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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e35860, 2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been observed to be associated with venous and arterial thrombosis. The inflammatory disease prolongs hospitalization, and preexisting comorbidities can intensity the thrombotic burden in patients with COVID-19. However, venous thromboembolism, arterial thrombosis, and other vascular complications may go unnoticed in critical care settings. Early risk stratification is paramount in the COVID-19 patient population for proactive monitoring of thrombotic complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this exploratory research was to characterize thrombotic complication risk factors associated with COVID-19 using information from electronic health record (EHR) and insurance claims databases. The goal is to develop an approach for analysis using real-world data evidence that can be generalized to characterize thrombotic complications and additional conditions in other clinical settings as well, such as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients or in the intensive care unit. METHODS: We extracted deidentified patient data from the insurance claims database IBM MarketScan, and formulated hypotheses on thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19 with respect to patient demographic and clinical factors using logistic regression. The hypotheses were then verified with analysis of deidentified patient data from the Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR) Mass General Brigham (MGB) patient EHR database. Data were analyzed according to odds ratios, 95% CIs, and P values. RESULTS: The analysis identified significant predictors (P<.001) for thrombotic complications in 184,831 COVID-19 patients out of the millions of records from IBM MarketScan and the MGB RPDR. With respect to age groups, patients 60 years and older had higher odds (4.866 in MarketScan and 6.357 in RPDR) to have thrombotic complications than those under 60 years old. In terms of gender, men were more likely (odds ratio of 1.245 in MarketScan and 1.693 in RPDR) to have thrombotic complications than women. Among the preexisting comorbidities, patients with heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, and personal history of thrombosis all had significantly higher odds of developing a thrombotic complication. Cancer and obesity were also associated with odds>1. The results from RPDR validated the IBM MarketScan findings, as they were largely consistent and afford mutual enrichment. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis approach adopted in this study can work across heterogeneous databases from diverse organizations and thus facilitates collaboration. Searching through millions of patient records, the analysis helped to identify factors influencing a phenotype. Use of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients represents only a case study; however, the same design can be used across other disease areas by extracting corresponding disease-specific patient data from available databases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies , Odds Ratio
2.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(12): 773-778, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism has been recognized as a frequent complication of COVID-19 infection influencing the clinical course and outcomes of these patients. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the mortality risk in COVID-19 Italian patients complicated by acute pulmonary embolism in the short-term period. METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Preferred Report Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. PubMed-MEDLINE and Scopus databases were systematically searched for articles, published in the English language and enrolling Italian cohorts with confirmed COVID-19 infection from inception through 20 October 2021. Mortality risk data were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects models with odds ratio as the effect measure with 95% confidence interval. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Higgins and Thomson I2 statistic. RESULTS: Eight investigations enrolling 1.681 patients (mean age 64.9 years, 1125 males) met the inclusion criteria and were considered for the analysis. A random-effect model showed that acute pulmonary embolism was present in 19.0% of Italian patients with COVID-19 infection. Moreover, these patients were at higher mortality risk compared with those without (odds ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.47, P  = 0.001, I2  = 0%). Sensitivity analysis confirmed yielded results. CONCLUSION: In Italian patients with COVID-19 infection, acute pulmonary embolism was present in about one out of five and significantly associated with a higher mortality risk in the short-term period. The identification of acute pulmonary embolism in these patients remains critical to promptly identify vulnerable populations who would require prioritization in treatment and prevention and close monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Language , Acute Disease , Odds Ratio
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 943234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043529

ABSTRACT

More than 405 million people have contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, and mycotic infection may be related to COVID-19 development. There are a large number of reports showing that COVID-19 patients with mycotic infection have an increased risk of mortality. However, whether mycotic infection can be considered a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unknown. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published from inception to December 27, 2021. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to a random-effects model or fixed-effect model, depending on heterogeneity. We also performed subgroup analyses to identify differences in mortality rates between continents and fungal species. A total of 20 articles were included in this study. Compared with the controls, patients with mycotic infection had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.69 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.22-3.26] for mortality and an OR of 2.28 (95% CI: 1.65-3.16) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We also conducted two subgroup analyses based on continent and fungal species, and we found that Europe and Asia had the highest ORs, while Candida was the most dangerous strain of fungi. We performed Egger's test and Begg's test to evaluate the publication bias of the included articles, and the p-value was 0.423, which indicated no significant bias. Mycotic infection can be regarded as a risk factor for COVID-19, and decision makers should be made aware of this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Humans , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors
