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1.
Nature ; 606(7915): S10-S11, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915261
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14856, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493156

ABSTRACT

The problem of indoor odors can greatly affect a room's occupants. To identify odorants and comprehensively evaluate emissions from wooden materials, emissions and odors from Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Burtt et Hill with different moisture content percentages and lacquer treatments were investigated in this study. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/olfactometry was used to analyze the release characteristics. In total, 11 key odor-active compounds were identified as moisture content gradually decreased, concentrating between 15 and 33 min. Total volatile organic compounds, total very volatile organic compounds, and total odor intensity decreased as moisture content decreased. In addition, 35 odor-active compounds, including aromatics, alkenes, aldehydes, esters, and alcohols, were identified in the odor control list. Polyurethane (PU), ultraviolet (UV), and waterborne coatings had a good inhibitory effect on eight odor characteristics, but some scents arose after lacquer treatment. For equilibrium moisture content, the major characteristics of Choerospondias axillaris were fragrant (9.4) and mint-like (3.0) compared with the fragrant (8.2), fruity (7.8), and pleasant (5.8) characteristics of PU coating; the flowery (5.9), fragrant (5.0), glue-like (4.3), and pineapple-like (4.3) characteristics of UV coating; and the antiseptic solution (3.6), fragrant (2.9), cigarette-like (2.8), and fruity (2.5) characteristics of waterborne coating. Based on multicomponent evaluation, a Choerospondias axillaris board with waterborne coating was suggested for use indoors.


Subject(s)
Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Odorants/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Wood/chemistry , China , Humans , Lacquer , Olfactory Perception
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257474, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443840

ABSTRACT

Timely and accurate diagnostics are essential to fight the COVID-19 pandemic, but no test satisfies both conditions. Dogs can scent-identify the unique odors of volatile organic compounds generated during infection by interrogating specimens or, ideally, the body of a patient. After training 6 dogs to detect SARS-CoV-2 by scent in human respiratory secretions (in vitro diagnosis), we retrained 5 of them to search and find the infection by scenting the patient directly (in vivo screening). Then, efficacy trials were designed to compare the diagnostic performance of the dogs against that of the rRT-PCR in 848 human subjects: 269 hospitalized patients (COVID-19 prevalence 30.1%), 259 hospital staff (prevalence 2.7%), and 320 government employees (prevalence 1.25%). The limit of detection in vitro was lower than 10-12 copies ssRNA/mL. During in vivo efficacy experiments, our 5 dogs detected 92 COVID-19 positive patients among the 848 study subjects. The alert (lying down) was immediate, with 95.2% accuracy and high sensitivity (95.9%; 95% C.I. 93.6-97.4), specificity (95.1%; 94.4-95.8), positive predictive value (69.7%; 65.9-73.2), and negative predictive value (99.5%; 99.2-99.7) in relation to rRT-PCR. Seventy-five days after finishing in vivo efficacy experiments, a real-life study (in vivo effectiveness) was executed among the riders of the Metro System of Medellin, deploying the human-canine teams without previous training or announcement. Three dogs were used to examine the scent of 550 volunteers who agreed to participate, both in test with canines and in rRT-PCR testing. Negative predictive value remained at 99.0% (95% C.I. 98.3-99.4), but positive predictive value dropped to 28.2% (95% C.I. 21.1-36.7). Canine scent-detection in vivo is a highly accurate screening test for COVID-19, and it detects more than 99% of infected individuals independent of key variables, such as disease prevalence, time post-exposure, or presence of symptoms. Additional training is required to teach the dogs to ignore odoriferous contamination under real-life conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Odorants/analysis , Pheromones/analysis , Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Volatile Organic Compounds , Working Dogs
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 686, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260959

ABSTRACT

In January 2020, the coronavirus disease was declared, by the World Health Organization as a global public health emergency. Recommendations from the WHO COVID Emergency Committee continue to support strengthening COVID surveillance systems, including timely access to effective diagnostics. Questions were raised about the validity of considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard in COVID-19 diagnosis. It has been suggested that a variety of methods should be used to evaluate advocated tests. Dogs had been successfully trained and employed to detect diseases in humans. Here we show that upon training explosives detection dogs on sniffing COVID-19 odor in patients' sweat, those dogs were able to successfully screen out 3249 individuals who tested negative for the SARS-CoV-2, from a cohort of 3290 individuals. Additionally, using Bayesian analysis, the sensitivity of the K9 test was found to be superior to the RT-PCR test performed on nasal swabs from a cohort of 3134 persons. Given its high sensitivity, short turn-around-time, low cost, less invasiveness, and ease of application, the detection dogs test lends itself as a better alternative to the RT-PCR in screening for SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Odorants , Working Dogs , Adult , Aged , Animals , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odorants/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smell , Young Adult
6.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153134

