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1.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(9): 743-749, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417232

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic people in Wuhan. This was a cross-sectional study, which enrolled 18,712 asymptomatic participants from 154 work units in Wuhan. Pearson Chi-square test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM for age and gender between different groups. The results indicated the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM showed a downward trend and was significantly higher among females than males. Besides, different geographic areas and workplaces had different seroprevalence of IgG among asymptomatic people, and the number of abnormalities in CT imaging were higher in IgG antibody-positive cases than IgG-negative cases. We hope these findings can provide references for herd immunity investigation and provide basis for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/classification , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
3.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(10): 955-962, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Key workers played a pivotal role during the national lockdown in the UK's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although protective measures have been taken, the impact of the pandemic on key workers is yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Participants were from four longitudinal age-homogeneous British cohorts (born in 2001, 1990, 1970 and 1958). A web-based survey provided outcome data during the first UK national lockdown (May 2020) on COVID-19 infection status, changes in financial situation, trust in government, conflict with people around, household composition, psychological distress, alcohol consumption, smoking and sleep duration. Generalised linear models with logit link assessed the association between being a key worker and the above outcomes. Adjustment was made for cohort design, non-response, sex, ethnicity, adult socioeconomic position (SEP), childhood SEP, the presence of a chronic illness and receipt of a shielding letter. Meta-analyses were performed across the cohorts. FINDINGS: 13 736 participants were included. During lockdown, being a key worker was associated with increased chances of being infected with COVID-19 (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.68) and experiencing conflict with people around (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.37). However, key workers were less likely to be worse off financially (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.65), to consume more alcohol (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.98) or to smoke more (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.80) during lockdown. Interestingly, being a key worker was not associated with psychological distress (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.05). INTERPRETATION: Being a key worker during the first UK COVID-19 lockdown was a double-edged sword, with both benefits and downsides. The UK government had the basic duty to protect its key workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it may have failed to do so, and there is an urgent need to rectify this in light of the ongoing third wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupations , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/classification , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 495-500, 2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168280

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 in randomized placebo-controlled Phase III trials (1,2); however, the benefits of these vaccines for preventing asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection, particularly when administered in real-world conditions, is less well understood. Using prospective cohorts of health care personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers* in eight U.S. locations during December 14, 2020-March 13, 2021, CDC routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 infections every week regardless of symptom status and at the onset of symptoms consistent with COVID-19-associated illness. Among 3,950 participants with no previous laboratory documentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2,479 (62.8%) received both recommended mRNA doses and 477 (12.1%) received only one dose of mRNA vaccine.† Among unvaccinated participants, 1.38 SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) per 1,000 person-days.§ In contrast, among fully immunized (≥14 days after second dose) persons, 0.04 infections per 1,000 person-days were reported, and among partially immunized (≥14 days after first dose and before second dose) persons, 0.19 infections per 1,000 person-days were reported. Estimated mRNA vaccine effectiveness for prevention of infection, adjusted for study site, was 90% for full immunization and 80% for partial immunization. These findings indicate that authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are effective for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of symptom status, among working-age adults in real-world conditions. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for all eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Responders , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupations/classification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Emergency Responders/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
7.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(5): 621-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062215

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This paper describes the occupations in the U.S. that involve close contact with others and whether the work is outdoors or indoors (risk factors for COVID-19), including the distribution of Black and Hispanic workers over these occupations. METHODS: U.S. data released from 2014 to 2019 on employment, proximity to others at work, outdoor or indoor work, and Black and Hispanic worker percentages for occupations were used. Occupations were assigned to 6 categories defined as a low, medium, or high physical closeness (proximity) at work and outdoor or indoor work. A total of 3 of the 6 categories represent a higher risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2: medium-proximity indoor, high-proximity outdoor, and high-proximity indoor exposure. RESULTS: A high proportion of U.S. workers may be at higher risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 because their occupations involve either high proximity to others indoors and outdoors (25.2%, 36.5 million workers) or medium-proximity indoors (48%, 69.6 million workers). There is a differential distribution of proximity and outdoor/indoor work by occupation, which disproportionately affects Black and Hispanic workers in some occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of COVID-19 preventive measures in work settings should be based on occupation-specific risk factors, including the extent of proximity to others and whether the work is conducted outdoors or indoors. It is important that communication messages are tailored to the languages and preferred media of the workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations/classification , Workplace/classification , African Americans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Physical Distancing , Risk Assessment , United States
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063399