4.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 241, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the impact of anti-tumor approaches (including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy) on the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials. The primary endpoints were severe disease and death of cancer patients treated with anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, stratified analyses were implemented towards various types of anti-tumor therapy and other prognostic factors. Furthermore, odds ratios (ORs) were hereby adopted to measure the outcomes with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: As indicated in the study consisting of 9231 individuals from 52 cohorts in total, anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis could elevate the risk of death in cancer patients (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.07-1.36, P = 0.0026) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.01-1.40, P = 0.0412). Among various anti-tumor approaches, chemotherapy distinguished to increase the incidence of death (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.08-1.38, P = 0.0013) and severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.02-1.18, P = 0.0165) as to cancer patients with COVID-19. Moreover, for cancer patients with COVID-19, surgery and targeted therapy could add to the risk of death (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.00-1.61, P = 0.0472), and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.01-1.30, P = 0.0357) respectively. In the subgroup analysis, the incidence of death (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0158) raised in case of chemotherapy adopted for solid tumor with COVID-19. Besides, age, gender, hypertension, COPD, smoking and lung cancer all served as potential prognostic factors for both death and severe disease of cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-tumor therapy, especially chemotherapy, augmented the risk of severe disease and death for cancer patients with COVID-19, so did surgery for the risk of death and targeted therapy for the incidence of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Odds Ratio , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(10): 1484-1492, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has low seasonal influenza vaccination rates among priority populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a pay-it-forward strategy to increase influenza vaccine uptake in rural, suburban, and urban settings in China. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental pragmatic trial to examine the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward intervention (a free influenza vaccine and an opportunity to donate financially to support vaccination of other individuals) to increase influenza vaccine uptake compared with standard-of-care user-paid vaccination among children (aged between 6 months and 8 years) and older people (≥60 years) in China. Recruitment took place in the standard-of-care group until the expected sample size was reached and then in the pay-it-forward group in primary care clinics from a rural site (Yangshan), a suburban site (Zengcheng), and an urban site (Tianhe). Participants were introduced to the influenza vaccine by project staff using a pamphlet about influenza vaccination and were either asked to pay out-of-pocket at the standard market price (US$8·5-23·2; standard-of-care group) or to donate any amount anonymously (pay-it-forward group). Participants had to be eligible to receive an influenza vaccine and to have not received an influenza vaccine in the past year. The primary outcome was vaccine uptake. Secondary outcomes were vaccine confidence and costs (from the health-care provider perspective). Regression methods compared influenza vaccine uptake and vaccine confidence between the two groups. This trial is registered with ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000040048. FINDINGS: From Sept 21, 2020, to March 3, 2021, 300 enrolees were recruited from patients visiting three primary care clinics. 55 (37%) of 150 people in the standard-of-care group (40 [53%] of 75 children and 15 [20%] of 75 older adults) and 111 (74%) of 150 in the pay-it-forward group (66 [88%] of 75 children and 45 [60%] of 75 older adults) received an influenza vaccine. People in the pay-it-forward group were more likely to receive an influenza vaccine compared with those in the standard-of-care group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6·7 [95% CI 2·7-16·6] among children and 5·0 [2·3-10·8] among older adults). People in the pay-it-forward group had greater confidence in vaccine safety (aOR 2·2 [95% CI 1·2-3·9]), importance (3·1 [1·6-5·9]), and effectiveness (3·1 [1·7-5·7]). In the pay-it-forward group, 107 (96%) of 111 participants donated money for subsequent vaccinations. The pay-it-forward group had a lower economic cost (calculated as the cost without subtraction of donations) per person vaccinated (US$45·60) than did the standard-of-care group ($64·67). INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward intervention seemed to be effective in improving influenza vaccine uptake and community engagement. Our data have implications for prosocial interventions to enhance influenza vaccine uptake in countries where influenza vaccines are available for a fee. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Child , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Odds Ratio , Vaccination
