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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e055864, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731277

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Liver transplantation is a complex operation that can provide significant improvements in quality of life and survival to the recipients. However, serious complications are common and include major haemorrhage, hypotension and renal failure. Blood transfusion and the development of acute kidney injury lead to both short-term and long-term poor patient outcomes, including an increased risk of death, graft failure, length of stay and reduced quality of life. Octreotide may reduce the incidence of renal dysfunction, perioperative haemorrhage and enhance intraoperative blood pressure. However, octreotide does have risks, including resistant bradycardia, hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia and QT prolongation. Hence, a randomised controlled trial of octreotide during liver transplantation is needed to determine the cost-efficacy and safety of its use; this study represents a feasibility study prior to this trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We describe a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled feasibility study of continuous infusion of octreotide during liver transplantation surgery. We will recruit 30 adult patients at two liver transplant centres. A blinded infusion during surgery will be administered in a 2:1 ratio of octreotide:placebo. The primary outcomes will determine the feasibility of this study design. These include the recruitment ratio, correct administration of blinded study intervention, adverse event rates, patient and clinician enrolment refusal and completion of data collection. Secondary outcome measures of efficacy and safety will help shape future trials by assessing potential primary outcome measures and monitoring safety end points. No formal statistical tests are planned. This manuscript represents study protocol number 1.3, dated 2 June 2021. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received Research Ethics Committee approval. The main study outcomes will be submitted to an open-access journal. TRIAL SPONSOR: The Joint Research Office, University College London, UK.Neither the sponsor nor the funder have any role in study design, collection, management, analysis and interpretation of data, writing of the study report or the decision to submit the report for publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04941911) with recruitment due to start in August 2021 with anticipated completion in July 2022. CLINICAL TRIALS UNIT: Surgical and Interventional Group, Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Adult , Double-Blind Method , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361974

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a rare disorder of unregulated hypersecretion of growth hormone that causes cardiovascular, metabolic and respiratory complications. Herein, we describe the case of a middle-aged man admitted to the hospital with severe COVID-19 found to have clinical and biochemical evidence of acromegaly. His respiratory status declined despite initiation of standard treatments, prompting initiation of subcutaneous octreotide. Following initiation of this therapy, he rapidly improved and was discharged from the hospital 2 days later. Subsequent workup revealed a pituitary macroadenoma that was surgically removed, with improvement in his acromegaly symptoms. COVID-19 disease severity is increased by pre-existing diabetes, lung disease and immunosuppression. Although this patient had obstructive sleep apnoea and pre-diabetes, we hypothesise that our patient's acromegaly contributed to his severe course, as reflected by his rapid improvement after starting treatment with subcutaneous octreotide. Acromegaly may predispose to more severe outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Acromegaly/complications , Acromegaly/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Octreotide/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Oncologist ; 26(7): e1171-e1178, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258098

ABSTRACT

Octreotide acetate (octreotide) is the most prescribed and most studied somatostatin congener, or analog, for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and carcinoid syndrome, the latter of which may be characterized by debilitating diarrhea and flushing. Approved in the U.S. more than 30 years ago, octreotide is widely used to control the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and has been shown to demonstrate antiproliferative activity. The two formulations available in the U.S. include a subcutaneous immediate-release (IR) injection introduced in 1989 and a long-acting repeatable (LAR) intramuscular injection approved in 1999. Lanreotide depot (lanreotide), a more recent somatostatin congener, has been available in the U.S. since 2014. Despite widespread use of octreotide LAR, several key challenges exist with the current depot-based treatment paradigm. Studies indicate that LAR formulations are associated with continued unmet patient needs, owing in part to a loss of bioactivity over time that may necessitate progressive supplemental treatment with IR octreotide to adequately control symptoms. Clinicians should understand the key differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of the LAR and IR formulations that may contribute to bioactivity loss and somatostatin receptor desensitization. In addition, there is a need to re-evaluate the role of IR octreotide in combination with depot therapy to provide consistent bioavailability and better control of carcinoid syndrome symptoms. The purpose of this review is to explore all these issues and to re-establish a rationale for the IR formulation, particularly with respect to novel use cases and its use during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: There is a need to re-evaluate the role of immediate-release octreotide in combination with depot therapy to provide consistent bioavailability and better control of carcinoid syndrome symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors/drug therapy , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Somatostatin
4.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(4): 294-297, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066464

ABSTRACT

Factor V inhibitors are a rare cause of life-threatening bleeding. We present a case of an acquired factor V inhibitor likely caused by coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Bleeding was manifested by severe anemia requiring frequent red-cell transfusion, left psoas muscle hematoma, and left retroperitoneal cavity hematoma. Factor V activity was less than 1% and the factor V inhibitor titer was 31.6 Bethesda units. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA testing of the nasopharynx was positive 2 weeks before presentation and continued to be positive for 30 days. The patient failed treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and dexamethasone. Three cycles of plasmapheresis with fresh frozen plasma replacement resulted in correction of the bleeding and laboratory coagulopathy. This is the first reported case of a factor V inhibitor in a coronavirus disease 2019 patient and suggests that plasmapheresis may be a successful treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , COVID-19/blood , Factor V/immunology , Hemorrhagic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Delayed Diagnosis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Factor V/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Hematoma/etiology , Hemorrhagic Disorders/drug therapy , Hemorrhagic Disorders/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/blood , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Plasma , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin K/therapeutic use
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G17-G23, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-205229

ABSTRACT

Patients with pituitary tumours, ensuing hormonal abnormalities and mass effects are usually followed in multidisciplinary pituitary clinics and can represent a management challenge even during the times of non-pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has put on hold routine medical care for hundreds of millions of patients around the globe, while many pituitary patients' evaluations cannot be delayed for too long. Furthermore, the majority of patients with pituitary tumours have co-morbidities potentially impacting the course and management of COVID-19 (e.g. hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease). Here, we summarize some of the diagnostic and management dilemmas encountered, and provide guidance on safe and as effective as possible delivery of care in the COVID-19 era. We also attempt to address how pituitary services should be remodelled in the event of similar crises, while maintaining or even improving patient outcomes. Regular review of these recommendations and further adjustments are needed, depending on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic status. We consider that the utilization of successful models of pituitary multidisciplinary care implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue after the crisis is over by using the valuable and exceptional experience gained during these challenging times.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pandemics , Pituitary Apoplexy/therapy , Pituitary Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral , Adenoma/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Cabergoline/therapeutic use , Disease Management , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Human Growth Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Humans , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Pituitary Apoplexy/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiotherapy , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Somatostatin/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Time Factors , Visual Field Tests
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