors separately or within single PSP professions. To date, PSP employers have predominantly focused on addressing the personal aspects of PSP mental health through resiliency and stress management interventions. However, the increasing number of psychological injuries among PSPs and the compounding stressors of the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate a need for a new approach to the study of PSP mental health. The following paper discusses the importance of adopting a broader conceptual approach to the study of PSP mental health and proposes a novel model that highlights the need to consider the combined impacts of operational, organizational, and personal factors on PSP mental health. The TRi-Operational-Organizational-Personal Factor Model (TROOP) depicts these key factors as three large pieces of a larger puzzle that is PSP mental health. The TROOP gives working language for public safety organizations, leaders, and researchers to broadly consider the mental health impacts of public safety work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Police/psychology , Occupations
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e063771, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252775

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe and synthesise studies of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence by occupation prior to the widespread vaccine roll-out. METHODS: We identified studies of occupational seroprevalence from a living systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020183634). Electronic databases, grey literature and news media were searched for studies published during January-December 2020. Seroprevalence estimates and a free-text description of the occupation were extracted and classified according to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) 2010 system using a machine-learning algorithm. Due to heterogeneity, results were synthesised narratively. RESULTS: We identified 196 studies including 591 940 participants from 38 countries. Most studies (n=162; 83%) were conducted locally versus regionally or nationally. Sample sizes were generally small (median=220 participants per occupation) and 135 studies (69%) were at a high risk of bias. One or more estimates were available for 21/23 major SOC occupation groups, but over half of the estimates identified (n=359/600) were for healthcare-related occupations. 'Personal Care and Service Occupations' (median 22% (IQR 9-28%); n=14) had the highest median seroprevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Many seroprevalence studies covering a broad range of occupations were published in the first year of the pandemic. Results suggest considerable differences in seroprevalence between occupations, although few large, high-quality studies were done. Well-designed studies are required to improve our understanding of the occupational risk of SARS-CoV-2 and should be considered as an element of pandemic preparedness for future respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Algorithms , Occupations
19.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0270341, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251697

ABSTRACT

We examine the determinants of the consequences of COVID-19 on employment and wages in the United States. Guided by a pre-analysis plan, we investigate whether the economic consequences of COVID-19 were larger for certain occupations, using four indexes: workers relatively more exposed to disease, workers that work with proximity to coworkers, essential/critical workers and workers who can easily work remotely. We find that individuals that work in proximity to others are more affected while individuals able to work remotely and essential workers are less affected by the pandemic. We also present suggestive evidence that our indexes are likely explanations why certain demographic groups such as younger and minority workers have worse labor market outcomes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Occupations , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Minority Groups
20.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0281449, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251456

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people found themselves out of work in 2020 and 2021. Going forward, will their pandemic resume gaps be stigmatized or forgiven? In a recent survey experiment in the United States, I find that US adults have negative perceptions of individuals who were unemployed during the novel coronavirus pandemic. When asked to select among fictional applicants for a job opening in the hospitality industry, respondents prefer those who were employed continuously throughout the pandemic. Respondents are about 20% less likely to choose applicants with pandemic resume gaps, regardless of whether they were laid off, stopped working to supervise virtual school, or yo-yoed in and out of employment. Respondents also describe applicants with pandemic resume gaps in more negative terms, perceiving them as less hardworking, less dedicated, less professional, and less qualified than otherwise identical applicants who remained employed. Public opinion toward individuals with breaks in employment during the pandemic matters because it may affect public policy, and because stigma harms job seekers in multiple ways. Furthermore, the results of the experiment are consistent among survey respondents with hiring and managerial experience. While we should always be cautious about generalizing from survey experiments, these findings suggest that people who were out of work during the COVID-19 pandemic may face disadvantages when they return to the labor market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupations
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