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e057746, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of patients with non-haematological diseases are infected with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with a high mortality reported which is mainly due to delayed diagnosis. The diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA including galactomannan test, (1,3)-ß-D-glucan test, lateral flow assay, lateral flow device and PCR for the non-haematological patients remains unknown. This protocol aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of mycological tests to facilitate the early diagnosis and treatments of IPA in non-haematological diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Database including PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE will be searched from 2002 until the publication of results. Cohort or cross-sectional studies that assessing the diagnostic capability of mycological tests for IPA in patients with non-haematological diseases will be included. The true-positive, false-positive, true-negative and false-negative of each test will be extracted and pooled in bivariate random-effects model, by which the sensitivity and specificity will be calculated with 95% CI. The second outcomes will include positive (negative) likelihood ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic OR will also be computed in the bivariate model. When applicable, subgroup analysis will be performed with several prespecified covariates to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Factors that may impact the diagnostic effects of mycological tests will be examined by sensitivity analysis. The risk of bias will be appraised by the Quality Assessment tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is not involved with ethics approval, and the results will be peer-reviewed and disseminated on a recognised journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021241820.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Hematology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Likelihood Functions , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods
7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(5)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at risk for severe COVID-19. Previous studies examining mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19 have produced inconclusive results. Several published meta-analyses have aimed to estimate this association; however, because of methodological limitations in study selection and data aggregation, these studies do not reliably estimate the independent association between cancer and COVID-19 mortality. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether cancer is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify studies that compared COVID-19 mortality in adult patients with and without cancer. Selection criteria included polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19, multivariate adjustment and/or matching for mortality risk estimates, and inclusion of hospitalized noncancer controls. Adjusted odds ratios and/or hazard ratios for mortality based on cancer status were extracted. Odds ratio and hazard ratio estimates were pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS: The analysis included 42 studies comprising 129 840 patients: 8612 cancer patients and 121 228 noncancer patients. Of these studies, 18 showed a null difference in survival between cancer and noncancer patients with COVID-19, and 24 studies showed statistically significantly worse survival in cancer patients with COVID-19. Meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of mortality in patients with cancer compared with noncancer patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.55 to 2.41; hazard ratio = 1.54, 95% confidence interval = 1.29 to 1.84). CONCLUSION: We conclude that cancer is an independent risk factor for mortality in unvaccinated patients admitted for or diagnosed with COVID-19 during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Odds Ratio
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(4): 496-500, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015460

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has drastically changed the practice of biomedical waste (BMW) generation and management. Studies venturing into the facility level preparedness at various levels of healthcare delivery during pandemic situation is the need of the hour. Hence, we did this study to assess the BMW disposal practices amongst secondary and tertiary health facilities during COVID-19 pandemic in Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst doctors, nurses and allied healthcare staffs across various departments in 18 public health facilities across six districts of Tamil Nadu. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done based on the random-intercept model to assess the determinants of BMW disposal practices. The effect size was reported as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: In total, 2593 BMW disposal observations were made. During nearly three-fourth of the observations (73%), the BMW was disposed of appropriately. Nurses (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.54; 95%CI: 1.06-2.23) and doctors (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.60; 95%CI: 1.05-2.45), healthcare workers in Paediatrics department (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.77; 95%CI: 1.13-2.76), healthcare workers in inpatient department (aOR â€‹= â€‹2.77; 95%CI: 1.95-3.94) and injection outpatient department (aOR â€‹= â€‹2.69; 95%CI: 1.59-4.47) had significantly better odds of having appropriate BMW disposal practices. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that nearly during three-fourth of the observations, healthcare workers performed appropriate BMW disposal practices. However, measures should be taken to achieve 100% compliance by healthcare workers especially the target groups identified in our study by allocating appropriate resources and periodically monitor the BMW disposal practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Hazardous Waste , Health Personnel , Medical Waste Disposal , Secondary Care Centers , Tertiary Care Centers , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Odds Ratio
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4109, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004793