ABSTRACT

Commercially available smell tests are primarily used in research or in-depth clinical evaluations and are too costly and time-consuming for population surveillance in health emergencies like COVID-19. To address this need, we developed the SCENTinel 1.0 test, which rapidly evaluates 3 olfactory functions: detection, intensity, and identification. We tested whether self-administering the SCENTinel 1.0 test discriminates between individuals with self-reported smell loss and those with average smell ability (normosmic individuals) and provides performance comparable to the validated and standardized NIH Toolbox Odor Identification Test in normosmic individuals. Using Bayesian linear models and prognostic classification algorithms, we compared the SCENTinel 1.0 performance of a group of self-reported anosmic individuals (N = 111, 47 ± 13 years old, F = 71%) and normosmic individuals (N = 154, 47 ± 14 years old, F = 74%) as well as individuals reporting other smell disorders (such as hyposmia or parosmia; N = 42, 55 ± 10 years old, F = 67%). Ninety-four percent of normosmic individuals met our SCENTinel 1.0 accuracy criteria compared with only 10% of anosmic individuals and 64% of individuals with other smell disorders. Overall performance on SCENTinel 1.0 predicted belonging to the normosmic group better than identification or detection alone (vs. anosmic: AUC = 0.95, specificity = 0.94). Odor intensity provided the best single-feature predictor to classify normosmic individuals. Among normosmic individuals, 92% met the accuracy criteria at both SCENTinel 1.0 and the NIH Toolbox Odor Identification Test. SCENTinel 1.0 is a practical test able to discriminate individuals with smell loss and will likely be useful in many clinical situations, including COVID-19 symptom screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Odorants/analysis , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Bayes Theorem , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 536, 2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread, early, ideally real-time, identification of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals is pivotal in interrupting infection chains. Volatile organic compounds produced during respiratory infections can cause specific scent imprints, which can be detected by trained dogs with a high rate of precision. METHODS: Eight detection dogs were trained for 1 week to detect saliva or tracheobronchial secretions of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in a randomised, double-blinded and controlled study. RESULTS: The dogs were able to discriminate between samples of infected (positive) and non-infected (negative) individuals with average diagnostic sensitivity of 82.63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.02-83.24%) and specificity of 96.35% (95% CI: 96.31-96.39%). During the presentation of 1012 randomised samples, the dogs achieved an overall average detection rate of 94% (±3.4%) with 157 correct indications of positive, 792 correct rejections of negative, 33 incorrect indications of negative or incorrect rejections of 30 positive sample presentations. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings indicate that trained detection dogs can identify respiratory secretion samples from hospitalised and clinically diseased SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals by discriminating between samples from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and negative controls. This data may form the basis for the reliable screening method of SARS-CoV-2 infected people.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Mass Screening/methods , Odorants/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Bronchi/chemistry , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Dogs , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Laryngoscope ; 131(8): E2475-E2480, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to evaluate the olfactory status in children with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 using subjective and psychophysical methods. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical cross-sectional study. METHODS: This is a prospective clinical cross-sectional study of 79 children with COVID-19. The 21st item of SNOT-22 questionnaire and odor identification test were used for smell assessment. Children were examined twice during the hospitalization, and a telephone survey was conducted 60 days after hospital discharge. RESULTS: Immediately after confirmation of COVID-19, smell impairment was detected in 86.1% of children by means of the Identification test and in 68.4% of children by means of the survey (P = .010). After 5 days survey revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of patients with hyposmia (41 out of 79, 51.9%). On the first visit, the mean Identification test score corresponded to "hyposmia" (9.5 ± 2.7), while on the second visit, the average value was 13.1 ± 1.9, which corresponded to "normosmia." According to the telephone survey, recovery of the olfactory function occurred within 10 days in 37 of 52 patients (71.2%), 11 to 29 days - in 12 children (23.1%), and later than 30 days - in three cases (5.7%). CONCLUSIONS: In the pediatric population, olfactory dysfunction is an early and common symptom of COVID-19. There is a trend to quick recovery of olfactory function in children with COVID-19. The overwhelming majority of patients (94.3%) had no subjective olfactory complaints by the end of the first month. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E2475-E2480, 2021.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Odorants/analysis , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Psychophysics , Smell/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods
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