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted food systems and the economy in the U.S. and abroad. This cross-sectional study examined the direct and indirect impacts of COVID-19 on food access among low-income and Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) in New York State. New York residents were recruited to complete a web-based survey through Qualtrics. The survey took place in May and June 2020 and asked participants about COVID-19 health impacts, risk factors, and food access. Chi-square analysis examined issues with food access experienced by demographic characteristics, work disruptions, health impacts, and household risk for contracting the virus and experiencing severe illness, and significant results were analyzed in a series of logistic regression models. After accounting for covariates, Hispanic respondents, those with likely Major Depressive Disorder, and essential workers were more likely to experience worse food access during COVID-19. Improved policies and services to address impacts on vulnerable populations such as BIPOC, those suffering from mental health disorders, and workers in lower-paying essential jobs can reduce the risk of food access issues at this time. Future research can identify how food access issues during the pandemic influenced diet quality, chronic disease risk and infection, and persistence of food access issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment , Food Insecurity , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Logistic Models , New York/epidemiology , Occupations/classification , Poverty , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a number of added obstacles to safe employment for already-challenged essential workers. Essential workers not employed in the health sector generally include racially diverse, low-wage workers whose jobs require close interaction with the public and/or close proximity to their coworkers, placing them at increased risk of infection. A narrative review facilitated the analyses of health outcome data in these workers and contributing factors to illness related to limited workplace protections and a lack of organizational support. Findings suggest that this already marginalized population may also be at increased risk of "moral injury" due to specific work-related factors, such as limited personal protective equipment (PPE) and the failure of the employer, as the safety and health "duty holder," to protect workers. Evidence suggests that ethical and, in some cases, legally required safety protections benefit not only the individual worker, but an employer's enterprise and the larger community which can retain access to resilient, essential services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure/ethics , Occupations/classification , Pandemics , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control
10.
Work ; 68(1): 27-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that have symptoms ranging from simple symptoms of colds to severe respiratory syndromes. In December 2019, cases of unknown pneumonia first appeared in Wuhan, China. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupation and COVID-19 in the Ardabil Imam Khomeini hospital. METHODS: This research was conducted as a cross-sectional and descriptive study. The questionnaires used in this study included demographic information to obtain the required information such as age, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying disease, type of drug used, smoking, occupation, hours of work, number of daily clients, use of mask or shield, type of working hours, weight and height and body mass index, number family, place of residence, role in the family, presence of an infected person in the family, communication with the suspect, observance or non-observance of health protocols. Our sample size consisted of 774 subjects, all patients at the Ardabil Imam Khomeini Hospital. The subjects were selected randomly. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the mean age of patients was 56.70 years, with a standard deviation of 18.20 years. Three hundred and sixty participants (46.5%) were female, and 414 (53.5%) were male. In terms of occupation distribution, 317 patients (41%) were housewives. In addition, 57 people (7.4%) were farmers or ranchers. CONCLUSION: In general, it can be concluded that due to severity of infection and threat posed by Coronavirus and the risk of infections between different occupations like the taxi driver and medical staff, it is very important to find out what jobs are in the big threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Occupations/classification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations/standards , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1126-1132, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007088

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To characterize which occupations in the United States could likely work from home during a pandemic such as COVID-19.Methods. I merged 2018 US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) national employment and wage data with measures ranking the importance of computer use at work and the importance of working with or performing for the public from the BLS O*NET survey.Results. Approximately 25% (35.6 million) of US workers are employed in occupations (such as technology, administrative, financial, and engineering) that could be done from home; the remaining 75% work in occupations (including health care, manufacturing, retail, and food services) that are challenging to do from home.Conclusions. Most US workers are employed in occupations that cannot be done at home, putting 108.4 million workers at increased risk for adverse health outcomes related to working during a pandemic. These workers tend to be lower paid. The stress experienced by lower-income groups, coupled with job insecurity, could result in a large burden of mental health disorders in the United States in addition to increased cases of COVID-19 from workplace transmission.


Subject(s)
Occupations/classification , Pandemics , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Computers/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Occupational Stress , Occupations/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States
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