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share multiple features and risk factors. Circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is increased in CVD and mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells, causing COVID-19 infection. The role of ACE2 in preeclampsia pathophysiology is unknown. We hypothesized that circulating ACE2 is increased in mid-pregnancy in women later developing preeclampsia. We included 296 women later developing preeclampsia (cases) and 333 women with a continuous healthy pregnancy (controls). Circulating ACE2 was measured with an immunoassay based on proximity extension assay technology, with levels being expressed as relative quantification on a log2 scale. Median (interquartile range) ACE2 levels were higher in cases than in controls; 3.84 (3.50-4.24) vs. 3.72 (3.45-4.04), p = 0.002. Adjusted logistic regression models showed a 60% increased risk for later development of preeclampsia with one unit elevation of ACE2 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.60, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.17-2.18). Preterm preeclampsia (diagnosis before 37 gestational weeks, n = 97) seemed to have a stronger ACE2 association than term preeclampsia, n = 199 (aORs, 95% Cis 2.14, 1.15-3.96 and 1.52, 1.04-2.23, respectively). Circulating ACE2 is increased at mid-pregnancy in women later developing preeclampsia, particularly preterm preeclampsia. Thus, our finding indicates a partly shared pathophysiological pathway between preeclampsia and CVD.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Adult , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitals, University , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Pre-Eclampsia/pathology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Sweden
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013714, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is a leading cause of serious morbidity and potential mortality in children with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). People with HAEC suffer from intestinal inflammation, and present with diarrhoea, explosive stools, and abdominal distension. Probiotics are live microorganisms with beneficial health effects, which can optimise gastrointestinal function and gut flora. However, the efficacy and safety of probiotic supplementation in the prevention of HAEC remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of probiotic supplements used either alone or in combination with pharmacological interventions on the prevention of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, the China BioMedical Literature database (CBM), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and Clinical Trials Registry-India, from database inception to 27 February 2022. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews for any additional trails. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics and placebo, or any other non-probiotic intervention, for the prevention of HAEC were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies; disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: We included two RCTs, with a total of 122 participants. We judged the overall risk of bias as high. We downgraded the evidence due to risk of bias (random sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding) and small sample size. The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of probiotics on the occurrence of HAEC (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.43; I² = 74%; 2 studies, 120 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We found one included study that did not measure serious adverse events and one included study that reported no serious adverse events related to probiotics. Probiotics may result in little to no difference between probiotics and placebo in relation to the severity of children with HAEC at Grade I (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.14 to 3.16; I² = 25%; 2 studies, 120 participants; low-certainty evidence). The effects of probiotics on the severity of HAEC at Grade II are very uncertain (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 136.58; I² = 86%; 2 studies, 120 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Similarly, the evidence suggests that probiotics results in little to no difference in relation to the severity of HAEC at Grade III (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.05 to 3.45; I² = 0%; 2 studies, 120 participants; low-certainty evidence). No overall mortality or withdrawals due to adverse events were reported. Probiotics may result in little to no difference in the recurrence of episodes of HAEC compared to placebo (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.24 to 3.00; 1 study, 60 participants; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently not enough evidence to assess the efficacy or safety of probiotics for the prevention of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis when compared with placebo. The presence of low- to very-low certainty evidence suggests that further well-designed and sufficiently powered RCTs are needed to clarify the true efficacy of probiotics.


Subject(s)
Enterocolitis , Probiotics , Australia , Child , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Enterocolitis/etiology , Enterocolitis/prevention & control , Humans , Odds Ratio , Probiotics/therapeutic use
11.
Ann Neurol ; 89(1): 11-12, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381835
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(7): e37600, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions show promise in improving the uptake of HIV services among adolescents and young people aged 15 to 24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to pilot-test a theory-based, empirically grounded web-based application designed to increase condom-related knowledge, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication, and healthier choices among young Zambians. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post quasi-experimental evaluation of the user-driven Be in the Know Zambia (BITKZ) web application using web-based surveys and in-depth interviews (IDIs) on the phone. We enrolled participants using social media advertisements. Our final analysis set comprised 46.04% (749/1627) of participants in the intervention group (which received the BITKZ link) and 53.96% (878/1627) of participants in the comparison group (no intervention). We collected survey data at study enrollment (baseline) and 5 weeks after the first enrollment in each group. Approximately 85% (637/749) of BITKZ users completed a user survey, of whom 9.3% (59/637) participated in IDIs. We calculated the time interfacing with BITKZ using the application log files. We conducted descriptive analyses to describe baseline characteristics and the user experience. At the endline, we assessed association using a t test and adjusted logistic regression for binary outcomes and ordinal regression for ordered outcomes, conditioning on age, sex, marital status, and employment status. We used adjusted average treatment effects (aATE) to assess the effects of BITKZ intervention. We conducted rapid matrix analyses of IDI transcripts in Microsoft Excel, sorting the data by theme, gender, and experience rating. RESULTS: Users rated BITKZ highly (excellent: 352/609, 57.8%; good: 218/609, 35.8%). At the endline, the intervention group had a higher level of knowledge related to condoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.69) and on wearing condoms correctly (aOR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.49). Those who had full-time employment had increased odds of knowing how to wear condoms correctly (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63) compared with those who reported being unemployed, as did men when compared with women (aOR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.59-2.31). Those in the intervention group were more likely to score higher for intention to test for sexually transmitted infections (STIs; aATE 0.21; P=.01) and HIV (aATE 0.32; P=.05), as well as for resisting peer pressure (aATE 2.64; P=.02). IDIs corroborated increased knowledge on correct condom use among men and female condoms among women, awareness of STIs and testing, and resistance to peer pressure. Interviewees provided examples of more open SRH communication with partners and peers and of considering, adopting, and influencing others to adopt healthier behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high baseline awareness of SRH among Zambian adolescents and young people with internet access, BITKZ provided modest gains in condom-related knowledge, resistance to peer pressure, and intention to test for STIs and HIV.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Internet-Based Intervention , Internet , Sexual Health , Adolescent , Condoms , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Odds Ratio , Peer Influence , Pilot Projects , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Health/education , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Young Adult , Zambia
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953340

ABSTRACT

One-third of the Spanish population over 15 years of age did not achieve a reasonable amount of physical activity (PA) before the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to analyse the associations between the PA level (PAL) and self-perceived health (SPH) in the Spanish population aged 15-69 years during the pre-pandemic period. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 (ENSE 2017) data, with 17,777 participants. We carried out a descriptive analysis, analysed intergroup differences with non-parametric statistical tests, and calculated the Odds Ratio (OR) and Relative Risk (RR) of having a negative SPH according to PAL. In addition, correlations between PAL and SPH were studied, finding associations between them (p < 0.001). Thus, performing moderate and intense PA was related to better SPH than just walking or inactive. Weak and moderate correlations were found between PAL and SPH (p < 0.001). We also found high ORs and RRs of negative SPH as PAL decreased. Moderate and intense PA were related to positive SPH, while the risk of negative perception in inactive people was higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise/physiology , Health Status , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Risk , Self Concept , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 79: 102198, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930785

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Monitoring early diagnosis is a priority of cancer policy in England. Information on stage has not always been available for a large proportion of patients, however, which may bias temporal comparisons. We previously estimated that early-stage diagnosis of colorectal cancer rose from 32% to 44% during 2008-2013, using multiple imputation. Here we examine the underlying assumptions of multiple imputation for missing stage using the same dataset. METHODS: Individually-linked cancer registration, Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), and audit data were examined. Six imputation models including different interaction terms, post-diagnosis treatment, and survival information were assessed, and comparisons drawn with the a priori optimal model. Models were further tested by setting stage values to missing for some patients under one plausible mechanism, then comparing actual and imputed stage distributions for these patients. Finally, a pattern-mixture sensitivity analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Data from 196,511 colorectal patients were analysed, with 39.2% missing stage. Inclusion of survival time increased the accuracy of imputation: the odds ratio for change in early-stage diagnosis during 2008-2013 was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.6, 1.7) with survival to 1 year included, compared to 1.9 (95% CI 1.9-2.0) with no survival information. Imputation estimates of stage were accurate in one plausible simulation. Pattern-mixture analyses indicated our previous analysis conclusions would only change materially if stage were misclassified for 20% of the patients who had it categorised as late. INTERPRETATION: Multiple imputation models can substantially reduce bias from missing stage, but data on patient's one-year survival should be included for highest accuracy.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasms , Bias , Data Collection , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Odds Ratio
15.
Gerontology ; 68(4): 407-411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins are progressively accepted as being associated with reduced mortality. However, few real-world statin studies have been conducted on statin use in older people and especially the most frail, that is, the nursing home residents. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of statin intake in nursing home residents on all-cause mortality. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study of 1,094 older people residing in 6 nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium) between March 1, 2020 and May 30, 2020. We considered all residents who were taking statins for at least 5 days as statin users. All-cause mortality during the 3 months of data collection was the primary outcome. Propensity score overlap-weighted logistic regression models were applied with age, sex, functional status, diabetes, and cardiac failure/ischemia as potential confounders. RESULTS: 185 out of 1,094 residents were on statin therapy (17%). The statin intake was associated with decreased all-cause mortality: 4% absolute risk reduction; adjusted odds ratio 0.50; CI 0.31-0.81, p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: The statin intake was associated with decreased all-cause mortality in older people residing in nursing homes. More in-depth studies investigating the potential geroprotector effect of statins in this population are needed.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Nursing Homes , Odds Ratio
16.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263767, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The perception of the transmission risks of SARS-CoV-2 in social and educational settings by US healthcare providers have not been previously quantified. METHODS: Respondents completed an online survey between September and October 2020 to estimate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on a scale of 0-10 for different social and educational activities prior to the availability of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Demographic information and experiences during the pandemic were also collected. The risk assessment was emailed to three listservs of healthcare providers, including national listservs of pediatric (PID) and adult infectious diseases (AID) providers, and a listserv of general pediatric practitioners in the St Louis, USA metropolitan area. RESULTS: Respondents identified the highest risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in spending time in a bar, eating at a restaurant, and attending an indoor sporting event. In the school setting, lower risk was identified in elementary and daycare students compared to high school or university-level students. Comparatively, the risk of transmission to students and teachers was lower than the identified high-risk social activities. Factors increasing risk perception in social activities included the absence of children in the respondent's household and female gender. For the school setting, AID providers perceived greater risk compared to PID providers or pediatric practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents identified high risk activities that were associated with a high density of participants in an indoor space where masks are removed for eating and drinking. Differences were apparent in the school setting where pediatric providers perceived lower risks when compared to adult providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Health Personnel , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Pandemics/prevention & control , Young Adult
17.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104112, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent omic studies prioritised several drug targets associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. However, little evidence was provided to systematically estimate the effect of drug targets on COVID-19 severity in multiple ancestries. METHODS: In this study, we applied Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization approaches to understand the putative causal effects of 16,059 transcripts and 1608 proteins on COVID-19 severity in European and effects of 610 proteins on COVID-19 severity in African ancestry. We further integrated genetics, clinical and literature evidence to prioritise drug targets. Additional sensitivity analyses including multi-trait colocalization and phenome-wide MR were conducted to test for MR assumptions. FINDINGS: MR and colocalization prioritized four protein targets, FCRL3, ICAM5, ENTPD5 and OAS1 that showed effect on COVID-19 severity in European ancestry. One protein target, SERPINA1 showed a stronger effect in African ancestry but much weaker effect in European ancestry (odds ratio [OR] in Africans=0.369, 95%CI=0.203 to 0.668, P = 9.96 × 10-4; OR in Europeans=1.021, 95%CI=0.901 to 1.157, P = 0.745), which suggested that increased level of SERPINA1 will reduce COVID-19 risk in African ancestry. One protein, ICAM1 showed suggestive effect on COVID-19 severity in both ancestries (OR in Europeans=1.152, 95%CI=1.063 to 1.249, P = 5.94 × 10-4; OR in Africans=1.481, 95%CI=1.008 to 2.176; P = 0.045). The OAS1, SERPINA1 and ICAM1 effects were replicated using updated COVID-19 severity data in the two ancestries respectively, where alternative splicing events in OAS1 and ICAM1 also showed marginal effects on COVID-19 severity in Europeans. The phenome-wide MR of the prioritised targets on 622 complex traits provided information on potential beneficial effects on other diseases and suggested little evidence of adverse effects on major complications. INTERPRETATION: Our study identified six proteins as showing putative causal effects on COVID-19 severity. OAS1 and SERPINA1 were targets of existing drugs in trials as potential COVID-19 treatments. ICAM1, ICAM5 and FCRL3 are related to the immune system. Across the six targets, OAS1 has no reliable instrument in African ancestry; SERPINA1, FCRL3, ICAM5 and ENTPD5 showed a different level of putative causal evidence in European and African ancestries, which highlights the importance of more powerful ancestry-specific GWAS and value of multi-ancestry MR in informing the effects of drug targets on COVID-19 across different populations. This study provides a first step towards clinical investigation of beneficial and adverse effects of COVID-19 drug targets. FUNDING: No.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Odds Ratio , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2214, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900577

ABSTRACT

The impact of specific risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection spread was investigated among the 215 municipalities in north-eastern Italy. SARS-CoV-2 incidence was gathered fortnightly since April 1, 2020 (21 consecutive periods) to depict three indicators of virus spreading from hierarchical Bayesian maps. Eight explanatory features of the municipalities were obtained from official databases (urbanicity, population density, active population on total, hosting schools or nursing homes, proportion of commuting workers or students, and percent of > 75 years population on total). Multivariate Odds Ratios (ORs), and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs), quantified the associations between municipality features and virus spreading. The municipalities hosting nursing homes showed an excess of positive tested cases (OR = 2.61, ever versus never, 95% CI 1.37;4.98), and displayed repeated significant excesses: OR = 5.43, 3-4 times versus 0 (95% CI 1.98;14.87) and OR = 6.10, > 5 times versus 0 (95% CI 1.60;23.30). Municipalities with an active population > 50% were linked to a unique statistical excess of cases (OR = 3.06, 1 time versus 0, 95% CI 1.43;6.57) and were inversely related to repeated statistically significant excesses (OR = 0.25, > 5 times versus 0; 95% CI 0.06;0.98). We highlighted specific municipality features that give clues about SARS-CoV-2 prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cities , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(3): 308-312.e1, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hong Kong started its coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program in February 2021. A territory-wide Vaccine Allergy Safety (VAS) clinic was set up to assess individuals deemed at "higher risk" of COVID-19 vaccine-associated allergies. A novel "hub-and-spoke" model was piloted to tackle the overwhelming demand of services by allowing nonallergists to conduct assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of the VAS hub-and-spoke model for allergy assessment. METHODS: Records of patients attending the VAS hub-and-spoke Clinics between March and August 2021 were reviewed (n = 2725). We studied the overall results between the Hub (allergist led) and Spoke (nonallergist led) Clinics. The Hub and the Hong Kong West Cluster Spoke Clinic were selected for subgroup analysis as they saw the largest number of patients (n = 1411). RESULTS: A total of 2725 patients were assessed under the VAS hub-and-spoke model. Overall, 2324 patients (85.3%) were recommended to proceed with vaccination. Allergists recommended significantly more patients for vaccination than nonallergists (odds ratio = 21.58; P < .001). Subgroup analysis revealed that 881 of 1055 (83.5%) patients received their first dose of COVID-19 vaccination safely after assessment. Among those recommended vaccination, more patients assessed by allergists received their first dose of vaccination (odds ratio = 4.18; P < .001). CONCLUSION: The hub-and-spoke model has proven to be successful for the vaccination campaign. This study has illustrated the crucial role of allergists in countering vaccine hesitancy. Results from the study revealed considerable differences in outcomes between allergist-led and nonallergist-led clinics. Precise reasons for these differences warrant further evaluation. We are hopeful that the hub-and-spoke model can be similarly adapted for other allergist-integrative services in the future.


Subject(s)
Allergists , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Services , Hypersensitivity , Patient Safety , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Immunization Programs , Odds Ratio , Pilot Projects , Risk Assessment , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Hesitancy
20.
Med Care ; 60(2): 125-132, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not yet known whether socioeconomic factors (ie, social determinants of health) are associated with readmission following hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6191 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a large New York City safety-net hospital system between March 1 and June 1, 2020. Associations between 30-day readmission and selected demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, prior health care utilization, and relevant features of the index hospitalization were analyzed using a multivariable generalized estimating equation model. RESULTS: The readmission rate was 7.3%, with a median of 7 days between discharge and readmission. The following were risk factors for readmission: age 65 and older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.55], history of homelessness, (aOR: 2.03 95% CI: 1.49-2.77), baseline coronary artery disease (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10), congestive heart failure (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.20-1.49), cancer (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.26-2.24), chronic kidney disease (aOR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.46-2.07). Patients' sex, race/ethnicity, insurance, and presence of obesity were not associated with increased odds of readmission. A longer length of stay (aOR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00) and use of noninvasive supplemental oxygen (aOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.56-0.83) was associated with lower odds of readmission. Upon readmission, 18.4% of patients required intensive care, and 13.7% expired. CONCLUSION: We have found some factors associated with increased odds of readmission among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Awareness of these risk factors, including patients' social determinants of health, may ultimately help to reduce readmission rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Safety-net Providers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
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